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Aspirants Times Magazine Vol6 [Www.Upscportal.Com]


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Aspirants Times Magazine Vol6 [Www.Upscportal.Com]

UPSC, Civil Services, ICS, UPSCPORTAL, IAS, PCS, IFS, UPPSC, MPPSC, HPPSC, UTPSC, RPSC, TNPSC, KPSC, Public Administration, Indian Administrative Services, Coaching, Brilliant, Chanakya,Chemistry, Mathematics,Medical Science, Anthropology,Chemistry, IAS Study Group, Mock Exam, Online Test

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Aspirants Times Magazine Vol6 [Www.Upscportal.Com]

  1. 1. Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 1
  2. 2. INDEX Editorial • War is Approaching, Face the Battle.......................................................................03 SECTION - 1: Articles • India-Switzerland Bilateral Relation ......................................................................04 • India and United Nations .......................................................................................12 • Fiji Suspended from Commonwealth......................................................................25 • Hindi Article ( “EÞ ‡¹É IÉäjÉ E É ‡´ÉE ÉºÉ ¦ÉÉ® iÉÒªÉ +lÉÇ´ªÉ´ÉºlÉÉ E É ¨ÉÖJªÉ +ÉvÉÉ®” ) .............38 SECTION - 2: Hot Topics India’s Per Capita GHG Emissions...............................................................................51 SECTION - 3: Current Relevant Facts......................................................................61 SECTION -4: Sports ................................................................................................65 SECTION -5: Awards...............................................................................................69 SECTION - 6: Mains Special • Foreign Relations Of India.......................................................................................74 • International Organizations...................................................................................120 • Hot Economic Issues..............................................................................................137 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 2
  3. 3. War is Approaching, Face the Battle... Now final war for IAS mains is approaching and you are very near to it. Some candidates are fully prepared and some are confident but there are also some candidates, who are loosing the confidence in themselves. But all of you should keep one thing in mind very clearly, that the battle is open and no-one is victorious or loser, without actually facing the it. So my advice is that all of you must synchronize all your abilities, power, knowledge, time and everything. All of you know that good strategy is indispensable to win the war, so make your own strategy. all of you must have “your own” personal strategy. We are trying our best to provide you the materials for mains in very concise way. In this 6th and maiden volume, you will find “International Relation and Organization”, and Economy under the mains special column. We have covered all the important topics in the style by which you can understand them within few minutes. Read them carefully. Along with this, there is articles on “India and United Nations-Significant Contributions for Peace and Development”, “India-Switzerland Bilateral Relation-Social Security Agreement to Enhance Cooperation”, “ Fiji Suspended from Commonwealth- Failed to Opening Talks on a Return to Democracy”. Also an article on “EÞ ‡¹É IÉäjÉ E É ‡´ÉE ÉºÉ ¦ÉÉ® iÉÒªÉ +lÉÇ´ªÉ´ÉºlÉÉ E É ¨ÉÖJªÉ +ÉvÉÉ®” in Hindi. These are others topics as well, which may be asked in the IAS mains examination 2009. “India’s Per Capita GHG Emissions” is covered in Hot Topic and as always Personality, Awards and Sports sections have been covered under the regular column, Current Affairs. Our best wishes to all of you to win the final war. Editor: R. K. Pandey and UPSCPORTAL Team Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 3
  4. 4. Section -1 (Article : India-Switzerland Bilateral Relation) India-Switzerland Bilateral Relation Social Security Agreement to Enhance Cooperation By: R. K. Pandey India and Switzerland signed a Social Security There are over 11,000 Indians in Switzerland and Agreement on September 03, 2009 in New Delhi, there are over 800 Swiss nationals working in In- in presence of the Vice-President of the Swiss Con- dia. There is potential for greater movement of federation and Minister of Economic Affairs, Ms. workers between the two countries in future. This Doris Leuthard. The Agreement was signed by bilateral Social Security Agreement will enhance Shri. K. Mohandas, Secre- trade and investment between the tary of Overseas Indian two countries. India has signed Affairs Ministry and Mr. similar agreements with Belgium, Philippe Welti, Ambassa- France and Germany in the recent dor of the Swiss Confed- past. eration in India. On the occasion, Shri. Mohandas Friendship between India said that this is an impor- and Switzerland tant agreement, which will further boost the The emergence of friendship be- friendly relationship be- tween India and Switzerland for- tween the two countries. mally started with the Treaty of Friendship and Establishment of This Social Security 1948 and was strengthened in various fields such Agreement will enhance cooperation on social se- as development, economy, and culture. The ex- curity between the two countries. It will facili- changes between the two countries have since tate the movement of professionals between the then increased. The two nations had a first com- two countries. The detached workers sent by Swit- mercial contact in 1851 when Salomon and Johann zerland-based companies to their Indian subsid- Georg Volkart simultaneously founded their com- iaries, or those sent by Indian companies to their pany Volkart Brothers in Bombay and Winterthur. branches in Switzerland will be exempt from so- They reacted to the increasing demand in Europe cial security contribution in the host country for for products from the Indian subcontinent and of a period of 72 months. While working abroad, European products in India. The two pioneers and these employees will only be subject to the social adventurers reached high prominence with their security regulations of their home country. The company in India. Agreement provides that an employed or self- employed person, other than detached workers Furthermore, Mahatma Gandhi came to Switzer- shall be subject only to the legislation of the host land in 1931 after having attended the Round country. The Agreement provides for refund of Table Conference in London. He spent five days the contributions at the time of relocation. In so in Switzerland to meet his friend Romain Rolland. far as Switzerland is concerned, the person will Swiss development cooperation with India started be refunded the contributions in accordance with 50 years ago. The first project of the Swiss Agency the Swiss legislation. In so far as India is concerned, for Development and Cooperation (SDC) was ini- the person will be paid the withdrawal benefit or tiated in 1963 in Kerala with the purpose to con- the pension in Switzerland or a third country, as tribute towards the improvement of livestock in the case may be, in accordance with the Indian the State, mainly for dairy production. The suc- legislation at the time of relocation. The Agree- cessful result was an eight-fold increase in milk ment will come into effect after the fulfillment of the national requirements. Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 4
  5. 5. Section -1 (Article : India-Switzerland Bilateral Relation) production over 35 years in the region. From splendour and the puzzling diversity, including the Kerala, SDC India geographically extended its ac- philosophical and religious one, of the subconti- tivities to other regions and domains of coopera- nent. Thus, the Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Gustav tion, including to green technologies at present. Jung, who during his trip to India in 1938, which he described thoroughly in his work, was honoured with three doctorates from Allahabad, Swiss agency for development and Cooperation: Benaras and Calcutta universities. Or take the The Swiss agency for development and Coopera- sculptor, painter and art historian Alice Boner tion (SDC) works in India with a central focus on (1889-1981) from Zurich, who spent not less than poverty reduction. Geographically its cooperation 45 years at the banks of the Ganga, in Benaras, programme has been concentrated on semi-arid and who was awarded the "Padmabhushan" in regions of the central Deccan plateau (Karnataka, 1974 by the Indian President for her outstanding Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra) as well as on scholarly work on Indian art, especially sculpture Kerala, Rajasthan, Orissa, Sikkim and Gujarat. and architecture. As to the well known Swiss travel writer Ella Maillard, she spent the years of SDC's programmes have contributed to people's the World War II in the ashram of Ramana empowerment and poverty reduction by focus- Maharishi, south of Madras, and reflected her ing on three productivity enhancing themes: re- unique experience in the novel "Ti Puss". tention and sustainable use of water, rural energy and housing, rural finance and employment cre- The strong relationship between Switzerland and ation. In addition, SDC has supported Indian India has been continually strengthened by In- organisations in the fight for inclusion and social dian and Swiss dignitaries who believed in the po- justice and in the promotion of the decentralisation tential of sharing ideas and concrete projects to- process. gether. Therefore, it is not surprising that the first ever friendship treaty signed by independent In- Considering the fast growing importance of India dia was