TYPES OF CONFLICT
Nature of conflict
Sources of conflict
Types of conflict
Functionality and Dysfunctionality of conflict
Effects of conflict
Resolution of Conflict
Conflict can be defined in many ways and can
be considered as an expression of hostility ,
negative attitudes , aggression , rivalry and
Conflict may emerge between different
organisations or within organisations , or
between organisations and their social and
political environments .
Definitions Of Conflict
According to Joe Kelly , “ Conflict is defined
as opposition or dispute between persons,
groups or ideas ”.
According to Follett, “ Conflict is the
appearance of difference , difference of
opinions, of interests ” .
A conflict is serious disagreement or argument
between two or more persons
Nature of Conflict
Conflicts are Natural
Conflicts are not
Conflict is Finding the
Sources of Conflict
Different Sets of Values
Threats to Status
Lack of Trust
Interdepartmental Wrangles Job Related Issues
Types/Classification of Conflict
Functional conflict also called Constructive
Conflict, results in benefits to individuals, the
team, on the organisation.
Functional conflict works towards the goal of
an organisation or a group.
On positive side, conflict can bring important
problems to the surface so they can be
It can increase the amount amount of
information used in decision-making .
It can offer opportunities for creativity that can
improve performance .
An effective manager or team leader is able to
simulate constructive conflict in situations in
which satisfaction with the status qua is
holding back needed changes and
Dysfunctional conflict, or Destructive conflict,
works to the disadvantage of an individual or
It diverts energies, hurts group cohesion,
promotes interpersonal hostilities, and overall
creates a negative environment for workers.
Dysfunctional conflict blocks an organisation
or a group from reaching its goal.
This type of conflict occurs, e.g., when two
members are unable to work together because
of interpersonal differences – a destructive
emotional conflict – or when the members of a
work unit fail to act because they cannot agree
on task goals – a destructive substantive
Destructive conflicts of these types can
decrease performance and job satisfaction as
well as contribute to absenteeism and job
Effects of Conflict
Conflict has both Positive and Negative effect.
It can be positive when it encourages
creativity, new looks at old, the clarification of
points of view, and the development of human
capabilities to handle interpersonal differences.
Conflict can be negative when it creates
resistance to change, establishes turmoil in
organisation or interpersonal relations fosters
distrust, builds a feeling of defeat, or widens
the chasm of misunderstanding.
Positive Effects of Conflict
Acts as Motivating Factor : Motivate
individuals to do better and to work harder.
One’s talents and abilities come to the
forefront in a conflict situation.
Acts as Need Satisfier : Satisfy certain
psychological needs like dominance,
aggression, esteem and ego and thereby
provide an opportunity for the constructive use
and release of aggressive urges.
Introducing Variety: Add variety to one’s
organisational life, otherwise work life would
be dull and boring.
Create Understanding: Facilitate an
understanding of the problem, people and
interrelationships between people, better
coordination among individuals and
departments, in addition to strengthening intra-group
Negative Effects of Conflict
Drop in Productivity : Allowing a conflict to
continue means that employee attention
becomes more focused on the conflict and not
Lack of Direction: Conflict can sometimes
arise when management is unable to
communicate the direction of the company to
employees. Conflict will erupt as employee are
allowed to interpret changes within the
company in their own way.
Lack of New Ideas: Groups in conflict tend not
to collaborate on new ideas. When conflict
goes unresolved it can be difficult to create
new ideas, the company needs to solve
problems it is facing.
Affects Quality of Work: If conflict is allowed
to go on long enough, the parties involved may
begin to show more interest in the conflict than
in doing their jobs properly. Product quality
can suffer and in some cases the safety of the
employees can be jeopardy as well.
Resolution of Conflict
Conflict resolution or management is the
process of planning to avoid conflict where
possible and organising to resolve conflict
where it does happen, as rapidly and smoothly
Conflict resolution is the principle that all
conflicts cannot necessarily be resolved, but
learning how to manage conflicts can decrease
the odds of non-productive escalation.
Effective conflict resolution skills can make
the difference between positive and negative
Procedure for Resolution of Conflict
Preliminary Steps: This step involves knowing
full details of the conflict and the first thing to
note is the stage of conflict. The more advance
the stage of conflict, the more efforts are
required to resolve it. Moreover strategy used
is also dependent upon the stage of conflict.
Diagnosing the Issue: Under this stage, the
issues involved should be analysed and
understood what the conflict is about
Conflict Handling Modes: There may be
numerous modes of conflict handling and the
have grouped into:
1) To Avoid Appearance of Conflict and the
purpose like- minded people should be
2) Mediation : It involves sweeping out
differences by mediation through persuasion,
highlighting the merits and demerits of their
3)Letting the Parties to Settle their Scores : It is
better when both the parties adopt a rigid stand
to their views.
4) Mutual Problem- Solving: This approach is
suitable when both parties are interested in
resolving the conflict and are not rigid to their