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GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY




      PROF.JAMES GRASPARIL
PSYCHOLOGY DEFINED

-THE WORD PSYCHOLOGY IS DERIVED
FROM THE TWO GREEK WORDS
PSYCHE (MIND OR SOUL) AND LOGOS
(STUDY).ITS IS THEREFORE THE
STUDY OF MIND OR SOUL.

-THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF THE
BEHAVIOR AND MENTAL PROCESSES.
WHAT IS BEHAVIOR?

-IT REFERS TO ANYTHING WE
DO,THINK AND FEEL.
TYPES OF BEHAVIOR

1. COVERT-BEHAVIORAL PATTERN
KNOWN ONLY TO THE PERSON
EXPERIENCING IT.

2. OVERT-BEHAVIORAL PATTERN
WHICH CAN BE OBSERVED BY
OTHERS.
CLASSIFICATION OF BEHAVIOR

1. CONSCIOUS-BEHAVIORAL
RESPONSES AND PROCESSSES THAT
AN INDIVIDUAL IS AWARE OF.

2. UNCONSCIOUS-MENTAL
PROCESSES AND BODY REACTIONS
THAT THE INDIVIDUAL IS NOT AWARE
OF.
HIGHLIGHTS IN THE HISTORICAL
   DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
      FORERUNNERS            CONTRIBUTIONS

RENE DESCARTES         ANIMAL STUDIES;REFLEX
                       ACTION
JOHN LOCKE             IDEA OF TABULA RASA

FRANZ JOSEF GALL       PHRENOLOGY

CHARLES DARWIN         PUBLISHED “THE ORIGIN OF
                       SPECIES”
WILHELM WUNDT          ESTABLISHED THE FIRST
                       PSYCHOLOGICAL
                       LABOROTORY IN
                       LEIPZIG,GERMANY
HERMAN VON HELMHOLTZ   STUDIED THE SPEED OF
                       NERVE IMPULES
HIGHLIGHTS IN THE HISTORICAL
   DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
       FORERUNNER          CONTRIBUTION

ERNEST WEBER        PHYSIOLOGY OF SENSE ORGAN

GUSTAV FECHNER      PSYCHOPHYSICS

G.STANLEY HALL      FIRST AMENICAN PH.D IN
                    PSYCHOLOGY,ESTABLISHED
                    THE FIRST PSYCHOLOGICAL
                    LABOROTORY FOR CHILDREN
                    AND ADOLESCENTS IN US.
JAMES CATTEL        FORMULATED THE FIRST
                    QUESTIONNAIRE KNOWN AS
                    (16 PF).
WILLIAM JAMES       PUBLISHED”PRINCIPLES OF
                    PSYCHOLOGY
HIGHLIGHTS IN THE HISTORICAL
   DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
       FORERUNNER         CONTRIBUTION
EDWARD TITCHENER    CONTINUE TO PROPAGATE THE
                    STRUCTURALISM IN US.
EDWARD THORNDIKE    PIONEERED ON TRIAL AND
                    ERROR LEARNING OF
                    ANIMALS USING PUZZLE BOX.
SIGMUND FREUD       DEVELOPED
                    PSYCHOANALYSIS,
                    INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
ALFRED BINET        DEVELOPED THE
                    FIRSTINTELLIGENCE TEST IN
                    FRANCE.
IVAN PAVLOV         PROPONENT OF CLASSICAL
                    CONDITIONING
HIGHLIGHTS IN THE HISTORICAL
   DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
       FORERUNNER         CONTRIBUTION
MAX WERTHEIMER      DESCRIBE THE ORGANIZATION
                    PROCESSES THROUGH
                    GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY.
JOHN WATSON         ADVOCATED BEHAVIORISM.
JEAN PIAGET         PROPAGATED COGNITIVE
                    PSYCHOLOGY.
BF SKINNER          PROPONENT OF OPERANT
                    CONDITIONING.
ABRAHAM MASLOW      ESTABLISHED THE
                    HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY.
SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGY
STRUCTURALISM
   FOUNDERS: WILHELM WUNDT,EDWARD
    TITCHENER

   MAJOR EMPHASES: THE IMPORTANCE OF
    THOUGHT PROCESS AND THE STRUCTURE OF
    THE MIND. IDENTIFICATION OF THE ELEMENTS
    OF THOUGHT.

   TECHNIQUES OF STUDYING: TRAINED
    INTROSPECTION.
FUNCTIONALISM
   FOUNDERS: WILLIAM JAMES,JIHN DEWEY

   MAJOR EMPHASES: THE IMPOTANCE OF
    APPLYING PSYCHOLOGICAL FINDINGS TO
    PRACTICAL SITUATIONS. THE FUNCTION OF
    MENTAL PROCESSES IN ADOPTING TO
    ENVIRONMENT.