with Switzerland, signed by India's first as a global actor, the availability in the country of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru on 14th August financial and human resources to address the chal- 1948. lenge of poverty and sustainable development, as well as the importance to build on more than 45 Ever since, the two countries have maintained a years of development cooperation with India, SDC cordial friendship, kept alive by regular in 2006 decided to engage into a new type of col- visits, economic and cultural activities. Mr. Nehru laboration with India. admired Switzerland as a model democratic state and sent his daughter Indira to a girl's boarding The new Programme involves a shift from tradi- school in Bex, VD. Many members of the Indian tional/classical development cooperation, towards leadership have been to Switzerland at one time a collaboration based on common interests and or another and have helped to create a positive shared investments, with the ultimate aim of re- image of Switzerland in India. ducing poverty. A key feature of this Programme is the exchange of know how and technologies Switzerland and India have since long been en- between Switzerland and India and the promo- joying mutually beneficial trade and economic ties tion of South-South cooperation. but these relations got a new impetus in the be- ginning of the 1990s, when India's economy be- Historical and Political Ties: Switzerland and In- gan opening up to the world market. Both sides dia are in many respects close to each other. Swiss have some core competencies, which our politi- people, mainly artists and intellectuals, have since cal leaders and business communities have always long been attracted to the historic and cultural strived to put together, resulting in increased trade Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 5
  6. 6. Section -1 (Article : India-Switzerland Bilateral Relation) and investment flows between the two countries. especially for those Indian companies which The bilateral relations between India and Swit- would like to cover their European business ac- zerland have grown closer over time. On 1st April tivities from within Switzerland. 1947, Switzerland opened a Trade Mission in In- dia, which in 1948 was converted into a Mission Our two countries have indeed a lot to offer to and in 1957 into an Embassy. The present Swiss each other and to gain in developing cooperation Ambassador to India is H.E. Mr. Philippe Welti. in high-tech and knowledge-based industries. In He is also accredited to Nepal and Bhutan. There fact, both sides are already trying to bring more is a Consulate General in Mumbai, which is cur- vibrancy to the relationship by adopting focused rently headed by Mr. Peter Specker. Three Hon- approaches, and initiatives have already been orary Consuls are promoting relations between taken in sectors such as biotechnology, textile India and Switzerland in Kolkata, Bangalore and machinery and railways. Chennai. The Swiss Business Hub India (SBHI) which is part India opened a mission in Switzerland in 1948, of Osec Business Network Switzerland and which which was elevated to an embassy in 1954. Since is located in the Consulate General in Mumbai and 1957 there has been a residing Ambassador in the Swiss Embassy in New Delhi offers a wide Bern. India maintains a General Consulate in range of services to assist small and medium-sized Geneva and is represented by an Honorary Con- enterprises (SMEs) from Switzerland and sul in Zurich. Liechtenstein in their efforts to penetrate the In- dian market. Economic Relations: Switzerland and India con- tinue to be natural partners constantly working The Swiss-Indian Chamber of Commerce (SICC) together to strengthen their relationship in vari- is a key actor in promoting Swiss-Indian bilateral ous fields. In the recent years, economic relations trade and investment. SICC is a bi-national, non- between the two countries have been hoisted to a profit association with over 320 Swiss and Indian higher level of importance. This is reflected in the members. It has offices in Zurich, Delhi, Banga- pace at which our total bilateral trade has increased lore, Mumbai and Chennai. The Chamber provides from Swiss Francs 1.16 billion in 2002 to Swiss members in Switzerland and India access to first- Francs 2.62 billion in 2006, reflecting an increase hand information and expertise thanks to the res- of 125 per cent in four years. This positive trend ervoir of know-how offered by its board and ex- in the last years is set to continue: In the first tensive partner network in both countries. eleven months of 2007, Swiss exports to India have gone up by 30 per cent whilst Indian exports to Recent years have also seen exchange of high-level Switzerland have increased by 25 per cent, as com- visits, and intensification of the dialogue between pared to the same period of the previous year. the two governments to ensure that together they In terms of foreign direct investments, Switzer- can explore new ways and means to further land has remained amongst the top 10 foreign in- strengthen the trade and investment ties. Nota- vestors in India. About 150 Swiss companies have bly, India has been identified as a country of high formed joint ventures or subsidiaries, and many importance in the framework of Switzerland's more have representatives or agents in India. The Foreign Economic Strategy. The EFTA countries Swiss technology-driven companies, including (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) small and medium businesses, play a major role in and India will soon launch negotiations for a the trade and investment flows to India. As more broad-based agreement on trade and investment. and more Indian companies are now venturing The Indo-Swiss joint economic commission meet- abroad, Switzerland is offering many attractive ing that used to be held every four years will now advantages as a business and investment location, be held every year. Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 6
  7. 7. Section -1 (Article : India-Switzerland Bilateral Relation) The instruments mentioned above and our bilat- "Swiss Filmfare Award 2001" was announced by eral agreements on the Double Taxation Avoid- the Consulate General of Switzerland where the ance, Promotion and Protection of Investments Swiss Hollywood celebrity Ms. Ursula Andress and an MOU on Intellectual Property Rights, will presented the award to Mr. Yash Chopra. In the ensure that an increasing number of Swiss and following year, the "Swiss Filmfare Award 2002" Indian companies will find a shared interest in was presented to Shah Rukh Khan, this time by doing business together. The future looks very Geraldine Chaplin, who grew up in Switzerland. bright, and both sides are continuing their efforts to deepen and widen the bilateral trade and eco- Development Cooperation nomic ties. The international community is impressed by its Cultural Connections economic and nuclear strength, while others em- phasize the dark facets of this country and con- Pro Helvetia - the Swiss Arts Council: Pro demn the poverty and discrimination endured by Helvetia New Delhi initiates, supports and pre- many of its citizens, in particular minorities and sents projects that reflect the multicultural char- untouchables (Dalits). Further sizeable challenges acter of Switzerland and India. Pro Helvetia aims facing the government and people of India are a to provide opportunities to art practitioners for low job-creation rate, poor-quality public services mutual enrichment and exchange in arts and cul- and lack of access to them, as well as discrimina- ture. It supports Swiss artists seeking dialogue with tion against women. Indian artists in an effort to forge closer ties. The focus is on quality and originality, on mutuality Figures reveal that India has the largest number and respect, to ensure that both sides benefit from of poor people in the world. Even today, 350 mil- the exchange. lion Indians live on less than 1 USD a day, 47% of children suffer from malnutrition and in some The liaison office in New Delhi is the Swiss Arts States, such as Punjab, the proportion of women Council's first office in Asia. Its aim is to coordi- to men is a mere 793/1000. nate Pro Helvetia's activities in the South Asia region starting with India. It supports artistic and This has been the background to Swiss develop- cultural collaboration between India and Switzer- ment cooperation in India since 1961, aimed at land, and also promotes Swiss ideas and arts prac- helping to reduce poverty and contribute to sus- tices among Indian audiences.Contemporary mu- tainable, just rural development. In addition to the sic, theatre, design, dance, literature, photogra- SDC, the State Secretariat for Economic Affairs phy and new media are the areas of focus. (SECO) as well as around 60 Swiss non-govern- mental organizations (some of them with SDC Bollywood in Switzerland: The love story be- support) are active in India. tween Switzerland and the Indian film industry dates way back to the mid-sixties, when Rajkapoor In 2006, the SDC started shifting the emphasis of placed his cameras on Swiss soil for "Sangam", also its development cooperation programme with In- "Evening in Paris" followed by more recent hits dia towards a new type of collaboration known as like "Chandni", "Darr", "Dilwale Dulhaniya Le a Partnership Program. This new program, which Jayaenge". Switzerland as a country offers white is much more modest in financial terms than the winters, colourful springs, sunny summers and current program, has different procedures and golden autumn. Switzerland permits to shoot in thematic priorities, will become operational in public places, there is almost zero crime, and gen- 2010. Between 2007 and 2009, the programme will erous and helping people all around which gives be making the transition from the traditional co- a peaceful, hassle-free mindset to work. The first operation program, in effect since 1961, to the new Partnership Program. Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 7
