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Cours OI Ieplille R2 P

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Cours OI Ieplille R2 P

  1. 1. Chapitre 3 : Ordre international et sécurité collective   1. Forces et faiblesses d’un ordre international inédit 1.1 Principes d’un ordre international inédit 1.2 De la SDN à l’ONU : les ambivalences de la Sécurité Collective   2. Bilan et perspectives de la Sécurité Collective 2.1. L’ordre international de 1945 à l’épreuve de la Guerre froide 2.2. De la sécurité des Etats à la sécurité des individus
  2. 2. Commission Internationale sur l'Intervention et la Souveraineté Etatique (CIISE) – Rapport 2001 <ul><li>Un constat </li></ul><ul><li>- Absence de consensus de la communauté internationale face aux massacres de civils dans les conflits infra-étatiques. </li></ul><ul><li>- Un droit d'intervention ? Quand, où, comment, par qui ? </li></ul><ul><li>- Critique de l'(in)action des Nations Unies. Trop peu, trop tard, mauvaise coordination sur le terrain, processus de décision long et inefficace. </li></ul>
  3. 3. De l'intervention à la protection, un impératif moral pour la communauté internationale ? <ul><li>Après le Rwanda, la Somalie, la Bosnie, le Kosovo </li></ul><ul><li>Abandonner le débat sur le « droit ingérence » </li></ul><ul><li>Adopter le principe de la « Responsabilité de protéger » (R2P). </li></ul><ul><li>Transformer la conception du principe historique de « souveraineté des Etats » </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Du « contrôle » à la « responsabilité » </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Du « pouvoir » au « devoir » </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Les principes d'une l'action internationale légitime <ul><li>Adopter le point de vue des individus (à protéger) </li></ul><ul><li>Seulement si l'Etat considéré : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ne peut ou ne souhaite assumer les obligations qui découlent de cette responsabilité </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Est lui-même à l'origine des violences de masse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Etendre la responsabilité de « protéger » à la responsabilité de « prévenir » et de « reconstruire ». </li></ul>
  5. 5. Repenser la conception de l'Etat <ul><li>D'une culture de l'impunité souveraine... </li></ul><ul><li>… au devoir de rendre compte au niveau national et international. </li></ul><ul><li>Une conception élargie de la sécurité ( Sécurité humaine, PNUD 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Une souveraineté duale : externe (traditionnelle) mais également interne. </li></ul><ul><li>Le critère minimum d'une « bonne citoyenneté internationale ». </li></ul>
  6. 6. R2P – Six principes pour encadrer l'intervention <ul><li>L'aune de la juste cause </li></ul><ul><li>4 principes prudentiels : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Juste intention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Derniers recours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proportionnalité des moyens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectifs raisonnables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Une autorité légitime </li></ul>
  7. 7. Débat : la Guerre contre le terrorisme et la responsabilité de protéger <ul><li>Feinstein Lee, Slaughter Anne-Marie, « A Duty to Prevent », Foreign Affairs, janv.-fev. 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Un « corollaire » à R2P pour faire face, de manière collective, à la menace de la prolifération des armes de destructions massives (WMD). </li></ul>
  8. 8. A Duty to Prevent <ul><li>Un constat partagé : celui de l'obsolescence d'un concept souveraineté dépassé. Nécessité de repenser les règles de recours à la force telle qu'inscrite dans la charte de 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Un autre objectif : empêcher l'acquisition d'ADM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerne les Etats « effondrés » </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Les « Etats-voyous » / Rogue States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Les Terroristes </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Trois principes: <ul><li>Contrôler la prolifération et les individus responsables </li></ul><ul><li>Mettre l'accent sur l'action préventive de la communauté internationale </li></ul><ul><li>Un « devoir de prévenir » collectif qui requiert l'intervention des Nations Unies ou des organisations régionales (OTAN). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mise en œuvre : <ul><li>L'exemple irakien (texte écrit en 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Viser les dirigeants politiques (les individus) </li></ul><ul><li>Diplomatie coercitive </li></ul><ul><li>Justice internationale </li></ul><ul><li>Soutiens aux mouvements d'opposition </li></ul>
  11. 11. De l'humanitaire au sécuritaire <ul><li>Fonder la protection des individus et la sécurité internationales sur des principes communs ? </li></ul><ul><li>Orienter les préférences des Etats </li></ul><ul><li>Repenser l'usage de la force par la communauté internationale </li></ul>
  12. 12. Evans Gareth, « Uneasy Bedfellows: The R2P and F-S's « Duty to Prevent » <ul><li>Accord sur les apories du régime international de maîtrise de la prolifération des armes de destructions massives (TNP, AIEA) </li></ul><ul><li>Rejet sur les principes et les modalités : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>La nature des régimes au lieu de leurs actes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Définition du seuil déclencheur de l'intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rassembler les « preuves » </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mise à l'écart trop rapide du Conseil de sécurité </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Un « devoir » qui risque de nuire au R2P. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. A la merci de... la volonté politique des Etats. <ul><li>Déclarations du Secrétaire général des Nations Unies (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Résolution 1674 </li></ul><ul><li>Les risques de l'instrumentalisation (Géorgie, août 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Les aléas de son application (Darfour) </li></ul>

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