   TECHNIQUES OF STUDYING:
    INTROSPECTION,EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
    AND COMPARATIVE METHOD
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
   FOUNDERS: SIGMUND FREUD, CARL JUNG

   MAJOR EMPHASES:THE INFLUENCE OF THE
    UNCONCIOUS ON BEHAVIOR . THE
    IMPORTANCE OF EARLY LIFE EXPERIENCE ON
    PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT.

   TECHNIQUES OF STUDYING:INDIVIDUAL CASE
    STUDY OF THE PATIENT.
GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY
   FOUNDERS: MAX WERTHEIMER,WOLFGANG
    KOHLER,KURT KOFFKA

   MAJOR EMPHASES:THE IMPORTANCE OF
    ORGANIZATION AND CONTEXT IN THE
    PERCEPTION OF MEANINGFUL WHOLES.

   TECHNIQUES OF STUDYING:PERCEPTION
    EXPERIMENT
BEHAVIORISM
   FOUNDERS: JOHN WATSON,B.F
    SKINNER, EDWARD THORNDIKE

   MAJOR EMPHASES: THE IMPOTANCE OF
    OBJECTIVE,OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOR IN THE
    STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGY. THE CONVICTION
    THAT BEHAVIORS ARE MERE RESPONSES TO
    EXTERNAL STIMULI.

   TECHNIQUES OF STUDYING:
    EXPERIMENTS, PRIMARILY ON LEARNING AND
    OFTEN DONE WITH ANIMALS.
HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY
   FOUNDERS: CARL ROGERS, ABRAHAM
    MASLOW

   MAJOR EMPHASES: THE IMPORTANCE OF
    PEOPLE’S FEELINGS. THE VIEW OF HUMAN
    NATURE AS NATURALLY POSITIVE AND
    GROWTH SEEKING, AND FAITH IN PEOPLE’S
    ABILITY TO SOLVE THEIR OWN PROBLEMS.

   TECHNIQUES OF STUDYING:INTERVIEW
    TECHIQUE.
METHODS OF STUDY USED IN PSYCHOLOGY



   RESEARCH-IS A CRITICAL INQUIRY OR
    CAREFUL EXAMINATION IN SEEKING FACTS.

   OBSERVATION-THE MOST WIDELY USED
    METHOD. THIS IS DEPENDENT ON OVERT
    BEHAVIOR.
KINDS OF OBSERVATION
   UNCONTROLLED/INFORMAL- IT DOES NOT
    FOLLOW ANY PARTICULAR BEHAVIOR TO BE
    OBSERVED. IT IS CASUAL AND THE
    PSYCHOLOGIST IS FREETO OBSERVE ANY
    ACTIVITY THAT COMES HIS WAYS WITHOUT ANY
    FORMAL RECORDING OF BEHAVIOR.
   NATURALISTIC- IT IS THE OBSERVATION OF
    THINGS AS THEY NATURALLY HAPPENED. ITS IS
    ALSO CALLED THE FIELD STUDY METHOD.
   CONTROLLED/FORMAL- IT FOLLOWS CERTAIN
    RULES,FACTORS OR CONTROL IN GATHERING
    MATERIALS IN ORDER TO DRAW THE BEST
    CONCLUSIONS.
LIFE HISTORY- THIS INVOLVES EXTENSIVE
STUDIES OF INDIVIDUALS BY TRACING THE
DEVELOPMENT OF A PARTICULAR FORM
OF BEHAVIOR.

A. DAYBOOK METHOD-IT IS THE DIARY OF
DEVELOPMENT; NORMALLY A RECORD OF
DAY TO DAY ACTIVITIES USED IN CHILD
DEVELOPMENT.

B. CLINICAL METHOD-IT CONTAINS THE
EMOTIONAL AND THE PERSONALITY
ADJUSTMENT OF HUMAN BEINGS. THIS IS
OBTAINED FROM MEDICAL/HOSPITAL
RECORDS.
C. CASE HISTORY-THE PARENTS
PROVIDE THE DATA ABOUT THE
INDIVIDUAL BEING STUDIED BY
PSYCHOLOGIST TO DISCOVER THE
CAUSE OF AND SOLUTION TO SOME
SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS.

D.BIOLOGICAL METHOD-IT TELLS
ABOUT THE LIVES OF PERSON BASED
ON THE REMEMBERED EVENTS AND
RECORD WRITTEN ON THEIR OWN BY
THE INDIVIDUAL THEMSELVES.
SURVEY/GROUP METHOD-IT IS DONE
THROUGH QUESTIONNAIRES OR
INTERVIEWS WHEN DIRECT
OBSERVATION IS NOT FEASIBLE.

