Shi Nan. Challenging the Tradition


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Shi Nan. Challenging the Tradition

  1. 1. Challenging the TraditionChina in the midst of Urbanization and Globalization SHI, Nan 2 0 11 -1 2- 08 Moscow Urban Forum
  2. 2. Guilin, Courtesy of Yu Huai
  3. 3. Northam’s Curve E D C B A Point A Point E Point B Point D Average Speed GDP/Capita($) R of U (%) GDP/Capita($) R of U(%) GDP/Capita($) R of Ub(%) GDP/Capita($) R of U (%)Average 696 25.8 24750 74.2 0.136 1480 31.3 11635 68.6China 696 16.8 24750 65.2 0.136 1480 22.3 11635 59.6 Urbanization Process in China in Last 6 Decades Source: China National Statistics
  4. 4. Number & Size of Cites in China in Last 3 Decades Arable Land(10,000 ha)132001300012800126001240012200120001180011600 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2010 Source: Based on China National Statistics
  5. 5. Development Zones in China National & Provisional DZs: 1568 (9949KM2) 1049 counties with at least 1 DZsDZs KM2 Source: NDRC
  6. 6. Environmental Factors of Urbanization Source: China National Statistics
  7. 7. 100,0% GDP and Consumption of Industrial Goods (China/World %, 2010) 8,50% 90,0% 86,0% 80,0% 52,0% 45,0% 70,0% 60,0% 43,0% 50,0% 45,0% GDP Coal Steel Cement 40,0% 40,0% 30,0% 25,0% 26,0% 20,0% 8,0% 9,7% 10,0% 4,1% 0,0% Arable Land Water Oil Gas Copper Aluminium Iron Coal Resources Per Capita(China/World,%) Source: Based on China National Statistics
  8. 8. China’s Oil Import (Mtoe) GDP Growth Rate (%) Electricity Consumption Increase Rate (%) Energy Consumption Increase Rate (%) Source: NEB, 2010 Based on Survey of 287 Cities in 2006 World Energy Consumption (Mtoe) World Energy Consumption Per Capita Source: Based on BP, IMF, 2010 Source: based on China Statistics, etc
  9. 9. Source: UNDP
  10. 10. Global economic recession Economic Restructure Agricultural Modernization Bridge the regional gap Streamlined Regional Guidelines Demands for UrbanizationChallenges for Urbanization Enhance global competitiveness Spatial Promote regional cooperation Migration Strategy Promote social coherence Tendencies Encourage sustainable economy Supporting Conditions Multi-level Diversified Urban System Physical Conditions Land Resources Water, Energy Condition Environmental Capacity
  11. 11. National Territories Demands Categories Categories Primary Outputs Secondary Outputs by Function By Land UseDevelopment Industrial Agricultural &Optimized Area Urbanized Products and Ecological Region Services ProductsDevelopment EcologicalPriority Area Agricultural Agricultural Products, Services Production and Industrial ProductsDevelopment Region ProductsRestricted Area Key Agricultural, Ecological Ecological Services &Development Goods Industrial Products RegionProhibited Area
  12. 12. National Spatial Strategy for Urbanization Source: NDRC 13
  13. 13. Strategy: Development Restricted Areas 25 National Eco-districts Source: NDRC
  14. 14. Strategy: Agricultural Production
  15. 15. Strategy: Ecological Security Source: NDRC
  16. 16. Strategy: Development Prohibited Areas Source: NDRC
  17. 17. Regional Policy:Coastal EastQuality instead of speed ofurbanization• Global competitiveness: Beijing-Tianjin- Hebei, Yangtze Delta, Pear River Delta agglomeration• Inclusive growth for migrantsUrban network instead of urbanhierarchy• Dissemination of industries to medium and small cities• Upgrading and regeneration of big citiesLivable city instead ofmanufacturing base• Regional ecological rehabilitation• Low carbon technology in urban development• Affordable urban life Source: Mohurd
  18. 18. Regional Policy:Central ChinaCapacity building to enhance thelocation strength• Provincial capitals and city clusters• Regional centers, county seats and rural towns• Balanced migrationPromote the agriculturalproductivity for the national foodsecurity• Arable land preservation• Green industriesInfrastructure improvements• Regional communications• Water conservancy Source: Mohurd
  19. 19. Regional Policy:Western ChinaConcentrated PolarizationStrategy• Central city-region• County seat town, industrial cityPrioritized Strategy• New energy town• Frontier city• Revitalization of mine city etc.Redistribution of Industriesand Rural Population• Density of settlements• Ecological conservation• Resilient city Source: Mohurd
  20. 20. Regional Policy:North-Eastern RegionRegeneration the OldIndustrial Cities• Upgrading the infrastructures and services• Economic restructuringFrontier Cities Growth• Cross Boarder Communications• Regional urban systemSmall City and TownDevelopment• Rural centers• Ecological rehabilitation• Regional facilities Source: Mohurd
  21. 21. China’s Beijing-Tianjin-HebeiWorldCity Beijing & Environs Modern International City by 2020Initiatives World City by 2050 Yangtze Delta Shanghai & Yangtze Delta International Financial, Trade, Manufacturing and Shipping Center Hong Kong & Pearl Delta International Financial, Trade and Manufacturing Center Pearl River Delta
  22. 22. ConclusionsSpatial strategic planning at national and regional levels has been prove abig success during the “compressed” urbanization in China.For a country like China with vast territory, huge population and fasteconomic growth, it is essential to emphasize on the development ofmajor urban centers/agglomerations to build up the nationalcompetitiveness in globalization.Maintaining a rational urban growth rate is important, even moreimportant is to bridge the gaps between different sectors, regions andsocial groups.Bottom-up initiatives are of particular importance while the top-downsystematic innovation has always played special role in the process ofindustrialization, urbanization and marketization in China.
  23. 23. • Thanks Shi Nan 中国城市规划学会 Urban Planning Society of China +86-10-5832-3851 +86-13801125011 Fax: +86-10-5832-3850