  8. 8. Section -1 (Article : India-Switzerland Bilateral Relation) Bilateral Agreements 2009-Year of Science and Education of Swit- zerland in India: After successfully completing » The Treaty of Friendship and Establishment of the celebration of 60 years of the 14th August 1948, which came into force on 5th Friendship Treaty between India and Switzerland May 1948. in 2008, the celebration of this great friendship is being carried forwards in the year 2009, under the » Indo Swiss Agreement on Technical and Scien- theme of Science and Education.The first bi- tific Co-operation signed on 27th September 1966. lateral treaty in the field of science and technol- ogy-the Indo-Swiss Agreement on Technical and » The Exchange of Letters on 20th February 1989 Scientific Cooperation was signed in 1966. This between Switzerland and India concerning assis- was followed by a number of other bi-lateral tance in criminal matters, which came into force treaties in this field. The appointment of a on 20th February 1989. Counsellor for Science and Technology at the Embassy and an Executive Director, swissnex, » The Agreement for the Avoidance of Double for India, emphasized the commitment towards Taxation between the Swiss Confederation and the strengthening ties between both countries and Republic of India with respect to income taxes, especially in the field of S&T. The year 2009 has which came into force on 29th December 1994. been commenced with various projects, planned and finalized, under the theme of science and edu- » The Agreement on Indo-Swiss Collaboration cation with the objective of expanding the hori- in Biotechnology for 5 years was signed on 13th zons of synergies between both countries. September 1999. » The Agreement for the Promotion and Protec- Switzerland : Fact Sheet tion of Investments between the Swiss Confed- eration and the Republic of India, which came into Background: The Swiss Confederation was force on 16th February 2000. founded in 1291 as a defensive alliance among three cantons. In succeeding years, other locali- » Indo-Swiss Agreement relating to Co-operation ties joined the original three. The Swiss Confed- in Air Services signed on 2nd May 2001. eration secured its independence from the Holy Roman Empire in 1499. Switzerland’s sovreignty » The Agreement on Co-operation in the fields and neutrality have long been honored by the of Science and Technology between the Swiss Fed- major European powers, and the country was not eral Council and the Government of the Republic involved in either of the two World Wars. The of India signed on 10th November 2003. political and economic integration of Europe over the past half century, as well as Switzerland’s role » The Grant Agreement between the State Sec- in many UN and international organizations, has retariat for Economic Affairs and the International strengthened Switzerland’s ties with its neighbors. Competence Center for Organic Agriculture in However, the country did not officially become a India signed on 3rd February 2005. UN member until 2002. Switzerland remains ac- tive in many UN and international organizations, » A Memorandum of Understanding between the but retains a strong commitment to neutrality. Ministry of Commerce and Industry of India and the Federal Department of Economic Affairs of Switzerland on intellectual property signed on 7th August 2007. Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 8
  9. 9. Section -1 (Article : India-Switzerland Bilateral Relation) » Location : Central Europe, east of France, north of Italy » Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 8 00 E » Area : total: 41,290sqkm » Land : 39,770 sq km » Water : 1,520 sq km » Natural resources : hydropower potential, timber, salt » Population : 7,489,370 (July 2005 est.) » Age structure : 0-14 years: 16.6% (male 643,497/female 597,565) 15-64 » Years : 68% (male 2,570,544/female 2,522,365) 65 » Years and Over : 15.4% (male 472,769/female 682,630) (2005 est.) » Population Growth Rate : 0.49% (2005 est.) » Ethnic Groups : German 65%, French 18%, Italian 10%, Romansch 1%, other 6% » Religions : Roman Catholic 41.8%, Protestant 35.3%, Orthodox 1.8%, other Christian 0.4%, Musim 4.3%, other 1%, unspecified 4.3%, none 11.1% (2000 census) » Literacy : definition: age 15 and over can read and write » Total Population : 99% (1980 est.) » Capital : Bern » Independence : 1 August 1291 (founding of the Swiss Confederation) » National Holiday : Founding of the Swiss Confederation, 1 August (1291) Economy Overview : Switzerland is a peaceful, prosperous, and stable modern market economy with unemployment, a highly skilled labor force, and a per capita GDP larger than that of the big Western European economies. The Swiss in recent years have brought their economic practices largely into conformity with the EU’s to enhance their international competitiveness. Switzerland remains a safe haven for investors, because it has maintained a degree of bank secrecy and has kept up the franc’s long- term external value. Reflecting the anemic economic conditions of Europe, GDP growth dropped in 2001 to about 0.8%, to 0.2% in 2002, and to -0.3% in 2003, with a small rise to 1.8% in 2004. Even so, unemployment has remained at less than half the EU average. GDP (PPP Basis) : $251.9 billion (2004 est.) GDP - Real Growth Rate : 1.8% (2004 est.) GDP - Per Capita : Purchasing power parity - $33,800 (2004 est.) GDP - Composition - By Sector: » Agriculture: 1.5% » Industry: 34% » Services: 64.5% (2003 est.) Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 9
  10. 10. Section -1 (Article : India-Switzerland Bilateral Relation) » Inflation Rate : 0.9% (2004 est.) » Industrial Production Growth Rate : 4.7% (2004 est.) » Exports - Commodities : Machinery, Chemicals, Metals, Watches, Agricultural Products » Exports - Partners : Germany 20.2%, US 10.5%, France 8.7%, Italy 8.3%, UK 5.1%, Spain 4% (2004) » Imports - Commodities : machinery, chemicals, vehicles, metals; agricultural products, textiles » Import - Partners : Germany 32.8%, Italy 11.3%, France 9.9%, US 5.2%, Netherlands 5%, Austria 4.3% (2004) Advertise your Business Here Contact Us Online: Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 10
  11. 11. Aspirants Times Previous Issues VOL.1 VOL.2 VOL.3 VOL.4 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 11
  12. 12. Section -1 (Article : India and United Nations ) India and United Nations Significant Contributions for Peace and Development By Avadhesh Pandey Author is an Expert of Economic and political Issues and working as a Freelance Editor As a founder member of the faith and hope, towards UN's success, and to as- United Nations, India has sume greater responsibilities that the world com- been a firm supporter of the munity expects from it. Purposes and Principles of the United Nations, and has Indian Contribution: India made significant contribu- is one of the largest contribu- tions to the furtherance and implementation of tors to the core resources of these noble aims, and to the evolution and func- UNDP and a significant con- tioning of its various specialized programmes. It tributor to those of UNFPA stood at the forefront during the UN's tumultu- and UNICEF. India is also a major contributor to ous years of struggle against colonialism and apart- the core resources of and the World Food heid, its struggle towards global disarmament and Programme. India's contribution to these funds is the ending of the arms race, and towards the cre- higher than that of many OECD countries. We ation of a more equitable international economic hope that the developed countries will also in- order. At the very first session of the UN, India crease their contributions to untied and apolitical had raised its voice against colonialism and apart- resources for development.India has contributed heid, two issues which have been among the most US $ 100,000 to the UNCTAD Trust Fund for the significant of the UN's successes in the last half least Developed countries. It has also been con- century. India exulted in the UN's triumph, and tributing US $ 50,000 per annum to the ITC Glo- saw in the UN's victory, a vindication of the policy bal Trust Fund since its inception in 1996. It also relentlessly pursued by it from its initial days at makes substantial voluntary contributions to the world forum. UNEP, Habitat, UN Drug Control Programme, UNRWA, UNIFEM UN Volunteers etc. At the beginning of the 21st century, new chal- lenges are before us. Freed from the shackles of UN Peacekeeping: over and over again, India has the Cold War, the UN stands poised to grapple risked the lives of its soldiers in peacekeeping ef- with the changes which the world has witnessed forts of the United Nations, not for any strategic over the years. Today's challenges, be they politi- gain, but in the service of an ideal. India's ideal cal, economic, social, environmental or demo- was, and remains, strengthening the world body, graphic, are global, impinging on the affairs of all and international peace and security. States and making the interdependence of peoples so much greater. If this demands a greater depen- Indian troops have taken part in some of the most dence on the UN as the only democratic, univer- difficult operations, and have suffered casualties sal forum for the community of nations, it also in the service of the UN. Professional excellence demands a strengthening of the UN itself and its of the Indian troops has won universal admira- revitalization. The ongoing reform process is pri- tion. India has taken part in the UN peacekeeping marily aimed towards these ends. A revitalized operations in four continents. Its most significant and strengthened United Nations and a more rep- contribution has been to peace and stability in resentative Security Council will enable this Africa and Asia. It has demonstrated its unique unique organisation to face the challenges of the capacity of sustaining large troops commitments 21st century more effectively. over prolonged periods. Presently, India is ranked as one of the largest troop contributors to the UN. As the United Nations strives to find solutions to India has also offered one brigade of troops to the these issues, India pledges to work, with abiding Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 12
