Introduction to Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology

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  • We all know about the Diabetes Epidemic, the number of people that are affected today and in a couple of decades’ time. We know about its impact on society and healthcare budgets and we know that many patients do not achieve optimal management or even receive adequate care.
  • Introduction to Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology

    1. 2. Introduction to Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology <ul><li>Prof. Dr. Amal El-Deeb </li></ul><ul><li>Basic and Clinical Science Department </li></ul><ul><li>Oral pathology </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty of dentistry </li></ul><ul><li>Umm AL-Qura University </li></ul>
    2. 3. <ul><li>Oral & Maxillofacial pathology is the specialty of dentistry and pathology which deals with the nature, identification, and management of diseases affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions. It is the science that investigates the causes, processes and effects of these diseases. </li></ul>
    3. 4. <ul><li>The practice of oral and maxillofacial pathology includes research, diagnosis of diseases using clinical, radiographic, microscopic, biochemical or other examination and management of patients. </li></ul>
    4. 5. Classification of Oral Diseases: I. According to the tissue affected <ul><li>The different oral and maxillofacial diseases may affect different tissues which include: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Hard tissues (calcified) like the teeth, jaw bones and other bones in the maxillo- </li></ul><ul><li>facial regions. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Soft tissues in the oral and para-oral </li></ul><ul><li>regions. </li></ul>
    5. 6. Classification of the oral soft tissue lesions 1-Epithelial in origin: a-lesions orginated from odontogenic epithelium b-lesions orginated from non odontogenic epithelium. c-lesions orginated from glndeular epithelium
    6. 7. 2-Mesenchymal in origin: <ul><li>a-lesions orginated from fibrous tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>b-lesions orginated from blood & lymphatic vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>c-lesions orginated from the muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>d-lesions orginated from the nerve . </li></ul><ul><li>e-lesions orginated from adipose tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>f-lesions orginated from the bone. </li></ul><ul><li>g-lesions orginated from the cartilage. </li></ul>
    7. 8. The diagnosis of the oral and maxillofacial diseases: <ul><li>It depends on the type of tissue affected: </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases affecting the hard tissues , the diagnosis depend mainly on: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Clinical features which include the age, the gender, the site, the size and the clinical effects. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Radiographic features </li></ul><ul><li>3. Microscopical features </li></ul>
    8. 9. Diagnosis of soft tissue lesions <ul><li>1-Clinical features. </li></ul><ul><li>2-Microscopical features. </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical features: </li></ul><ul><li>Site </li></ul><ul><li>Morphology </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul>
    9. 12. Morphology of the lesions <ul><li>Elevated above the plain of mucosa </li></ul><ul><li>Depressed below the plain of mucosa </li></ul><ul><li>Flat with the plain of mucosa detected by the change in color </li></ul>
    10. 13. Elevated lesions <ul><li>Blisterform (containing fluid) </li></ul>*Vesicle : less than 5 mm. *Bulla : more than 5mm. *Pustule : filled with pus
    11. 17. Elevated lesions <ul><li>Nonblisterform (not containing fluid) </li></ul><ul><li>Papule : less than 5 mm. </li></ul><ul><li>Nodule : More than 5mm and less than 2cm. </li></ul><ul><li>Tumor : More than 2cm. </li></ul>
    12. 21. Non elevated lesion <ul><li>Macule : flat with the plain of the mucosa detected by the change in the color. </li></ul>
    13. 26. Depressed lesions <ul><li>Most are ulcers </li></ul>
    14. 30. Intra bony lesions <ul><li>1-Inflammatory </li></ul><ul><li>2-Developmental </li></ul><ul><li>3-Tumor </li></ul>
    15. 37. Diseases of Periapical Tissue
    16. 40. Diagnostic Aids in Oral Pathology <ul><li>Exfoliative cytology </li></ul><ul><li>Vital dyes </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue biopsy </li></ul>
    17. 45. TISSUE BOPSY <ul><li>Surgical removal of the living tissue for microscopical examination. </li></ul><ul><li>Indication of biopsy </li></ul><ul><li>Types of oral biopsy </li></ul>
    18. 50. Histopathology <ul><li>Microscopic examination of a biopsy or surgical specimen by a pathologist, after the specimen has been processed and histological sections have been placed onto glass slides. </li></ul>
    19. 51. Tissue processing <ul><li>1 - Fixation (in 10% neutral buffered formalin). </li></ul><ul><li>2- Decalcification for the hard tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>2- Dehydration to remove water (progressively concentrated in ethanol). </li></ul><ul><li>3- Clearing (in xylene to remove alcohol). </li></ul><ul><li>4- Infiltration (in paraffin wax). </li></ul><ul><li>5 -Embedding. </li></ul><ul><li>6 -Sectioning. </li></ul><ul><li>7 -Staining </li></ul>
    20. 59. Thank You

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