身の回りの圧縮

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社内ゼミ用の資料です。
画像、音楽、動画、音声、データの圧縮に関する話。口頭での説明がないと伝わりにくいかもしれません。あしからず。

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身の回りの圧縮

  1. 1. 2009.6.4 warawara@bug.co.jp
  2. 2. • ... JPEG, GIF, PNG, J2K, ... • ... MPEG1/2/4, H.264,WMV, ... • ... MP3, AAC, AppleLossless, ... • ... μLaw, ADPCM, CELP, ... • ... ZIP, LZH, CAB, 7z, bz2, ...
  3. 3. LOSSLESS LOSSY Lossless Lossy
  4. 4. ZeoSync 100 1
  5. 5. ZeoSync 100 1
  6. 6. Yes No
  7. 7. Yes No
  8. 8. 10bit = 1024 4bit = 16
  9. 9. 3 1 2 (Lossy ) 3
  10. 10. 1 2
  11. 11. JPEG
  12. 12. RGB YCbCr R G B Y Cb Cr
  13. 13. 4:2:2 4:4:4 4: 1: 1
  14. 14. 100 75 50 25 0 1 11 21 31
  15. 15. 2 ,
  16. 16. N N KLT
  17. 17. KLT ( )
  18. 18. KLT DCT , ρ→1
  19. 19. DCT ( )
  20. 20. 8x8 = 64
  21. 21. JPEG ,
  22. 22. 3 1 YCbCr, DCT 2 3
  23. 23. MP3
  24. 24. Speech Audio
  25. 25. JPEG MDCT ( DCT)
  26. 26. 3 1 MDCT 2 , 3
  27. 27. MPEG1/2
  28. 28. JPEG MP3 MPEG Layer 1,2,3
  29. 29. I,P,B I Frame: JPEG P Frame: B Frame:
  30. 30. 3 1 YCbCr, DCT 2 , 3
  31. 31. PCM,μLaw,ADPCM,CELP
  32. 32. Speech Audio
  33. 33. bit PCM ... 44kHz 16bit *2 μLaw ... 8kHz 8bit (ISDN 64+64=128) ADPCM ... 8kHz 4bit (PHS)
  34. 34. ADPCM 32kbps CELP 4 16kbps ( ,skype)
  35. 35. CELP (Code excited linear prediction) Volume , Dictionary , , Noise
  36. 36. 3 1 , , , , , 2 3
  37. 37. RunLength,LZ77,LZ78,BWT,PPM
  38. 38. RunLength AAAAAABBBCC A6B3C2 )JPGE, BMP
  39. 39. LZ77, LZSS (Ziv,Lempel) ( ) (1 ) ) ZIP,LZH,CAB(LZX), 7z(LZMA),PNG,...
  40. 40. 012340123012340123012340123 Sliding Window Input Output 1. **************** 012340123012340123012340123 2. ***************0 12340123012340123012340123 0 3. **************01 2340123012340123012340123 01 4. *************012 340123012340123012340123 012 5. ************0123 40123012340123012340123 0123 6. ***********01234 0123012340123012340123 01234 7. *******012340123 012340123012340123 01234[5,4] 8. 2340123012340123 0123[5,4][9,18]
  41. 41. ) CAB(LZX), 7z(LZMA)
  42. 42. LZ78,LZW ) GIF GIF
  43. 43. 012340123012340123012340123 w K wK null 0 0 1. 1 0 1 01 01(256) [0] 2. ( w ) 1 2 12 12(257) [1] 2 3 23 23(258) [2] 3. ( K ) 3 4 34 34(259) [3] 4. w K (wK) 4 0 40 40(260) [4] 0 1 01 w wK 3 01 2 012 012(261) [256] 2 3 23 5. w 23 0 230 230(262) [258] wK w K 3 0 1 01 01 2 012 012 3 0123 0123(263) [261] 3 4 34 34 0 340 340(264) [259] (0-255) 0 1 01 01 2 012 012 3 0123 0123 0 01230 01230(265) [263] 0 1 01 01 2 012 012 3 0123 0123 4 01234 01234(266) [263] 4 0 40 40 1 401 401(267) [260] 1 2 12 12 3 123 123(268) [257] 3 --- --- [3]
  44. 44. Block Sorting BWT (M.Burrows & D.J.Wheeler) MTF(Move To Front) ) bz2
  45. 45. ABRACADABRA
  46. 46. ABRACADABRA ABRACADABRA BRACADABRAA RACADABRAAB ACADABRAABR CADABRAABRA ADABRAABRAC DABRAABRACA ABRAABRACAD BRAABRACADA RAABRACADAB AABRACADABR
  47. 47. ABRACADABRA AABRACADABR R ABRAABRACAD D ABRACADABRA A ACADABRAABR R ADABRAABRAC C BRAABRACADA A BRACADABRAA A CADABRAABRA A DABRAABRACA A RAABRACADAB B RACADABRAAB B
  48. 48. ABRACADABRA R D A R C RDARCAAAABB 3 A A A A B B
  49. 49. RDARCAAAABB 3
  50. 50. RDARCAAAABB 3 R D A R C A A A A B B
  51. 51. RDARCAAAABB 3 A R A D A A A R A C B A B A C A D A R B R B
  52. 52. RDARCAAAABB 3 A R A A D A A A A A R A A C A B A B B A B C A C D A D R B R R B R
  53. 53. RDARCAAAABB 3 A R A A D A A A A A R A A C A B A B B A B C A C D A D R B R R B R