  13. 13. Section -1 (Article : India and United Nations ) UN Standby Arrangements. Over 55,000 Indian 1963-64 (UNYOM). India also participated in the Military and Police personnel have served under UN operation in Cyprus (UNFICYP). India pro- the UN flag in 35 UN peace keeping operations in vided three Force Commanders to UNFICYP, all the continents of the globe. Gen. K.S. Thimmaya, Lt. Gen. P.S. Gyani and Lt. Gen. Dewan Prem Chand. India provided a paramedical unit to facilitate withdrawal of the sick at wounded in Korea. Af- The UN set up a Military Observer Group to moni- ter the ceasefire, India became the Chairman of tor the situation on Iran-Iraq border. India pro- the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission. vided military observers during the period 1988- One brigade group of the Indian Army partici- 90. pated in the operation in Korea, authorized by the UN General Assembly through Uniting for Peace Following the end of the Gulf War, the UN estab- resolution. Indian troops provided guards for the lished the UN Iraq-Kuwait Observer Mission prisoners of war. (UNIKOM). Indian observers continue to partici- pate in the operation. India also contributed to peace in the Middle East. The United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was UN operation in Namibia is considered one of the created in 1956 following cessation of hostilities success stories of the United Nations. Lt. Gen. between Egypt and Israel. India provided an in- Prem Chand of India was the Force Commander. fantry battalion, which accounted for the bulk of Indian military observers in Namibia were respon- the UN force. Over 11 years, from 1956 to 1967, sible for the smooth withdrawal of foreign troops, more than 12,000 Indian troops took part in UNEF. elections and subsequent handing over of the au- Pursuant to the Geneva Accord, an International thority to the government. Control Commission (ICC) for Indo-China was set up in 1954. India was the Chairman of the Com- UN established the ONUMOZ to restore peace and mission, which implemented the ceasefire agree- conduct elections in Mozambique. India provided ment between Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and a large contingent of staff officers, military ob- France. India provided one infantry battalion and servers, independent headquarters company, and supporting staff until the ICC was wound up in engineering and logistics company. The opera- 1970. tion has ended successfully. The UN faced one of its worst crises when war In recent times, one of the biggest peace keeping between the government and the secessionist operations which was completed successfully was forces broke out in Congo. The UN operation in the UN operation in Cambodia. India provided the Congo, ONUC, was unique in many ways. an infantry battalion, military observers and a field The operation involved heavy casualties. It was ambulance unit. also the first time that the UN undertook an op- eration in an intra -State, rather than an inter- India has also regularly sent military observers to State conflict. The operation upheld the national various UN operations. This includes ONUCA unity and territorial integrity of the Congo. The (Central America) in 1990-92, ONUSAL (El Sal- Indian contingent lost 39 men in action in the vador) in 1991 and UNOMIL (Liberia) in 1994. Congo. The performance of the Indian troops was distinguished by their discipline, self-restraint and The UN Operation in Somalia is considered one humanitarian concern. of the most difficult and challenging operations the UN has ever attempted. Indian naval ships Indian Army provided a Force Commander and and personnel were involved in patrolling duties observers for the Observer Mission in Yemen in off the Somali coast, in humanitarian assistance Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 13
  14. 14. Section -1 (Article : India and United Nations ) on shore, and also in the transportation of men staff officers and military observers. The contin- and material for the United Nations. The gent has made a sizeable contribution towards UNOSOM II operation involved peace enforce- construction of quartering camps. The Indian ment under Chapter VII. The objective was hu- contingent was also involved in rebuilding bridges manitarian relief. The Indian contingent success- over the Conga, Rio Quisaju, Rio Mugige and Rio fully combined the often conflicting roles of co- N'hia Rivers. One high risk task was the demining ercive disarmament and humanitarian relief to the of the main arterial road connecting Lobito and civilian population. With stand-alone capacity, Huambo and repairing a 60 mile stretch of the the Indian brigade had operational responsibili- road. The Indian contingent has also built a 3,300 ties for one-third of Somalia viz. 1,73,000 sq. km feet airstrip at Londuimbali. The Deputy Force area of responsibility, the largest ever held by any Commander was an Indian army officer. India also contingent. In spite of such a large areas of op- participated in the UN Observer Mission in Angola erations, there were minimum civilian casualties (MONUA), which succeeded UNAVEM III. in the area of responsibility of the Indian contin- gent. The Chief Military Observer of the UN Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL) was also an The Indian contingent dug a large number of wells, Indian army officer. India provided a medical unit constructed schools and mosques, and ran mobile and civilian police personnel to UNOMSIL. dispensaries and relief camps, which provided veterinary care, and medical and humanitarian After the upgradation of the UN Mission in Sierra relief to a large number of Somalis and their live- Leone in November-December 1999, India pro- stock. In spite of suffering casualties the Indian vided two infantry battalion groups, a quick reac- contingent exercised utmost restraint in firing in tion company, a field engineering company, a level self defence. It also organized and carried out re- III medical facility, a special forces company, an habilitation and resettlement of thousands of refu- artillery battery, transport and attack helicopters gees and helped to repatriate them to their homes. and the backbone of the force headquarters in The Indian contingent played a vital role in re- Freetown. Maj. Gen. V.K.Jetley was the first UN viving the political process by organizing recon- Force Commander in Sierra Leone. ciliation meetings. The last remaining units of the Indian contingent were repatriated from Somalia India has also provided an infantry battalion to on board Indian naval ships from Kismayo port. the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL). The India demonstrated its capacity to provide an in- Force Commander of UNIFIL is Maj.Gen. L.M. tegrated force, comprising land and naval forces Tewari. as well as air support. India is also currently participating in the UN India provided a contingent comprising one in- Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) with fantry battalion and support elements to the UN an infantry battalion, a Force Reserve Company assistance mission in Rwanda to help ensure se- and a Field Engineer Construction Company. curity for the refugees, and to create conditions for free and fair elections. After successful comple- Recent peacekeeping operations have tended to tion of the assignment, the Indian contingent was be multi-dimensional, and include police moni- repatriated in April 1996. tors and election observers. India has contributed police personnel and election observers to the UN The Indian army has participated in the succes- peacekeeping operations in Cambodia, sive phases of the UN mission in Angola since Mozambique and Angola. India provided 123 1989. The Indian contingent comprised one in- police personnel to UN mission in Haiti (Phase fantry battalion group, one engineer company, II). India has also provided police monitors for Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 14
