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Urban metabolism in Bangalore and
Bangkok: findings and future directions
SEI Science Forum 2014
27 January 2014, StockholmVishal K. Mehta, et al.
Overview
Urban Metabolism: View cities as organisms that
consume and excrete materials – start with water
Goal: Extend metabolic mapping project for
Bangalore under PS 2011-2012 in 3 ways:
• Compare Bangalore findings with Bangkok
• Extend the Bangalore metabolic framework to
71 other Indian cities
• Bring about a cross-fertilization of policy ideas
along with an analytical framework
Comparison: Demographics
Bangalore
• 8.5 million people
• 12,000 people per sq. km
• Added 3 million people in
10 years
Bangkok (metropolis)
• 8.2 million people
• 5,000 people per sq. km
• Added 2 million people in
10 years
Comparison: Physical Conditions
Bangalore
• 700 sq. km
• Tropical monsoon climate
• Semi-arid
• 930 masl: hill city (once a
hill fort)
Bangkok (metropolis)
• 1,500 sq. km
• Tropical monsoon climate
• Humid
• 1-10 masl: flood plain (once
the “Venice of the East”)
Comparison: Water Supply
Bangalore
• Largely surface water from
100km away
• Large fraction of private self-
supply
• Problems:
– Inadequate piped supply
– Inadequate wastewater
treatment
– Inadequate solid waste
management
– Polluted waterways
– Groundwater overdraft
– Failing wells
– Local flooding due to
development
Bangkok (metropolis)
• Groundwater and surface
water
• Large fraction of private self-
supply
• Problems:
– Inadequate piped supply
– Inadequate wastewater
treatment
– Inadequate solid waste
management
– Polluted waterways
– Groundwater overdraft
– Land subsidence
– Large scale flooding
Research Questions and Methods
• The city-wide pattern of water resource availability
– Data from public utility and municipality
• Geographic distribution of water consumption
– GIS Analysis
• The drivers that explain the pattern of water use
– Bangalore: Household water survey (in progress)
– Bangkok: Participatory planning workshops
• Projections for water demand and supply
– Participatory planning workshops
– Online Scenario Explorers : using WEAP online
• Links and feedbacks to the biophysical system
– Coupled social-ecological models
Research Questions and Methods
• The city-wide pattern of water resource availability
– Data from public utility and municipality
• Geographic distribution of water consumption
– GIS Analysis
• The drivers that explain the pattern of water use
– Bangalore: Household water survey (in progress)
– Bangkok: Participatory planning workshops
• Projections for water demand and supply
– Participatory planning workshops
– Online Scenario Explorers : using WEAP online
• Links and feedbacks to the biophysical system
– Coupled social-ecological models
Bangkok: Piped water use
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014
Pipedwateruse(%)
No.ofpipedwaterusers(persons)
Thousands
Research Questions and Methods
• The city-wide pattern of water resource availability
– Data from public utility and municipality
• Geographic distribution of water consumption
– GIS Analysis
• The drivers that explain the pattern of water use
– Bangalore: Household water survey (in progress)
– Bangkok: Participatory planning workshops
• Projections for water demand and supply
– Participatory planning workshops
– Online Scenario Explorers : using WEAP online
• Links and feedbacks to the biophysical system
– Coupled social-ecological models
Bangkok: Population 1999-2011
Bangalore: Groundwater Model
Groundwater pumping: the largest component of the GW budget
Pumping exceeds enhanced recharge from leaking pipes.
Research Questions and Methods
• The city-wide pattern of water resource availability
– Data from public utility and municipality
• Geographic distribution of water consumption
– GIS Analysis
• The drivers that explain the pattern of water use
– Bangalore: Household water survey (in progress)
– Bangkok: Participatory planning workshops
• Projections for water demand and supply
– Participatory planning workshops
– Online Scenario Explorers : using WEAP online
• Links and feedbacks to the biophysical system
– Coupled social-ecological models
Bangalore Domestic Water Survey (BDWS) 2013
• Arguably, the most comprehensive household
survey to understand urban water
consumption
• Statistically representative (at the city level)
• Information on water sources, storage
infrastructure, energy use, time use, cost of
procuring water, chemical and biological test
of water used for potable purposes
BDWS Sample Frame
• Bangalore divided into five regions based on
piped water availability
• 15 polling booths randomly selected in each
region
• In each of 75 polling booths, all households were
asked simple water source and storage questions
(n ≈ 30,000)
• In each area, 20 households were randomly
selected for a 40 minute (average) interview (n =
1,500)
BDWS Expected outputs
• Will result in the first statistically robust
estimates for:
– Number of private wells in Bangalore
– Penetration of piped water supply
– Ground water imports through tanker supply
– Storage infrastructure at the household level
BDWS Current status
• Fieldwork was completed on 24th December
2013, including field quality checks.
