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Urban Permaculture Institute on Aquaculture

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  1. 1. Aquaculture Urban Permaculture Institute
  2. 2. We can expect from 4-20 times the yield from water systems than that from the adjoining land. <ul><li>Water supply is constant
  3. 3. Plant nutrients are soluble and available
  4. 4. Water organisms waste little energy in movement
  5. 5. Light, nutrients, plants, and organisms occupy a 3D space
  6. 6. Aquaculture systems are traditionaly polycultural
  7. 7. Bodies of water have more uses than food: energy production, transportation, recreation, irrigation. </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Tenochtitlan pop. 200,000
  9. 11. Founded in 1325
  10. 12. Chinampas provided up to 2/3 of food
  11. 13. Destroyed in 1521 by Cortes </li></ul>
  12. 17. Water systems and energy <ul><li>Water and its 3D environment absorbs solar radiation to deeper levels, feeding green systems and holding heat in its solar mass.
  13. 18. Fish require less cooking which save energy in preparation
  14. 19. A diverse ploycultural system may require little or no food input </li></ul>
  15. 20. Water is an energy efficient means of transporting a harvest.
  16. 21. Chinampas of Xochimilco
  17. 26. Fish, Food, and Feed <ul><li>Salmon (very high needs, dies in freshwater)
  18. 27. Trout (feeds very high on food chain)
  19. 28. Bass (feeds high on foodchain)
  20. 29. Perch (yellow perch: lower on foodchain – zooplankton, invertebrates, occasional small fish)
  21. 30. Catfish (omnivores, may be expensive to feed)
  22. 31. Carp (mostly does not eat other fish, many species feed on diverse sources. Best aquaculture species)
  23. 32. Tilapia (sometimes called water hog, eats vegetation primarily. Grows very fast in warm climates. Good food species. Up to 30-40% of food goes into body mass.) </li></ul>
  24. 33. Common Carp Black Carp Silver Carp Grass Carp Herbivore, grows fast Filter feeders, phytoplankton Grows large, favored food fish eats snails and mollusks Omnivores, main food species in China
  25. 34. Production Layers in Water Systems <ul><li>Bank
  26. 35. Edge
  27. 36. Ebb-flow
  28. 37. Shallows
  29. 38. Semi-shallows
  30. 39. Deep
  31. 40. Floating </li></ul>
  32. 41. Bank Plants <ul><li>Trees add bank stability and drink up water easily.
  33. 42. Shrubs add habitat and shading for water
  34. 43. Grasses and reeds may provide shelter and habitat for water animals </li></ul>
  35. 44. Edge Plants <ul><li>Phragmites communis - Common Reed : growing in shallow waters and wet soils, can grow up to 12 feet tall.
  36. 45. Vaccinium palustre - Small Cranberry: The fruit is edible and is held by some to be the most delicious of our native wild fruits. </li></ul>
  37. 46. Shallows Plants <ul><li>Acorus calamus - Sweet Flag : shallow edges of ponds and in most soils. The rhizomes, harvested in autumn or spring, are edible and can be used as a substitute for ginger, cinnamon or nutmeg - in the past the rhizomes were candied and used as a sweetmeat. </li></ul>
  38. 47. Semi-Shallows Plants <ul><li>Sagittaria sagittifolia - Arrow Head : Native of Britain, it grows in water up to one and a half feet deep. Its tuber can be cooked and eaten and is much cultivated in China for this purpose.
  39. 48. Trapa natans - Water Chestnut: Native of Asia and the Mediterranean, this plant is hardy in all but the coldest parts of Britain and it grows in water up to two feet deep. Its seed, which is about 50% starch, can be eaten raw, cooked, or dried and ground into flour. It is often cultivated for its seed in Asia. Propagation is by seed only. </li></ul>
  40. 49. Deeps Plants <ul><li>Nymphaea alba - White Water Lily: grows in the deeper parts of the pond - about four feet of water. Rootstocks that are several years old may be eaten - they contain about 40% starch. Roasted seeds may be used as a coffee substitute. Its young leaves and flower buds can be eaten cooked and young flowers can be eaten raw.
  41. 50. Water Lotus: Roots roasted or pickled. Seeds eaten raw or popped like popcorn. Stems peeled and eaten. </li></ul>
  42. 53. Eutrophication
  43. 54. Gulf Dead Zone The large region of low oxygen water often referred to as the 'Gulf Dead Zone,' shown here, crosses nearly 7,700 square miles of the Gulf of Mexico.
  44. 55. The dead zone starts in Midwestern corn country when farmers fertilize their fields with nitrogen. The fertilizer run-off flows down the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico, making algae bloom on the surface and cutting oxygen to creatures that live on the bottom.
  45. 65. Tagari Farm