  15. 15. Section -1 (Article : India and United Nations ) the UN International Police Task Force in Bosnia India has also provided opportunities for training and Herzegovina, Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL), to military officers from different countries. In- Western Sahara (MINURSO) and Kosovo dia has, at present, army training teams in six coun- (UNMIK). In addition, two companies of CRPF tries: Seychelles, Laos, Mauritius, Botswana, Zam- have deployed in UNMIK as Special Police units. bia and Bhutan. India has also offered diverse The Police Commissioner of MINURSO is an In- courses to service personnel at various military dian Police Officer, Mr. O.P. Rathor. training institutions across the country. This in- cludes officers from Bangladesh, Bhutan, France, India sent Lt. Gen. Satish Nambiar, as the Force Germany, Japan, Jordan, Kazakastan, Kenya, Ko- Commander of UNPROFOR in former Yugosla- rea, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, via in 1992-93. Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, India has also provided senior staff to assist the Tanzania, Thailand, UAE, UK, USA, Vietnam, UN Secretary-General at the UN Headquarters. Zambia and Zimbabwe. Cadets from countries Major Gen. I. J. Rikhye served as Military Advi- such as Maldives, Palestine, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri sor to the UN Secretary General from 1960 to 1969. Lanka and also many African States receive pre- India also hosted a UN Regional Training Work- commission training at the National Defence shop for Peacekeeping Operations in New Delhi Academy, Khadakvasla and the Indian Military during January 20-26, 1996 in which 17 countries Academy, Dehradun. of the Asia-Pacific region participated. Mr. Kofi Annan, the then Under Secretary General for Over 100 Indian soldiers and officers have sacri- Peacekeeping visited India in this connection. ficed their lives while serving in UN peacekeep- India also held an International Seminar on UN ing operations. Peacekeeping in March 1999 in which over 70 countries participated. The United Services In- Disarmament: Since independence, India has con- stitution (USI) of India hosted another seminar in sistently pursued the objective of global disarma- New Delhi in September 2000 in collaboration ment based on the principles of universality, non- with the Swedish National Defence College. A discrimination and effective compliance. Given the Centre for UN Peacekeeping (CUNPK) was set up horrific destructive capacity of nuclear weapons, under the aegis of USI in New Delhi in 2000. UN India has always believed that a world free of Secretary General Kofi Annan visited the Centre nuclear weapons would enhance both global se- in March 2001 during his visit to India. curity and India's own national security. Thus India has always advocated that the highest pri- India has considerable experience in demining ority be given to nuclear disarmament as a first activities and has made significant contributions step towards general and complete disarmament. to the de-mining work in various missions in Rwanda, Mozambique, Somalia, Angola and Cam- As early as 1948, India called for limiting the use bodia. Experienced Indian Army Engineers have of atomic energy for peaceful purposes only, and been employed for training of selected personnel the elimination of atomic weapons from national from the host countries to execute mine clearance armaments. India was the first country to call to programmes as also to generate awareness of the an end to all nuclear testing in 1954. This was fol- problem among the local people. Indian Army lowed up in subsequent decades by many other has also undertaken mine clearance projects in initiatives, for example, on the Partial Test Ban support of repatriation and rehabilitation Treaty, and the call for international negotiations programmes of the UNHCR. on nuclear non-proliferation. In 1978, India pro- posed negotiations for an international conven- tion that would prohibit the use or threat of use Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 15
  16. 16. Section -1 (Article : India and United Nations ) of nuclear weapons. This was followed by another come into effect in September 1999. India has initiative in 1982 calling for a "nuclear freeze" - declared that it will maintain minimum credible i.e. prohibition on the production of fissile mate- nuclear deterrent and will not engage in an arms rial for weapons, on production of nuclear weap- race. India has declared a no-first-use doctrine. ons, and related delivery systems. At the special We are willing to strengthen this commitment sessions of the United Nations General Assembly by undertaking bilateral agreements as well as by on disarmament, India put forward a number of engaging in discussions for a global no-first-use serious proposals including the 1988 Comprehen- agreement. India believes that a global no-first- sive Plan for total elimination of weapons of mass use agreement would be the first step towards the destruction in a phased manner. It was a matter delegitimization of nuclear weapons. India remains of regret that the proposals made by India along the only state possessing nuclear weapons to un- with several other countries did not receive a posi- ambiguously call for a Nuclear Weapons Conven- tive response and instead, a limited and distorted tion to ban and eliminate nuclear weapons just as non-proliferation agenda, meant above all to per- the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and petuate nuclear weapons was shaped. the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) have banned the other two categories of weapons of India was compelled by considerations of national destruction. security to establish and adopt a policy of keeping its nuclear option open while it continued to work Nuclear Disarmament and Nonproliferation: In for global nuclear disarmament. India's nuclear 1996, India, along with the members of the Group capability was demonstrated in 1974. India exer- of 21 countries, put forward proposal, submitted cised an unparalleled restraint in not weaponising to the Conference on Disarmament (CD), of a its nuclear capability. It is relevant to recall, that Programme of Action calling for a phased elimi- during this period, when we voluntarily and to- nation of nuclear weapons (1996-2020). India has tally desisted from testing, over 35,000 nuclear unambiguously indicated its commitment the es- weapons were developed through a series of tests tablishment of an ad hoc committee in the Con- by states possessing nuclear weapons. This has ference on Disarmament in Geneva to negotiate happened even as Article VI of the Non-Prolif- global nuclear disarmament. India is also the only eration Treaty committed the Nuclear Weapons state with nuclear weapons, which responded States, party to the NPT, to take steps in good faith positively to certain aspects of the 8-Nation ini- for nuclear disarmament. India was obliged to tiative on disarmament, entitled "Towards a stand apart on the CTBT in 1996 after having been Nuclear Weapon Free World", put forward in June actively engaged in the negotiations for two and a 1998 by Brazil, Egypt, Ireland, Mexico, New half years precisely because the issues of non-pro- Zealand, South Africa and Sweden. liferation, global disarmament and India's concerns about her security and strategic autonomy were At the NAM Summit in Durban, at India's initia- ignored. tive, NAM agreed that an international confer- ence be held, preferably in 1999, with the objec- India's continued commitment to nuclear disar- tive of arriving at an agreement, before the end of mament and non-proliferation is clear from the this millennium, on a phased programme for the voluntary measures announced by India after un- complete elimination of all nuclear weapons. The dertaking a limited series of underground nuclear call for the elimination of nuclear weapons was tests last year. India remains committed to con- reiterated once again by Prime Minister in his verting its voluntary moratorium into a de jure address to the UN General Assembly in 1998. obligation accordance with our long held positions India remains committed to cooperating with like disarmament, and in response to the desire of the minded states to attain this goal. India also intro- international community that the CTBT should duced a resolution in the 53rd General Assembly Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 16
  17. 17. Section -1 (Article : India and United Nations ) calling for reducing nuclear danger by de-alerting that the item "Suspension of Nuclear and Thermo- nuclear weapons. Nuclear Tests" was included in the agenda of the UN in 1959. India is fully committed to the goal of curbing nuclear proliferation in all its aspects. It was at During the course of the negotiations in the Con- India's initiative that the item "non-proliferation ference on Disarmament (CD) in Geneva on the of nuclear weapons" was included in the agenda CTBT, India put forward a number of proposals of the UN in 1964. In 1965, India along with other consistent with the mandate adopted by the CD like-minded countries submitted a joint memo- in 1994. These proposals were aimed at ensuring randum towards achieving a solution to the prob- that the CTBT would be truly comprehensive and lem of proliferation; it included the conclusion of would be part of the step-by-step process of elimi- an international nuclear non-proliferation treaty. nating all nuclear weapons. However, these pro- However, the NPT as it emerged from these ne- posals were regrettably ignored and instead, Ar- gotiations, was flawed and discriminatory, seek- ticle XIV on Entry into Force requiring India to ing to create a permanent division between the join the treaty before it became operational was nuclear ‘haves' and 'have-nots'. India believes that adopted in violation of basic treaty law. India was the indefinite and unconditional extension of the thus forced to declare its opposition to the CTBT NPT in May 1995 has only served to legitimize as it emerged. nuclear arsenals of the NPT states possessing nuclear weapons into perpetuity, thus posing a After concluding a series of tests on May 13, 1998, major obstacle to the goal of global nuclear disar- India immediately announced a voluntary mora- mament. The NPT Preparatory Commission torium on further underground nuclear test ex- (PrepCom) meetings held in 1997 and 1998 have plosions. In announcing this moratorium, India also clearly demonstrated the reluctance on the accepted the core obligation of a test ban and also part of the states possessing nuclear weapons to addressed the general wish of the international take steps towards a speedy process of global community. India also announced its willingness nuclear disarmament. to move towards a de jure formalization of the voluntary undertaking. India is now engaged in India has developed wide-ranging expertise in discussions with key interlocutors on a range of nuclear