• Data is being entered and will be available for
analysis by 31st March 2014.
Research Questions and Methods
• The city-wide pattern of water resource availability
– Data from public utility and municipality
• Geographic distribution of water consumption
– GIS Analysis
• The drivers that explain the pattern of water use
– Bangalore: Household water survey (in progress)
– Bangkok: Participatory planning workshops
• Projections for water demand and supply
– Participatory planning workshops
– Online Scenario Explorers : using WEAP online
• Links and feedbacks to the biophysical system
– Coupled social-ecological models
Bangkok: Scoping Workshop
Goal: Exchange information and knowledge about
historical drivers of change in Bangkok and uncertainty on
how those factors may impact the future
Questions:
• What are the challenges in the management and
governance of freshwater resources in the BKK’s city
region?
• What are the implications of the challenges to the
social, political, economic and ecosystem wellbeing?
Participants:
• BMA (co-host), MWA, private sector, academic and
research institutes, civil society organizations
Bangkok: Key Issues
• Quality of raw water for piped water production
• Availability of water sources
• Institutional complexity of water management
system
• High water leakage rates (although recent
reductions, from 20% to less than 10%)
• Uncertainty around climate change
• Rapid population growth
• Water users unwilling to bear the cost of solid waste
and wastewater management
Identified driving forces by experts
• Biophysical environment, including
– Salinity intrusion
– Change in slum area
• National policy environment, including:
– Incentives for municipal governments
– Populist policies
– Economic incentives for private sector
• Institutional arrangements
– Availability of public finance
– Competing policy priorities
• Social factors
– Generational change
– Desire to continue existing lifestyle
– Changing understanding of environmental flows, and valuation of
benefits of managing wastewater
Final Remarks
• An urban metabolism frame can be useful
– Focuses attention on material needs
– Constrains analysis using material balances
• The spatial distribution of flows is important
for insight into social processes
• The project combines quantitative analysis
with engagement
– A cycle of engagement and analysis permits a two-
way flow of information

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Urban Water Consumption Patterns in Bangalore and Bangkok

  • 1. Urban metabolism in Bangalore and Bangkok: findings and future directions SEI Science Forum 2014 27 January 2014, StockholmVishal K. Mehta, et al.
  • 2. Overview Urban Metabolism: View cities as organisms that consume and excrete materials – start with water Goal: Extend metabolic mapping project for Bangalore under PS 2011-2012 in 3 ways: • Compare Bangalore findings with Bangkok • Extend the Bangalore metabolic framework to 71 other Indian cities • Bring about a cross-fertilization of policy ideas along with an analytical framework
  • 3. Comparison: Demographics Bangalore • 8.5 million people • 12,000 people per sq. km • Added 3 million people in 10 years Bangkok (metropolis) • 8.2 million people • 5,000 people per sq. km • Added 2 million people in 10 years
  • 4. Comparison: Physical Conditions Bangalore • 700 sq. km • Tropical monsoon climate • Semi-arid • 930 masl: hill city (once a hill fort) Bangkok (metropolis) • 1,500 sq. km • Tropical monsoon climate • Humid • 1-10 masl: flood plain (once the “Venice of the East”)
  • 5. Comparison: Water Supply Bangalore • Largely surface water from 100km away • Large fraction of private self- supply • Problems: – Inadequate piped supply – Inadequate wastewater treatment – Inadequate solid waste management – Polluted waterways – Groundwater overdraft – Failing wells – Local flooding due to development Bangkok (metropolis) • Groundwater and surface water • Large fraction of private self- supply • Problems: – Inadequate piped supply – Inadequate wastewater treatment – Inadequate solid waste management – Polluted waterways – Groundwater overdraft – Land subsidence – Large scale flooding
  • 6. Research Questions and Methods • The city-wide pattern of water resource availability – Data from public utility and municipality • Geographic distribution of water consumption – GIS Analysis • The drivers that explain the pattern of water use – Bangalore: Household water survey (in progress) – Bangkok: Participatory planning workshops • Projections for water demand and supply – Participatory planning workshops – Online Scenario Explorers : using WEAP online • Links and feedbacks to the biophysical system – Coupled social-ecological models
  • 7. Research Questions and Methods • The city-wide pattern of water resource availability – Data from public utility and municipality • Geographic distribution of water consumption – GIS Analysis • The drivers that explain the pattern of water use – Bangalore: Household water survey (in progress) – Bangkok: Participatory planning workshops • Projections for water demand and supply – Participatory planning workshops – Online Scenario Explorers : using WEAP online • Links and feedbacks to the biophysical system – Coupled social-ecological models
  • 8. Bangkok: Piped water use 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 Pipedwateruse(%) No.ofpipedwaterusers(persons) Thousands
  • 9. Research Questions and Methods • The city-wide pattern of water resource availability – Data from public utility and municipality • Geographic distribution of water consumption – GIS Analysis • The drivers that explain the pattern of water use – Bangalore: Household water survey (in progress) – Bangkok: Participatory planning workshops • Projections for water demand and supply – Participatory planning workshops – Online Scenario Explorers : using WEAP online • Links and feedbacks to the biophysical system – Coupled social-ecological models
  • 11. Bangalore: Groundwater Model Groundwater pumping: the largest component of the GW budget Pumping exceeds enhanced recharge from leaking pipes.
