Fruits apples


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Fruits - Apples

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Fruits apples

  1. 1. Apples<br />
  2. 2. CHOOSING PLANTS<br />Ripen July through October <br />By choosing different ripening times, can have 4-month apple harvest that extends <br />
  3. 3. Dessert apples<br />Best apples for eating fresh<br />Can be cooked or preserved, but best when fresh <br />
  4. 4. Processing apples<br />Usually more tart<br />Make best pies and<br /> sauce<br />Firmer flesh so don’t <br />turn to mush when cooked<br />
  5. 5. Storage apples<br />Bred to remain crisp, flavorful when stored under refrigeration or root cellar through winter <br />Ripen late, tough skins<br />Many types taste better after several months of storage<br />
  6. 6. Heirloom apples<br />Old varieties being brought back into production<br />Many have superb flavor<br />Drawback - seldom <br />have disease <br />resistance<br />
  7. 7. Disease resistance<br />Apples naturally disease prone<br />New class of disease-resistant apples that are flavorful<br />Resistant to scab, fireblight, rust<br />Examples: Liberty, Freedom, Prima, Jonafree, Williams' Pride, Redfree, Dayton, Novamac, Nova Easygro, Sir Prize, Macfree<br />
  8. 8. Size selection<br />Most apples grafted<br />Desirable top grafted <br />onto hardy rootstock<br />Rootstock determines size <br />of tree<br /> standard 20-25 feet<br /> semi-dwarf 10-13 feet<br /> dwarf 6-8 feet<br />
  9. 9. Size selection <br />Dwarf, semi-dwarf trees strongly recommended for home garden<br /> Take up less room<br /> Provide more apples per square foot of canopy<br /> Begin to bear earlier<br /> Easier to pick<br /> Easier to prune<br /> Easier to spray<br />
  10. 10. Planting<br />Give plenty of room to spread without crowding<br />20-25 feet between semi-dwarfs<br />10-15 feet between <br />dwarfs<br />
  11. 11. Cross-pollination<br />Most need another variety planted nearby for cross-pollination<br />Can be accomplished with wild apples and crabapples<br />To assure good crop, plant pollinator<br />Most resources give extensive lists of appropriate pollinators<br /><br />
  12. 12.
  13. 13. Pruning and training<br />Use central or modified central leader method of pruning<br />Thin in late winter <br />for improved air circulation<br />
  14. 14. Pests, diseases<br />For absolutely clean fruit, necessary to use spray program with fungicide, insecticide<br />Attitude adjustment - accept fruits that aren’t spotless, perfect specimens<br />Will allow reduction of spray programs<br />
  15. 15. Plum curculio<br />Overwinter in woods and hedgerows<br />Emerge after petal fall, lay eggs at night when above 70 degrees<br />Small, crescent-shaped cuts in fruit made by females to lay eggs <br />Can place cloth on ground and shake tree vigorously<br />Weevils "play dead" and will fall onto cloth - gather and dispose of<br />Botanical spray<br />
  16. 16. Codling moth<br />Worm in apple - usually codling moth <br />Overwinter as eggs under loose bark<br />female moths lay eggs on developing <br /> fruit<br />Caterpillar larvae burrow into fruit to core<br />Pheromone traps – monitoring<br />Botanical sprays effective for control<br />Corrugated cardboard strips around base of tree in early spring - first generation of caterpillars emerges from apples and pupate under cardboard. <br />Removing cardboard every couple of weeks, destroying pupal cases reduces populations<br />
  17. 17. Apple maggot<br />Fly larvae burrow leaving brown trails, unusable flesh<br />Traps - hang red spheres covered with Tanglefoot<br />Flies attracted, get stuck<br />One trap for every 100 apples<br />Leave 9-18" of open space around <br /> trap<br />
  18. 18. Apple scab<br />Fungal spores overwinter in fallen leaves<br />As leaf, flower buds open, spores released into <br />air to and on leaves and buds<br />Dry weather – less infection<br />Wet springs - severe <br />1. Resistant varieties<br />2. Clean up all debris to reduce <br /> overwintering spores<br />3. Sulfur sprays<br />
  19. 19. Fruitworm, leafroller<br />Caterpillars - feed on surface of fruit<br />Careful monitoring – pheromone traps<br />Control- Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) as soon as they emerge from egg<br />
  20. 20. Harvest, storage<br />Picked when ripe rather than letting them ripen off the trees (exception - storage apples)<br />Twist apple off branch, leaving small portion of stem attached. <br />Don’t puncture or bruise <br />Freeze - peel, slice, dip in <br />ascorbic acid or lemon <br />juice. Bag and freeze.<br />