technology and ensured through a strin- issues, including the CTBT. India is prepared to gent and effective system of export controls that bring these discussions to a successful conclusion. there is no proliferation of these technologies for For the successful conclusion of talks, creation of weapons purposes. India's record in this matter a positive environment by India's interlocutors is is, in fact, better than some of the NPT signato- a necessary ingredient. India expects that other ries. At the same time, we are against ad hoc re- countries, as indicated in Article XIV of the CTBT, gimes or cartels which restrict high technology will adhere to this Treaty without conditions. in an arbitrary, unequal and patently discrimina- tory manner. They need to be universalised, made Fissile Material Cut-Off Treaty (FMCT): India transparent and equitable. supports the ban on production of fissile material for nuclear weapons purposes. This demand has Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty: India's been articulated by India in the UN through con- commitment to a comprehensive ban on nuclear crete proposals like the Action Plan which it pre- testing dates back to 1954 when Jawaharlal Nehru sented in 1988. India also co-sponsored a UN Gen- called for a "standstill agreement" whereby test- eral Assembly resolution (48/75 L) in 1993, which ing of all nuclear weapons was to be immediately called for an early commencement of negotiations suspended, pending an agreement on their com- for the prohibition of the production of fissile plete prohibition. It was again at India's initiative material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear ex- Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 17
  18. 18. Section -1 (Article : India and United Nations ) plosive devices. India has joined the consensus in sal and non-discriminatory character of the CWC the Conference on Disarmament on establishing are primarily responsible for the large number of an ad hoc committee to negotiate a FMCT. India signatories and the equally large numbers of rati- believes that this is an integral part of the nuclear fications. The implementation of the CWC in- disarmament process. It would also go a long way volves a combination of voluntary declarations and in arresting problems of illegal transfers of nuclear mandatory verification arrangements aimed at en- material. India supports efforts for negotiations on suring compliance in a transparent and universal a universal, non-discriminatory and verifiable fis- manner. A National Authority (NA) has been set sile material cut-off treaty that would prohibit the up to oversee implementation of the Convention future production of fissile material for weapons in India. As the first Chairperson of the Executive purposes but would permit such production for Council of the Organization for Chemical Weap- civilian uses. ons (OPCW), India guided the deliberations of the organization during its crucial first year. Imple- Negative Security Assurances (NSAs) and mentation of all obligations assumed by India to Nuclear Weapon Free Zones (NWFZs): India has the Convention and related activities have pro- always maintained that NSAs provide illusory ben- ceeded satisfactorily. India believes that the pro- efits, and that the real security assurance is com- visions of the Convention require to be imple- plete elimination of nuclear weapons, and also that mented in a non-discriminatory manner. National in the interim, if NSAs are to be given, they should implementing legislations containing provisions be provided through an international, comprehen- which undermine the Convention hold out the sive, legally-binding and irreversible agreement. prospect of leading to matching responses by other Similarly, consideration of security assurances in -states parties thereby leading to an unnecessary the narrow strait-jacket of Nuclear Weapon Free dilution of the spirit and the confidence reposed Zones (NWFZS) cannot do justice to the wide in the CWC by a great majority of countries party variety of concerns that emanate from the global to the CWC. Similarly, the existence of technol- nature of the threat posed by nuclear weapons. ogy denial regimes such as the Australia Group remains an aberration when seen against the large As a responsible state possessing nuclear weap- number of ratifications the enjoyed so far. ons, India has stated that it does not intend to use nuclear weapons to commit aggression or for Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention mounting threats against any country. India re- (BTWC): India ratified the Biological Weapons spects the sovereign choice exercised by states not Convention in 1974. India has participated in all possessing nuclear weapons in establishing four Review Conferences of the Biological and NWFZs on the basis of agreements freely arrived Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) and in the at among the states of the region concerned. At meetings of the Group of Governmental Experts. the fifth session of the ASEAN Regional Forum India is currently participating in the negotiations in Manila, India stated that it fully respects the of the Ad hoc Group of the States Parties of the status of the Nuclear Weapon Free Zone in South BTWC with the aim to strengthen the conven- East Asia and is ready to convert this commitment tion by a protocol, including possible verification into a legal obligation. India will remain respon- measures. India maintains that these measures sive to the expressed need for commitments to should be non-discriminatory and avoid any nega- other nuclear weapon free zones as well. tive impact on scientific research, international cooperation and industrial development. Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC): Con- vention has India is an original signatory to the Anti-Personnel Landmines (APLS): India is fully Chemical Weapons Convention, having signed it committed to the eventual elimination of anti- on 14 January 1993, and was among the first 65 personnel landmines and achievement of the ob- countries to have ratified the Treaty. The univer- jective of a nondiscriminatory and universal ban Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 18
  19. 19. Section -1 (Article : India and United Nations ) on APLS. A beginning can be made with a ban on society.The then Prime Minister of India, Mrs. export and transfer of APLS, that would enjoy an Indira Gandhi, was the sole foreign head of state international consensus, and by addressing hu- or government to participate in the United Na- manitarian. concerns and legitimate defence re- tions Conference on Human Environment held in quirements of states. India is sensitive to the hu- Stockholm in June 1972, at a time when interna- manitarian aspects of the landmine crisis and the tional concern over environmental issues was yet need for a strong international response. Aware to fully crystallise. At that session she emphasised that APLs have been used indiscriminately in con- that the environmental concerns cannot be viewed flicts not of an international nature, India has in isolation from developmental imperatives. called for a ban on their use in all internal con- flicts. India follows a conscious policy of not ex- India considers environmental and developmen- porting APLS. India has also been contributing to tal issues to be closely intertwined. It fully sup- UN demining efforts since the Congo peacekeep- ports international cooperation in the field of the ing operations in 1963. An officer of the Indian environment so as to effectively deal with global Army is presently deployed with the UN Mine environmental problems. It is committed to a glo- Action Centre in Bosnia. India is presently in the bal partnership that simultaneously seeks to pro- process of ratifying amended Protocol II of the tect the environment while addressing the devel- 1980 Inhumane Weapons Convention (CCW), opment requirements and aspirations of the de- which deals with anti-personnel landmines. In- veloping countries. dia stands ready to negotiate a ban on the export and transfer of landmines in the Conference on India has consistently played an important role in Disarmament. the evolution of an international consensus to tackle major global environmental issues. It was Transparency in Conventional Weapons Trans- an active participant in the process leading up to fers and Small Arms: India is committed to and culminating in the convening of the United strengthening the norm of transparency in con- Nations Conference on Environment and Devel- ventional armaments in general, and greater par- opment in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. The Rio ticipation in the UN Register of Conventional Conference affirmed the importance of sustainable Arms in particular. India has reported to the Reg- development, which encompasses both develop- ister annually since 1994. The issue of prolifera- ment and environmental protection. Agenda 21, tion of, and illicit trafficking in, small arms has adopted by the Rio meet, provides a blueprint on moved up the agenda of the international com- how to make development socially, economically munity on disarmament issues. India is acutely sustainable. Despite constraints, India has initiated aware of this problem and intends to participate several activities and programmes in the context actively in international search for effective solu- of Agenda 21, which are consistent with its na- tions, including a proposed international confer- tional goals and objectives. India is a party to nu- ence to discuss the issue of illicit trafficking in merous multilateral environmental conventions small arms in all its aspects. which contribute to the protection of the envi- ronment and to sustainable development. These Environment: India is among the top 12 mega include the Framework Convention on Climate centres of the world in terms of its genetic diver- Change, the Convention on Biological Diversity, sity. It has a wide range of geoclimatic conditions the Vienna Convention on the Protection of the and a rich and varied flora and fauna, as well as a Ozone Layer, the Montreal Protocol on Substances long standing tradition of environmental sensi- that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the Ramsar Con- bility and concern that goes to the very roots of vention on Wetlands of International importance, its millennia-old culture. Harmony with nature the Basel Convention on the Transboundary Move- has been an integral part of the ethos of Indian ment of Hazardous Wastes, the Convention on Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 19