  • 12. Research Questions and Methods • The city-wide pattern of water resource availability – Data from public utility and municipality • Geographic distribution of water consumption – GIS Analysis • The drivers that explain the pattern of water use – Bangalore: Household water survey (in progress) – Bangkok: Participatory planning workshops • Projections for water demand and supply – Participatory planning workshops – Online Scenario Explorers : using WEAP online • Links and feedbacks to the biophysical system – Coupled social-ecological models
  • 13. Bangalore Domestic Water Survey (BDWS) 2013 • Arguably, the most comprehensive household survey to understand urban water consumption • Statistically representative (at the city level) • Information on water sources, storage infrastructure, energy use, time use, cost of procuring water, chemical and biological test of water used for potable purposes
  • 14. BDWS Sample Frame • Bangalore divided into five regions based on piped water availability • 15 polling booths randomly selected in each region • In each of 75 polling booths, all households were asked simple water source and storage questions (n ≈ 30,000) • In each area, 20 households were randomly selected for a 40 minute (average) interview (n = 1,500)
  • 15. BDWS Expected outputs • Will result in the first statistically robust estimates for: – Number of private wells in Bangalore – Penetration of piped water supply – Ground water imports through tanker supply – Storage infrastructure at the household level
  • 16. BDWS Current status • Fieldwork was completed on 24th December 2013, including field quality checks. • Data is being entered and will be available for analysis by 31st March 2014.
  • 17. Research Questions and Methods • The city-wide pattern of water resource availability – Data from public utility and municipality • Geographic distribution of water consumption – GIS Analysis • The drivers that explain the pattern of water use – Bangalore: Household water survey (in progress) – Bangkok: Participatory planning workshops • Projections for water demand and supply – Participatory planning workshops – Online Scenario Explorers : using WEAP online • Links and feedbacks to the biophysical system – Coupled social-ecological models
  • 18. Bangkok: Scoping Workshop Goal: Exchange information and knowledge about historical drivers of change in Bangkok and uncertainty on how those factors may impact the future Questions: • What are the challenges in the management and governance of freshwater resources in the BKK’s city region? • What are the implications of the challenges to the social, political, economic and ecosystem wellbeing? Participants: • BMA (co-host), MWA, private sector, academic and research institutes, civil society organizations
  • 19. Bangkok: Key Issues • Quality of raw water for piped water production • Availability of water sources • Institutional complexity of water management system • High water leakage rates (although recent reductions, from 20% to less than 10%) • Uncertainty around climate change • Rapid population growth • Water users unwilling to bear the cost of solid waste and wastewater management
  • 20. Identified driving forces by experts • Biophysical environment, including – Salinity intrusion – Change in slum area • National policy environment, including: – Incentives for municipal governments – Populist policies – Economic incentives for private sector • Institutional arrangements – Availability of public finance – Competing policy priorities • Social factors – Generational change – Desire to continue existing lifestyle – Changing understanding of environmental flows, and valuation of benefits of managing wastewater
  • 21. Final Remarks • An urban metabolism frame can be useful – Focuses attention on material needs – Constrains analysis using material balances • The spatial distribution of flows is important for insight into social processes • The project combines quantitative analysis with engagement – A cycle of engagement and analysis permits a two- way flow of information