  54. 54. RDARCAAAABB 3 A R A A D A A A A A R A A C A B A B B A B C A C D A D R B R R B R
  55. 55. RDARCAAAABB 3 A R A A D A A A A A R A A C A A B A B B A B C A C D A D R B R R B R
  56. 56. RDARCAAAABB 3 A R A A D A A A A A R A A C A A B A B B A B C A C D A D R B R R B R
  57. 57. RDARCAAAABB 3 A R A A D A A A A A R A A C A A B B A B B A B C A C D A D R B R R B R
  58. 58. RDARCAAAABB 3 A R A A D A A A A A R A A C A A B R B A B B A B C A C D A D R B R R B R
  59. 59. RDARCAAAABB 3 A R A A D A A A A A R A A C A A B R A B A B B A B C A C D A D R B R R B R
  60. 60. RDARCAAAABB 3 A R A A D A A A A A R A A C A A B R A C B A B B A B C A C D A D R B R R B R
  61. 61. RDARCAAAABB 3 A R A A D A A A A A R A A C A A B R A C A B A B B A B C A C D A D R B R R B R
  62. 62. RDARCAAAABB 3 A R A A D A A A A A R A A C A A B R A C A D B A B B A B C A C D A D R B R R B R
  63. 63. RDARCAAAABB 3 A R A A D A A A A A R A A C A A B R A C A D A B A B B A B C A C D A D R B R R B R
  64. 64. RDARCAAAABB 3 A R A A D A A A A A R A A C A A B R A C A D A B B A B B A B C A C D A D R B R R B R
  65. 65. RDARCAAAABB 3 A R A A D A A A A A R A A C A A B R A C A D A B R B A B B A B C A C D A D R B R R B R
  66. 66. RDARCAAAABB 3 A R A A D A A A A A R A A C A A B R A C A D A B R A B A B B A B C A C D A D R B R R B R
  67. 67. BWT Example Welcome to B.U.G., Inc. B.U.G. is a major player in the area of developing both of software and hardware and also supplier of systems solutions for the next generation of computing, networking, digital video and database publishing system. SUCCESS IS MUTUAL This is our corporate motto. It means we should not compete, we should collaborate and live together. Speculatively, * Turn the customer needs into a reality * Use each other's abilities to have a good business relationship * Universal society through technology * Make the engineers self-realize the happiness of development For customers, societies, environments, employees.......... This means success for everything, all people and things related to BUG. Overview B.U.G. is a major player in the area of developing both of software and hardware and also supplier of systems solutions for the next generation of computing, networking, digital video and database publishing system. Thanks to its expertise in rich experience of technical development in them, its line of products and services have been accepted and highly recognized by from much kind of industries. With this strong technical presence, B.U.G. has been contracted for a lot of commissioned manufacturing and has developed a multi-platform application software such as a database application, Adobe PostScript RIP, and a network software, meanwhile it has dedicated to development of an embedded system software, driver software, and firmware. B.U.G. also provides a full range of enhanced services, including marketing, maintenance, sales and multi-vender technical support as well as technical development. B.U.G. has offered its customers turnkey solutions, making most of its strength in marketing research in order to create technological breakthroughs and achieve competitive advantage and innovation. Also it forecasts of new customer and markets needs to quickly change its product line, taking technical advantage in developing a full line of innovative products. B.U.G. has more than 100 employees at its headquarters in Sapporo and is proud of its engineers all skilled and having wide ranges of knowledge and advanced technical abilities. B.U.G. was founded by four Hokkaido University students in 1977 and has made a rapid growth in the last twenty years. B.U.G.'s ultimate goal is to meet various customers needs, from end-user to businesses with its advanced and leading edge technology. ,.......t......y pynn, , w oo rS, S* et n. L.