The Political Economy of a Seventeen-Hundred    Million-Liters-per-Day Soda Machine: The Water-Energy Nexus in Bangalore, ...
How has the city grown?       Population   Density              Built-up areaYear       (million)    (per sq km)          ...
Where has the city grown?
Where has the city grown?
Surface Water Supply                             Installed    Present       Projects       Year   Capacity     Supply     ...
Surface Water SupplySource: BWSSB
Piped supply :domestic water consumption
Domestic consumption from piped water (lpcd)
Biophysical - human links      Hessargatta L.                              Yelahanka L.T.G.Halli                          ...
The water balance: people + ecosystem             Natural state (no people)                             Altered state (peo...
Biophysical impact: groundwaterPlausible recharge scenarios: city as one unitMm/yr                   Natural            Na...
human-biophysical feedbacksPlausible change in groundwater head
human-biophysical feedbacksPlausible change in groundwater DEPTH; MONTHLY ANIMATION
human-biophysical feedbacksPlausible change in groundwater DEPTH; Google Earth
Human-biophysical feedbacks: water quality                                       Source: CGWB
Biophysical impact: Energy and EmissionsEnergy consumption from public water supply:• Pumping from river sources and throu...
Biophysical impact: Energy and EmissionsEnergy consumption from public water supply:• Pumping from river sources and throu...
Biophysical impact: Energy and EmissionsEnergy consumption from only domestic water use?• Public supply ~ 220 GWh (less un...
Biophysical impact: Energy and EmissionsCO2 from domestic water usePublic supply = 165 Kt/yrPvt pumping (worst case) = 118...
What about the spatial distribution of the   Water-Energy-Emissions nexus?
Water: domestic consumption, million litres/year      From public supply     From private self-supply (pumping)
Energy consumption for domestic water supply , MWh/yearFrom public supply           From private self-supply (pumping)
CO2 Emissions from domestic water consumption, Tonnes/yrFrom public supply              From private self-supply (pumping)
Per Capita CO2 Emissions from domestic water consumption, kg/yr  From public supply               From private self-supply...
Total Per Capita CO2 Emissions from domestic water consumption,                              kg/yr
In the spatial modeling approach:Energy and CO2 from private pumping (for domestic) are estimated tobe far smaller than fr...
THANK YOU!AcknowledgementsFunding Support:SidaMinistry of Urban Development, Govt of IndiaGroundwater Research support:Dr....
The Political Economy of a Seventeen-Hundred Million-Liters-per-Day Soda Machine: The Water-Energy Nexus in Bangalore, India
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The Political Economy of a Seventeen-Hundred Million-Liters-per-Day Soda Machine: The Water-Energy Nexus in Bangalore, India

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Presented at the International Conference on Inequality and Sustainability
9-10 November 2012, Tufts University, Medford MA
More: www.urbanmetabolism.in
Geoportal: www.urbanmetabolism.in/bump

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The Political Economy of a Seventeen-Hundred Million-Liters-per-Day Soda Machine: The Water-Energy Nexus in Bangalore, India