EXPERIMENTAL METHOD-THIS
METHOD STUDIES BEHAVIOR IN THE
LABOROTORY AND NORMALLY UNDER
CONTROLLED CONDITIONS.
FIELDS OF PSYCHOLOGY

 EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
 DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY

 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

 COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY

 ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY

 CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY

 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

 INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY

 PARANORMAL PSYCHOLOGY

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Intro to General Psychology and Key Concepts

  • 1. GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY PROF.JAMES GRASPARIL
  • 2. PSYCHOLOGY DEFINED -THE WORD PSYCHOLOGY IS DERIVED FROM THE TWO GREEK WORDS PSYCHE (MIND OR SOUL) AND LOGOS (STUDY).ITS IS THEREFORE THE STUDY OF MIND OR SOUL. -THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF THE BEHAVIOR AND MENTAL PROCESSES.
  • 3. WHAT IS BEHAVIOR? -IT REFERS TO ANYTHING WE DO,THINK AND FEEL.
  • 4. TYPES OF BEHAVIOR 1. COVERT-BEHAVIORAL PATTERN KNOWN ONLY TO THE PERSON EXPERIENCING IT. 2. OVERT-BEHAVIORAL PATTERN WHICH CAN BE OBSERVED BY OTHERS.
  • 5. CLASSIFICATION OF BEHAVIOR 1. CONSCIOUS-BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES AND PROCESSSES THAT AN INDIVIDUAL IS AWARE OF. 2. UNCONSCIOUS-MENTAL PROCESSES AND BODY REACTIONS THAT THE INDIVIDUAL IS NOT AWARE OF.
  • 6. HIGHLIGHTS IN THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY FORERUNNERS CONTRIBUTIONS RENE DESCARTES ANIMAL STUDIES;REFLEX ACTION JOHN LOCKE IDEA OF TABULA RASA FRANZ JOSEF GALL PHRENOLOGY CHARLES DARWIN PUBLISHED “THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES” WILHELM WUNDT ESTABLISHED THE FIRST PSYCHOLOGICAL LABOROTORY IN LEIPZIG,GERMANY HERMAN VON HELMHOLTZ STUDIED THE SPEED OF NERVE IMPULES
  • 7. HIGHLIGHTS IN THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY FORERUNNER CONTRIBUTION ERNEST WEBER PHYSIOLOGY OF SENSE ORGAN GUSTAV FECHNER PSYCHOPHYSICS G.STANLEY HALL FIRST AMENICAN PH.D IN PSYCHOLOGY,ESTABLISHED THE FIRST PSYCHOLOGICAL LABOROTORY FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN US. JAMES CATTEL FORMULATED THE FIRST QUESTIONNAIRE KNOWN AS (16 PF). WILLIAM JAMES PUBLISHED”PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOLOGY
  • 8. HIGHLIGHTS IN THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY FORERUNNER CONTRIBUTION EDWARD TITCHENER CONTINUE TO PROPAGATE THE STRUCTURALISM IN US. EDWARD THORNDIKE PIONEERED ON TRIAL AND ERROR LEARNING OF ANIMALS USING PUZZLE BOX. SIGMUND FREUD DEVELOPED PSYCHOANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS ALFRED BINET DEVELOPED THE FIRSTINTELLIGENCE TEST IN FRANCE. IVAN PAVLOV PROPONENT OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
  • 9. HIGHLIGHTS IN THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY FORERUNNER CONTRIBUTION MAX WERTHEIMER DESCRIBE THE ORGANIZATION PROCESSES THROUGH GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY. JOHN WATSON ADVOCATED BEHAVIORISM. JEAN PIAGET PROPAGATED COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY. BF SKINNER PROPONENT OF OPERANT CONDITIONING. ABRAHAM MASLOW ESTABLISHED THE HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY.
  • 11. STRUCTURALISM  FOUNDERS: WILHELM WUNDT,EDWARD TITCHENER  MAJOR EMPHASES: THE IMPORTANCE OF THOUGHT PROCESS AND THE STRUCTURE OF THE MIND. IDENTIFICATION OF THE ELEMENTS OF THOUGHT.  TECHNIQUES OF STUDYING: TRAINED INTROSPECTION.
  • 12. FUNCTIONALISM  FOUNDERS: WILLIAM JAMES,JIHN DEWEY  MAJOR EMPHASES: THE IMPOTANCE OF APPLYING PSYCHOLOGICAL FINDINGS TO PRACTICAL SITUATIONS. THE FUNCTION OF MENTAL PROCESSES IN ADOPTING TO ENVIRONMENT.  TECHNIQUES OF STUDYING: INTROSPECTION,EXPERIMENTAL METHOD AND COMPARATIVE METHOD
