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Urban metabolism in Bangalore and Bangkok:findings and future directions

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At the 2014 SEI science forum, held in Stockholm Sweden, SEI researchers from the US and Asia centres presented the preliminary findings of a comparison of urban metabolism in Bangalore, India, and Bangkok, Thailand.

The goals of this comparative work are to compare these two big Asian cities using the metabolic framework, in order to bring about a cross-fertilization of policy ideas.

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Urban metabolism in Bangalore and Bangkok:findings and future directions

  1. 1. Urban metabolism in Bangalore and Bangkok: findings and future directions SEI Science Forum 2014 27 January 2014, StockholmVishal K. Mehta, et al.
  2. 2. Overview Urban Metabolism: View cities as organisms that consume and excrete materials – start with water Goal: Extend metabolic mapping project for Bangalore under PS 2011-2012 in 3 ways: • Compare Bangalore findings with Bangkok • Extend the Bangalore metabolic framework to 71 other Indian cities • Bring about a cross-fertilization of policy ideas along with an analytical framework
  3. 3. Comparison: Demographics Bangalore • 8.5 million people • 12,000 people per sq. km • Added 3 million people in 10 years Bangkok (metropolis) • 8.2 million people • 5,000 people per sq. km • Added 2 million people in 10 years
  4. 4. Comparison: Physical Conditions Bangalore • 700 sq. km • Tropical monsoon climate • Semi-arid • 930 masl: hill city (once a hill fort) Bangkok (metropolis) • 1,500 sq. km • Tropical monsoon climate • Humid • 1-10 masl: flood plain (once the “Venice of the East”)
  5. 5. Comparison: Water Supply Bangalore • Largely surface water from 100km away • Large fraction of private self- supply • Problems: – Inadequate piped supply – Inadequate wastewater treatment – Inadequate solid waste management – Polluted waterways – Groundwater overdraft – Failing wells – Local flooding due to development Bangkok (metropolis) • Groundwater and surface water • Large fraction of private self- supply • Problems: – Inadequate piped supply – Inadequate wastewater treatment – Inadequate solid waste management – Polluted waterways – Groundwater overdraft – Land subsidence – Large scale flooding
  6. 6. Research Questions and Methods • The city-wide pattern of water resource availability – Data from public utility and municipality • Geographic distribution of water consumption – GIS Analysis • The drivers that explain the pattern of water use – Bangalore: Household water survey (in progress) – Bangkok: Participatory planning workshops • Projections for water demand and supply – Participatory planning workshops – Online Scenario Explorers : using WEAP online • Links and feedbacks to the biophysical system – Coupled social-ecological models
  7. 7. Research Questions and Methods • The city-wide pattern of water resource availability – Data from public utility and municipality • Geographic distribution of water consumption – GIS Analysis • The drivers that explain the pattern of water use – Bangalore: Household water survey (in progress) – Bangkok: Participatory planning workshops • Projections for water demand and supply – Participatory planning workshops – Online Scenario Explorers : using WEAP online • Links and feedbacks to the biophysical system – Coupled social-ecological models
  8. 8. Bangkok: Piped water use 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 Pipedwateruse(%) No.ofpipedwaterusers(persons) Thousands
  9. 9. Research Questions and Methods • The city-wide pattern of water resource availability – Data from public utility and municipality • Geographic distribution of water consumption – GIS Analysis • The drivers that explain the pattern of water use – Bangalore: Household water survey (in progress) – Bangkok: Participatory planning workshops • Projections for water demand and supply – Participatory planning workshops – Online Scenario Explorers : using WEAP online • Links and feedbacks to the biophysical system – Coupled social-ecological models
  10. 10. Bangkok: Population 1999-2011
  11. 11. Bangalore: Groundwater Model Groundwater pumping: the largest component of the GW budget Pumping exceeds enhanced recharge from leaking pipes.
  12. 12. Research Questions and Methods • The city-wide pattern of water resource availability – Data from public utility and municipality • Geographic distribution of water consumption – GIS Analysis • The drivers that explain the pattern of water use – Bangalore: Household water survey (in progress) – Bangkok: Participatory planning workshops • Projections for water demand and supply – Participatory planning workshops – Online Scenario Explorers : using WEAP online • Links and feedbacks to the biophysical system – Coupled social-ecological models
  13. 13. Bangalore Domestic Water Survey (BDWS) 2013 • Arguably, the most comprehensive household survey to understand urban water consumption • Statistically representative (at the city level) • Information on water sources, storage infrastructure, energy use, time use, cost of procuring water, chemical and biological test of water used for potable purposes
  14. 14. BDWS Sample Frame • Bangalore divided into five regions based on piped water availability • 15 polling booths randomly selected in each region • In each of 75 polling booths, all households were asked simple water source and storage questions (n ≈ 30,000) • In each area, 20 households were randomly selected for a 40 minute (average) interview (n = 1,500)
  15. 15. BDWS Expected outputs • Will result in the first statistically robust estimates for: – Number of private wells in Bangalore – Penetration of piped water supply – Ground water imports through tanker supply – Storage infrastructure at the household level
  16. 16. BDWS Current status • Fieldwork was completed on 24th December 2013, including field quality checks. • Data is being entered and will be available for analysis by 31st March 2014.
  17. 17. Research Questions and Methods • The city-wide pattern of water resource availability – Data from public utility and municipality • Geographic distribution of water consumption – GIS Analysis • The drivers that explain the pattern of water use – Bangalore: Household water survey (in progress) – Bangkok: Participatory planning workshops • Projections for water demand and supply – Participatory planning workshops – Online Scenario Explorers : using WEAP online • Links and feedbacks to the biophysical system – Coupled social-ecological models
  18. 18. Bangkok: Scoping Workshop Goal: Exchange information and knowledge about historical drivers of change in Bangkok and uncertainty on how those factors may impact the future Questions: • What are the challenges in the management and governance of freshwater resources in the BKK’s city region? • What are the implications of the challenges to the social, political, economic and ecosystem wellbeing? Participants: • BMA (co-host), MWA, private sector, academic and research institutes, civil society organizations
  19. 19. Bangkok: Key Issues • Quality of raw water for piped water production • Availability of water sources • Institutional complexity of water management system • High water leakage rates (although recent reductions, from 20% to less than 10%) • Uncertainty around climate change • Rapid population growth • Water users unwilling to bear the cost of solid waste and wastewater management
  20. 20. Identified driving forces by experts • Biophysical environment, including – Salinity intrusion – Change in slum area • National policy environment, including: – Incentives for municipal governments – Populist policies – Economic incentives for private sector • Institutional arrangements – Availability of public finance – Competing policy priorities • Social factors – Generational change – Desire to continue existing lifestyle – Changing understanding of environmental flows, and valuation of benefits of managing wastewater
  21. 21. Final Remarks • An urban metabolism frame can be useful – Focuses attention on material needs – Constrains analysis using material balances • The spatial distribution of flows is important for insight into social processes • The project combines quantitative analysis with engagement – A cycle of engagement and analysis permits a two- way flow of information

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