  1. 1. The Political Economy of a Seventeen-Hundred Million-Liters-per-Day Soda Machine: The Water-Energy Nexus in Bangalore, IndiaVishal Mehta2, Deepak Malghan1 , Rimi Goswami1, Eric Kemp-Benedict2, Douglas Wang2 International Conference on Inequality and Sustainability 9-10 November 2012, Tufts University, Medford MA 1Indian Institute of Management-Bangalore 2Stockholm Environment Institute
  2. 2. How has the city grown? Population Density Built-up areaYear (million) (per sq km) (% urban footprint)1971 1.65 9,465 20%1981 2.92 7,990 26%1991 4.13 9,997 39%2001 5.7 11,545 69%2011 ~8.5 12142 na Sources: Census; Iyer et al (2007); this study
  3. 3. Where has the city grown?
  4. 4. Where has the city grown?
  5. 5. Surface Water Supply Installed Present Projects Year Capacity Supply (MLD) (MLD)Arkavathy (TG 1933 149 60Halli)Cauvery Stage I 1974 135 135Cauvery Stage II 1983 135 135Cauvery Stage III 1993 270 300Cauvery Stage IV, 2002 270 270Phase – I Total Supply 959 900As of March 2011
  6. 6. Surface Water SupplySource: BWSSB
  7. 7. Piped supply :domestic water consumption
  8. 8. Domestic consumption from piped water (lpcd)
  9. 9. Biophysical - human links Hessargatta L. Yelahanka L.T.G.Halli Bellandur L..
  10. 10. The water balance: people + ecosystem Natural state (no people) Altered state (people) pumping Evaporation Rain External Evaporation Rain Water ~ 80% 100% Supply Streamflow Surface watershedStreamflow Surface watershed~ 10% Percolation Percolation (Rainfall Recharge) (Rainfall Recharge + Leakage + ~ 10% Return) ? Net Groundwater Groundwater AquiferNet Groundwater AquiferGroundwater dischargedischarge ?~ 10%
  11. 11. Biophysical impact: groundwaterPlausible recharge scenarios: city as one unitMm/yr Natural Natural + Leakage Natural + Leakage + Return flowRainfall recharge 63 63 63Piped supply Leakage 140 140(30%)Net pumping - 360 -360(150lpcd –Domestic)Return Flow 138(30% of domesticconsumption)Net recharge 63 -157 -19
  12. 12. human-biophysical feedbacksPlausible change in groundwater head
  13. 13. human-biophysical feedbacksPlausible change in groundwater DEPTH; MONTHLY ANIMATION
  14. 14. human-biophysical feedbacksPlausible change in groundwater DEPTH; Google Earth
  15. 15. Human-biophysical feedbacks: water quality Source: CGWB
  16. 16. Biophysical impact: Energy and EmissionsEnergy consumption from public water supply:• Pumping from river sources and through the distribution network requires a total of 60 booster pumps, 52 reservoirs in the city 277 and close to 6000 km of pipeline.• The total energy consumed is approximately 50 GWH/month• Electricity charges alone account for 280 crore rupees annually (~9.2 million USD)• ~ 450 Kilo-tonnes CO2 emissions (at 0.75 tCO2/MWh)
  17. 17. Biophysical impact: Energy and EmissionsEnergy consumption from public water supply:• Pumping from river sources and through the distribution network requires a total of 60 booster pumps, 52 reservoirs in the city 277 and close to 6000 km of pipeline.• The total energy consumed is approximately 50 GWH/month• Electricity charges alone account for 280 crore rupees annually (~9.2 million USD)• ~ 450 Kilo-tonnes CO2 emissions (at 0.75 tCO2/MWh)
  18. 18. Biophysical impact: Energy and EmissionsEnergy consumption from only domestic water use?• Public supply ~ 220 GWh (less uncertain)• Pvt pumping = 164 GWh/yr (more uncertain) City-wide assumptions for pvt pumping (probably worst case) • 150m constant depth • 65% efficiency of pumping • 150 lpcd total actual consumption Visit our online scenario explorer http://www.seimapping.org/bump/scenario.php
  19. 19. Biophysical impact: Energy and EmissionsCO2 from domestic water usePublic supply = 165 Kt/yrPvt pumping (worst case) = 118 t Co2/yr However, pvt pumping energy and emissions depend heavily on groundwater water depth. Range of 15kT/yr-118kt/yr Visit our online scenario explorer http://www.seimapping.org/bump/scenario.php
  20. 20. What about the spatial distribution of the Water-Energy-Emissions nexus?
  21. 21. Water: domestic consumption, million litres/year From public supply From private self-supply (pumping)
  22. 22. Energy consumption for domestic water supply , MWh/yearFrom public supply From private self-supply (pumping)
  23. 23. CO2 Emissions from domestic water consumption, Tonnes/yrFrom public supply From private self-supply (pumping)
  24. 24. Per Capita CO2 Emissions from domestic water consumption, kg/yr From public supply From private self-supply (pumping)
  25. 25. Total Per Capita CO2 Emissions from domestic water consumption, kg/yr
  26. 26. In the spatial modeling approach:Energy and CO2 from private pumping (for domestic) are estimated tobe far smaller than from the public supply. This is because of 3 reasons:1. Public supply is from 100km away and 500m uphill2. The local groundwater table is simulated at less than 100m.3. Pumping from other sectors will also drive the GW depth further down, 1. This would increase corresponding energy and emissions but results indicate that even if the actual GW were 10 times below the modeled estimate, pvt pumping to satisfy a 150lpcd domestic demand would still be less energy and emissions intensive than public supply.
  27. 27. THANK YOU!AcknowledgementsFunding Support:SidaMinistry of Urban Development, Govt of IndiaGroundwater Research support:Dr. M. Sekhar, Indian Institute of Science, BangaloreData:BWSSBBBMP

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