  20. 20. Section -1 (Article : India and United Nations ) Combating Desertification, and the Convention worker who led the Indian delegation, had made on the International Trade in Endangered Species important contributions in drafting of the Decla- of Wild Flora and2 Fauna. India is also an active ration, especially highlighting the need for reflect- member of the Commission on Sustainable De- ing gender equality. India is fully committed to velopment that was set up after the Rio Confer- the rights proclaimed in the Universal Declara- ence to monitor the implementation of Agenda tion. India is a signatory to the six core human 21. rights covenants, and also the two Optional Pro- tocols to the Convention of the Rights of the Child. India is among the leading countries in the van- guard of efforts directed at environmental protec- India has been advocating a holistic and integrated tion. It has in position an elaborate framework of approach that gives equal emphasis to all human environmental legislation for the conservation of rights, based on their inter-dependence, inter-re- forests, preservation of wildlife and the control of latedness, indivisibility and universality, and re- water, air and soil pollution. It has a network of inforces the inter-relationship between democ- protected areas converting 84 national parks and racy, development, human rights and international 447 wildlife sanctuaries. India has also introduced cooperation for development. the Eco-Mark label for environment-friendly products, requires the undertaking of Environ- India had played an active role as member of the ment Impact Assessment before commencing Commission on Human Rights (CHR) since its major industrial projects, has in 2position func- creation in 1947. India was elected in 2006 as a tioning Environmental Tribunals as well as an ef- member of the newly established Human Rights fective system of Environmental Audit. Council (HRC), which replaced the CHR, by se- curing the highest number of votes among the At the Special Session of the UN General Assem- contested seats. India was re-elected again as a bly held in June 1997 to review the progress made member in 2007 by securing the highest votes by five years after the Rio meet, India expressed its polling 185 votes out of 190 votes cast. India at- disappointment over the lack of fulfillment at the taches great importance to the Human Rights international level of commitments voluntarily Council and is committed to make the Council a undertaken by the industrialised countries at Rio. strong, effective and efficient body capable of pro- On its part, India reiterated its commitment to moting and protecting human rights and funda- the global partnership established at Rio de mental freedoms for all. Janeiro. The National Commission for Human Rights Human Rights: In India the concept of human (NHRC), established in India in 1993, serves as an rights emphasizing pivotal position of individual independent and autonomous body for protection citizen stretches back to the first millennia. Hu- of human rights in the country. The Commis- man rights have been an inherent component of sion is now very much part of the life of the na- various philosophies that have flourished in In- tion and, increasingly, of consequence to the qual- dia. The leaders of the Indian National Movement ity of its governance. Awareness of the rights guar- stressed the primacy of human rights in the fu- anteed by the Constitution, and included in the ture constitutional set-up. The Indian Constitu- international instruments to which India is a State tion, as a result, stands as one of the most compre- party, has increased dramatically in the country. hensive and self-contained documents on human rights. The enactment by the Indian Parliament in Au- India took active part in drafting of the Universal gust, 2005 of a Rural Employment Guarantee Act, Declaration on Human Rights. Dr (Mrs). Hansa providing for 100 days of assured employment in Mehta, a Gandhian political activist and social a year to every rural household, is a step in the Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 20
  21. 21. Section -1 (Article : India and United Nations ) direction of ensuring justiciability of economic and society, including non-Governmental social rights. The Right to Information Act passed organisations, have been supplementing by the Indian Parliament in 2005 is a testimony Government’s efforts in eradication of child labour to India’s commitment for providing access to in- in the country. formation to the citizens. The rights of vulnerable groups have received spe- India is fully committed to the implementation of cial mention in India ever since independence and the Beijing Platform for Action. India adopted a the Constitution itself contains extensive provi- rights-based approach to promoting equality of sions for the promotion and protection of the women and evolved a multifaceted strategy aimed rights of all minorities, including some special at their empowerment through awareness-raising, groups of people unique to Indian society known political participation, economic independence, as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. These education, health, and legal standards. The ob- measures have been further strengthened through jective is to enable women to overcome disadvan- a recent amendment of the Constitution granting tages that they face and to enable them to play an the Scheduled Tribes local self-government and a effective and equal role in society. Among the high degree of autonomy in the management of most important of these measures include reser- their day-to-day affairs, control over natural re- vation of one-third seats in local and village-level sources, and other development activities in the bodies, and formulation of National Policy for the areas where they live. Independent institutions Empowerment of Women in 2001, provision for such as National Commission for the Scheduled immediate and emergency relief to women in situ- Castes and Scheduled Tribes and National Com- ations of domestic violence, amendment to the mission for Minorities are effectively promoting Hindu Succession Act to give daughters and wid- and protecting the rights of these vulnerable ows equal right in ancestral property including groups. Further, National Minorities Develop- agricultural land, dowry prohibition and preven- ment and Financial Corporation and National tion of immoral trafficking. Backward Classes Finance and Development Cor- poration (NBCFDC) have been set up to promote India adopted a National Charter for Children in economic and development activities of minori- 2003 to reiterate its commitment to the cause of ties and Other Backward Classes. the child in order to see that no child remains hungry, illiterate or sick. The right to free and India became seventh country to ratify the UN compulsory education for all children, in the age Convention on the Rights of Persons with Dis- group of 6 to 14 years, has been made a funda- abilities. India had participated actively in the mental right in 2002 by an amendment to the deliberations of the Ad Hoc Committee of the UN Constitution. India has a proactive stand on the General Assembly on finalisation of a Convention issue of child protection and in creating a protec- on the Rights of the Persons with Disabilities. The tive environment for children. Towards this end, enactment in India of the Persons with Disabili- India has undertaken several initiatives, notably a ties (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and National Commission for Protection of Child’s Full Participation) Act in 1995 marked a signifi- Rights has been set up in February 2007 to pro- cant step towards providing equal opportunities vide speedy trial of offence against children or of for people with disabilities and their full partici- violation of child’s rights, thus ensuring effective pation in the nation building. The Government implementation of laws and programmes relating had also set up National Trust for Welfare of Per- to children. Eradication of child labour in all oc- sons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retar- cupations and industries is one of the most im- dation and Multiple Disabilities in 2001 and a portant priorities of the Government of India. The National Handicapped Finance and Development National Human Rights Commission and the civil Corporation in 1997 to promote economic devel- Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 21