**o* sgserssddeoslndsdel,s.ddf,seeeoo,eeg7ddeoderssemeeehltsesggldoddydfteffnrowessraddssnffflol,,,egn0,msef,rhsddssstsy,yaatteadedd.tdd..osdsdssehherrht,fdfs..sdloehdfot,efhfed lstdas,aa,dngdst,osgemadrssa,,feedttnnaasededtssehhrresnhslrrlsfesoeeoleaayssgn,sddeel,lffnrmkssyssyseooldggff,dgfsgreheennneenrrndhyedrrdsssseststll.,ssgsyr. yne.gPeggessssmgseggeseeifdinestcssoGmmysr.GGGGGGGGG........sUUUUUUUUUBBBBBBBBB01 791U UCC U......... R A I SIE t U .........TSBM ee ttt l e rfmee ttkmmmMmtecccccocscttsee h nvhv hrrheevvmerh Sehhwwwwwwwww vmmmeu hhhwhhh bbblc dddrmrelclrrccvlvlhhhllaaaom aauua niiiiiiieiiiaunnnnnnciicuirua aeeeeeeeeeooine l Suauuae ennnnneeeoeelnnneinnnnnnnnennennlnuneeeneen eaind uiinri eee auiAa eeeooonaaaarrbvdvgrrrrgtlshhvvhshthgslghthhgnncvssdwwrtgrkzmvcrrrcntrrr lhrrrmmmsyrrtttttttttrppltcdztrncdcttbl deeennnbbnnyymrrWswvvvvvvvvvthtt tteetis vgg r mmmmdmw ddpcmyymiivdsdhhnnfpetmemmvvpssvvdlecgisiciierrcnnnepgikkpknnniidddddddd in nnkoooooooooooooooooooolufo t oooooo nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnndaannd nouiuonniio nnoocctcttcttcgttncT tttttttt tttc wssttsTTtgcccccccccssttgttnngnnnndllvvrupwvvvarlltttrcchvhddhbbkt k lllggpssprppddkthhkvhkkttth a tttttsttttrhrfv hh h tllm ggwWllt lsttltrnnlnaarkarrrns aarroc naaalaaaallallaaaal epeuppeuupi lwaepppp bbiia aeuauaoioooeeeeeeee ppAaaauuucoookherooeeee ieo ppppnooooomo ooeeooee raiieeiaiooiioiiriiooeIeeaaaaiaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaiaaeueiiiio iieeiii iiiiiiiiiiioiiiiiiiaaaeeieehhhhhhUUgraoiihhh nnkooaaooeeeeaaiioeeeaeattdteerttttsttstsstgdssorrr sssssstlcllHcnnnsssrrctttttccccciiiiiirriiiicgllllellllfFfjjffbp mfwwwfpcpmPnlbb mrrrhhff innrnrlliSo xxmmapooo- oppppmmoooorppaaauuau ie mmd uoeuooeeeeeooeeooeeeet ooeeaoaaaaaaaoaaaaaab -co e t p etuacdoaaaoooiuuopppfftiphhpgoeeeeeeaeeoaeeeeeaeii'trheteautaattsnnaettrditaiatrsetaitigsrmmtinaekidr'naetedenrtereer aUiaae eu siin uusr llll eeeeioaoyyyyyuuuuu u a nproixxinacInossensaaann iiaaaae pcaasssssnragwiooi oey kllieileeuuaaaaauuuareiaa n t sssssnsssiciiiiniesiincosc ffffff eeeiienqppssmdddotlnooqcooffmm osssootTto-bbcccccdppllldddd ooaiaeiieeeeeeeei-iiiOerr oraneeddttttttm tn otttoeeeegtlbbletttlg ooaasssssrii
  68. 68. PPM (Prediction by Partial Matching) Microsof[?] iPhon[?] ) RAR, 7z(PPMd)
  69. 69. 3
  70. 70. bit A or B A or B or C or D A or B or C 10%
  71. 71. bit A or B A or B or C or D A or B or C 10% log2(1/p) bit
  72. 72. Huffman bit ) ZIP,LZH,JPEG
  73. 73. DAEBCBACBBBC bit/ bit bit B C A D E
  74. 74. DAEBCBACBBBC bit/ bit bit B 5 0.417 1.263 6.315 0 5 C 3 0.250 2.000 6.000 10 6 A 2 0.167 2.585 5.170 110 6 D 1 0.083 3.585 3.585 1110 4 E 1 0.083 3.585 3.585 1111 4 12 1.000 13.018 24.655 25
  75. 75. ) JPEG2000 RangeCoder ) 7z(LZMA)
  76. 76. abacab 0.32291... 0.32523...
  77. 77. abacab Huffman bit/ bit bit a 3 0.500 1.000 3.000 0 3 b 2 0.333 1.585 3.170 10 4 c 1 0.167 2.585 2.585 11 2 6 1.000 5.170 8.755 9
  78. 78. 3 1 2 (Lossy ) 3
  79. 79. ( ) →
  80. 80. Q & A

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