  • 13. PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY  FOUNDERS: SIGMUND FREUD, CARL JUNG  MAJOR EMPHASES:THE INFLUENCE OF THE UNCONCIOUS ON BEHAVIOR . THE IMPORTANCE OF EARLY LIFE EXPERIENCE ON PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT.  TECHNIQUES OF STUDYING:INDIVIDUAL CASE STUDY OF THE PATIENT.
  • 14. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY  FOUNDERS: MAX WERTHEIMER,WOLFGANG KOHLER,KURT KOFFKA  MAJOR EMPHASES:THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIZATION AND CONTEXT IN THE PERCEPTION OF MEANINGFUL WHOLES.  TECHNIQUES OF STUDYING:PERCEPTION EXPERIMENT
  • 15. BEHAVIORISM  FOUNDERS: JOHN WATSON,B.F SKINNER, EDWARD THORNDIKE  MAJOR EMPHASES: THE IMPOTANCE OF OBJECTIVE,OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOR IN THE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGY. THE CONVICTION THAT BEHAVIORS ARE MERE RESPONSES TO EXTERNAL STIMULI.  TECHNIQUES OF STUDYING: EXPERIMENTS, PRIMARILY ON LEARNING AND OFTEN DONE WITH ANIMALS.
  • 16. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY  FOUNDERS: CARL ROGERS, ABRAHAM MASLOW  MAJOR EMPHASES: THE IMPORTANCE OF PEOPLE’S FEELINGS. THE VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE AS NATURALLY POSITIVE AND GROWTH SEEKING, AND FAITH IN PEOPLE’S ABILITY TO SOLVE THEIR OWN PROBLEMS.  TECHNIQUES OF STUDYING:INTERVIEW TECHIQUE.
  • 17. METHODS OF STUDY USED IN PSYCHOLOGY  RESEARCH-IS A CRITICAL INQUIRY OR CAREFUL EXAMINATION IN SEEKING FACTS.  OBSERVATION-THE MOST WIDELY USED METHOD. THIS IS DEPENDENT ON OVERT BEHAVIOR.
  • 18. KINDS OF OBSERVATION  UNCONTROLLED/INFORMAL- IT DOES NOT FOLLOW ANY PARTICULAR BEHAVIOR TO BE OBSERVED. IT IS CASUAL AND THE PSYCHOLOGIST IS FREETO OBSERVE ANY ACTIVITY THAT COMES HIS WAYS WITHOUT ANY FORMAL RECORDING OF BEHAVIOR.  NATURALISTIC- IT IS THE OBSERVATION OF THINGS AS THEY NATURALLY HAPPENED. ITS IS ALSO CALLED THE FIELD STUDY METHOD.  CONTROLLED/FORMAL- IT FOLLOWS CERTAIN RULES,FACTORS OR CONTROL IN GATHERING MATERIALS IN ORDER TO DRAW THE BEST CONCLUSIONS.
  • 19. LIFE HISTORY- THIS INVOLVES EXTENSIVE STUDIES OF INDIVIDUALS BY TRACING THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PARTICULAR FORM OF BEHAVIOR. A. DAYBOOK METHOD-IT IS THE DIARY OF DEVELOPMENT; NORMALLY A RECORD OF DAY TO DAY ACTIVITIES USED IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT. B. CLINICAL METHOD-IT CONTAINS THE EMOTIONAL AND THE PERSONALITY ADJUSTMENT OF HUMAN BEINGS. THIS IS OBTAINED FROM MEDICAL/HOSPITAL RECORDS.
  • 20. C. CASE HISTORY-THE PARENTS PROVIDE THE DATA ABOUT THE INDIVIDUAL BEING STUDIED BY PSYCHOLOGIST TO DISCOVER THE CAUSE OF AND SOLUTION TO SOME SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS. D.BIOLOGICAL METHOD-IT TELLS ABOUT THE LIVES OF PERSON BASED ON THE REMEMBERED EVENTS AND RECORD WRITTEN ON THEIR OWN BY THE INDIVIDUAL THEMSELVES.
  • 21. SURVEY/GROUP METHOD-IT IS DONE THROUGH QUESTIONNAIRES OR INTERVIEWS WHEN DIRECT OBSERVATION IS NOT FEASIBLE. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD-THIS METHOD STUDIES BEHAVIOR IN THE LABOROTORY AND NORMALLY UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS.
  • 22. FIELDS OF PSYCHOLOGY  EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY  DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY  SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY  COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY  ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY  CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY  EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY  INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY  PARANORMAL PSYCHOLOGY