  22. 22. Section -1 (Article : India and United Nations ) opment activities, including self-employment countries, that has brought them to a stage where programmes, for the benefit of persons with dis- they can set the goals of economic and social de- abilities. velopment for their societies. Struggle Against Colonialism: The purposes of UN Needs Reform the UN Charter include promoting and encour- aging respect for human rights and for fundamen- The UN needs reform. On that everyone agrees. tal freedoms for all without distinction as to race, But there is sharp disagreement on what kind of sex, language, or religion. This was by no means reform is needed and for what purpose. Again and an easy quest. In 1945, when the UN Charter was again over the years, the UN has been reformed – signed, more than 750 million people lived in colo- on average once every eight years. But the pace nies. A half century later, the number is only about has now quickened and reform projects seem al- 1.3 million. India was in the forefront of the most a constant part of the landscape. Founda- struggle against colonialism, apartheid and racial tions, think tanks and blue ribbon commissions discrimination - a struggle that has transformed regularly call for institutional renovation at the the lives of millions of people in Africa and Asia. UN. Secretary Generals frequently re-organize departments and set up new coordinating com- The Charter provisions on Non-Self Governing mittees. NGOs gather to press their reform causes. Territories were given a new thrust when the UN Diplomats negotiate. And from Washington come adopted the landmark 1960 Declaration on the somber warnings that the UN must "reform or die." Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries But after the fireworks, the same problems per- and Peoples. India was a co-sponsor of the Decla- sist – because the shortcomings of the UN are pri- ration. The Declaration solemnly proclaimed the marily rooted in the dysfunctional global order necessity of bringing to a speedy and unconditional and the conflict-prone state system, not in the end, colonialism in all its forms and manifesta- UN's institutional arrangements. tions. Few reformers are willing to admit that the UN's The following year, the Special Committee on the complex and inefficient machinery results from Implementation of the Declaration on deep political disagreements among its members Decolonization was established to study, investi- and between other contending forces in the glo- gate and recommend action to bring an end to bal system. Yet the United States, military super- colonialism. India was elected the first Chairman power and transnational corporate headquarters, of the Decolonization Committee. As a member clearly wants a weak UN with an impossibly small of the Committee of 24, as it came to be called, budget and scarcely any voice in economic mat- India has ceaselessly struggled for an end to colo- ters. Many other nations, to the contrary, want a nialism. India also took up the decolonization is- stronger UN and more effective multilateral policy sue in the Trusteeship Committee, the Special making. Whose "reform" is to prevail? And how Committee on Non-self Governing Territories and will any newly-devised UN institutions be paid the Fourth Committee. for? India supported numerous resolutions in the UN UN Reform debates have revealed deep divides fora on decolonization. India has also raised the between states and among NGOs and other re- issue in NAM and Commonwealth fora. For com- form advocates. While some seek to strengthen ing generations, colonialism may be a part of his- the UN and improve accountability and efficiency, tory: new challenges of tomorrow have to be faced. there are those who seek reform only on their However, it was the struggle against colonialism, terms. The US consistently pushes its own agenda successfully waged in solidarity by the Afro-Asian for change and aims to weaken the UN. Various Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 22
  23. 23. Section -1 (Article : India and United Nations ) areas of UN Reform, include the Security council, Financing of the UN is an additional source for The Economic and Social Council(ECOSOC), The debate. As a solution to the constant financial General Assembly, The Human Rights Council, shortages faced by the organization, many experts The Peacebuilding Commission, Management have suggested Alternative Financing schemes Reform, Responsibility to Protect, , and the cre- such as Global Taxes to improve the UN financial ation of a UN Standing Force. situation and make the organization less depen- dent on government contributios. The Millennium+5 reforms, proposed by the Sec- retary General Kofi Annan in March 2005, were neither ambitious nor far-reaching. Designed to please (or at least not to displease) the superpower, they substantially ignored the most urgent issues – the UN's financial woes, the unilateralism of the superpower, the absence of real disarmament, and the shaky and unjust global economic order. For a time, it seemed that these modest if flawed re- forms might nevertheless be adopted. But as the summit approached, negotiations faltered, due largely to last-minute, far-reaching demands from Washington. In the end, the world leaders ap- (IMP) Get UPSCPORTAL , Jobs, Re- proved an embarrassingly weak document, filled sults, Notification Alerts on Email. mostly with empty platitudes. It remains to be seen how the UN will weather this contentious Step-1: Fill Your Email address in form be- and divisive reform process, and what avenues low. you will get a confirmation email within remain open for a stronger and more effective 10 min. multilateral system. Step-2: Varify your email by clicking on the Over the years, there have been numerous initia- link in the email. (check Inbox and Spam fold- tives to reform the UN. These range from sum- ers) mits of heads of state, to panels of experts, to the reform efforts by UN Secretary Generals. GPF fol- Step-3: Done! Now you will regular Alerts lows and critically analyses the actions of these on your email. UN reform initiatives and monitors subsequent progress. NGOs and businesses are new actors within the United Nations, an organization originally re- served for states. NGOs are increasingly active in policy making at the United Nations, though the relationship between the two remains contentious at times. Although of increasing importance, NGOs do not have a formal role at the UN and have suffered disappointing setbacks due to their limited access. Transnational corporations on the other hand have a more controversial relationship with the UN, as UN and business are gaining a bigger role, putting the integrity of the UN at stake. Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 23
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  25. 25. Section -1 (Article : Fiji Suspended from Commonwealth) Fiji Suspended from Commonwealth Failed to Opening Talks on a Return to Democracy By Sangeeta Gupta Author is an Expert of Various Competitive Examinations The Commonwealth has suspended Fiji after the manded that Fiji commit, by 1 September, to re- Pacific Island nation failed to meet a deadline for joining negotiations with the opposition and to opening talks on a return to de- holding credible elections by mocracy on September 01, October 2010. Mr Sharma said 2009.Commonwealth Secretary that although Cmdr General Kamalesh Sharma said it Bainimarama had reaffirmed was with 'deep regret' and 'sor- "his commitment to the prin- row' that the organisation had to ciples of the Commonwealth", fully suspend Fiji from the he had not met the terms of the grouping of 53 nations, mostly 1 September deadline. He said former British colonies. Fiji had Fiji's suspension was therefore already been suspended from Commonwealth "a step the Commonwealth is now obliged to take, meetings. The tougher sanction means that the and one that it takes in sorrow". Fiji has already country is not eligible for Commonwealth aid and been suspended from the regional Pacific Islands will be barred from the Commonwealth Games. Forum, and some European Union aid to the coun- try has been put on hold. In April, Fiji's president reappointed coup leader Frank Bainimarama as interim prime minister, less Fiji has had a chequered relationship with the than two days after a court ruled his 2006 coup Commonwealth. It was expelled in 1987 after two illegal. President Ratu Josefa Iloilo had previously military coups, but was readmitted 10 years later annulled the 1997 constitution and sacked the when democracy was restored. It was also sus- entire judiciary. Bainimarama, who had promised pended in 2000 for 18 months. The only other an election this year, has now ruled it out until country to be fully suspended in the 2014. Commonwealth ministers said on July 31 Commonwealth's history is Nigeria, during the that Fiji would be fully suspended on September 1 rule of Gen Sani Abacha in 1995. Nigeria returned unless Fiji's rulers committed to re-activating a to the Commonwealth after democratic rule was forum set up for political parties to discuss a re- restored. Pakistan was twice suspended from coun- turn to democracy. They said the dialogue should cil meetings, and Zimbabwe was on course to be lead to a credible election no later than October suspended when President Robert Mugabe pre- 2010. empted the move by walking out himself. Secretary General Sharma said that, although Account of Fiji Bainimarama had sent him a letter re-affirming his commitment to the principles of the Common- Fiji is an island nation in the South Pacific Ocean wealth, his response did not meet the east of Vanuatu, west of Tonga and south of Commonwealth's conditions. According to him, Tuvalu. The country occupies an archipelago of it is hoped that Fiji would take the necessary steps about 322 islands, of which 106 are permanently to restore its full participation in the Common- inhabited, and 522 islets. The two major islands, wealth. The Pacific Islands Forum suspended Fiji Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of from the 16-nation grouping in May. the population. Fiji's main island is known as Viti Levu and it is from this that the name "Fiji" is In a statement, the Commonwealth said it had de- Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 25