H = Habitat DestructionI = Invasive / Introduced SpeciesP = PollutionP = Population Growth / ExplosionO = Over – harvesting / Over – consumption
H = Habitat Destruction• A habitat is the natural home for an animal or plant• Habitat destruction is when an animal or plant losesits natural home• Usually caused by something humans have done• If an animal’s habitat gets destroyed, it might dieout• If this happens, it can affect all animals above it onthe food chain
Causes• Humans are a major cause of habitatdestruction• The number of human beings on our planethas risen steeply in the last few centuries• This huge increase is putting pressure onnatural resources• Our needs are growing, and these needs areoften causing habitat destruction
• Logging• Agriculture• Building Roads and Cities• Forest Fires
I = Invasive / Introduced SpeciesAn invasive species is a species occurring, as aresult of human activities, beyond its acceptednormal distribution and which threatens valuedenvironmental, agricultural or other socialresources by the damage it causes
• Sometimes, a new plant or animal is taken from its naturalenvironment and introduced into a new ecosystem• Or a new plant or animal enters a new environment as itsoriginal habitat is destroyed• The effects can be drastic• Some native plants and animals are decimated• While others may flourish to higher-than-average levelsdue to the new introduced species
P = Pollution• Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a naturalenvironment that causes instability, disorder, harm ordiscomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or livingorganisms.• Pollution can take the form of chemicalsubstances or energy, such as noise, heat or light.• Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreignsubstances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants.
PollutantsA pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil.Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant:1. Its chemical nature,2. The concentration and3. The persistence.
TYPES:Water pollution• Water pollution is the presence in water of harmful material, suchas sewage, dissolved metals, waste from farms and factories and includes crudeoil spilled from shipwrecked tankers.• The three main substances that pollute water are nitrates from fertilizers, sewageand detergents.• Pollution causes harm to living things in water and can also harm to peopleshealth, and can problems such as cancer.• The main sources of water pollution is from sewage, farms and factories.
Air pollution• Harmful gases and tiny particles (like carbonmonoxide, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide) whenreleased into the air pollute the air. The smoke releasedfrom burning fuel, from factories and not to forget themotor cars are the major sources of air pollution.• Air pollution is one of the major cause of that funnycough, asthma and burning eyes that you develop.
These are following gases that are known as the"Big Six" air pollutants":• Carbon Dioxide• Carbon Monoxide• Sulfur Oxide• Nitrogen Oxide• Hydrocarbons (Benzene, Terpene, etc.)• Particulates
Noise pollutionThe harmful noise in our environment, such as the sound ofcars in a city, loud speakers ,etc. is called noise pollution.Noise pollution can cause ear problems or even permanentdeafness, especially to older people.
Land pollution•All that plastic and dirt that you throw on the ground dirtiesthe land and when you dont maintain the hygiene, thendisease prevails.
Light pollution• Is too much artificial light at night which makes it difficultto see the stars and planets.• Light pollution is an effect of modern civilization.• It is most severe in highly industrialized, denselypopulated areas of North America, Europe, and Japan and inmajor cities in the Middle East and North Africa, but evenrelatively small amounts of light can be noticed and createproblems.
P = Population Growth / ExplosionWith the worlds population estimated to doublewithin the next 12 years, more people meansincreased use of natural resources, possible increasein habitat destruction and more waste generated.
O = Over – harvesting / Over – consumption• Over harvesting is an extreme use of some important areaslike wetlands and damaging them without knowing thatthese areas could help many people.• Most of wetlands that people destroy by overusing themcould make drinking water for those people who do nothave fresh water.• Over harvesting is also when you over harvest an animal toan extent were the population goes extremely low or evento extinction
Overharvesting:Also called Overexploitation, refers to harvesting arenewable resource to the point of diminishing returns.Sustained overexploitation can lead to the destruction of theresource.The term applies to natural resources such as: wild medicinal plants, grazing pastures, fish stocks, forests water aquifers