Aspirants Times Magazine Vol. 4 - JULY 2009


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Aspirants Times Magazine Vol. 4 - JULY 2009

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Aspirants Times Magazine Vol. 4 - JULY 2009

  1. 1. Vol.4 July 2009 | Free Http:// Presents Aspirants Times India’s First Digital Magazine for IAS Aspirants around the world. HOT TOPIC - Section 377 of the IPC CSE Mains 2009 GS Model Paper Solved 1 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  2. 2. “ We are now 50,000 Members Online Community. Lets work together to make it, one of the best websites in the world. Thanks for your support. ” Founder, www.UPSCPORTAL.COM 2 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  3. 3. INDEX Editorial • Strategy Is Indispensable for Success .............................................................04 SECTION - 1: Articles • Strategy For Mains Examination ....................................................................05 • Union Budget 2009-10 ....................................................................................17 • First BRIC Summit .........................................................................................32 • Shanghai Cooperation Organisation summit .................................................41 • Hindi Article ( ) ............................................................50 SECTION - 2: Hot Topics • Section 377 of the IPC .....................................................................................73 SECTION - 3: Current Relevant Facts........................................................78 SECTION -4: Sports.......................................................................................87 SECTION -5: Awards.....................................................................................91 SECTION - 6: CSE Mains 2009, GS Model Paper Part-1.......................94 3 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  4. 4. Editorial: Strategy Is Indispensable for Success… “Before disclosing details of this volume, fi o al l I ext end m cong r at ul at io to al l o rst f y ns ur readers and members on the crossing of 50000 membership. Now I have become more assured about its future and we are working hard to make “Aspirants Times” better to The Best one.” IAS preliminary results have already been declared and mains examination is going to be held in month of October. Aspirant Times will provide indispensable materials for mains from this issue onward. First and foremost is strategy for doing anything and for civil service examination, where we have cut-throat competition and candidates have to fi ght for each m rk; a fool p oof strat egy a r and plan is very crucial. So keeping this fact in mind, we are providing strategy for mains in this very fourth volume. Under this column, there are Ten Mantras for success. How to fetch good marks, importance of Current affairs, syllabus of GS in part-form with past year questions and sources of study also have been described in detail. Along with strategy, solution of model papers are important contents of this issue. These are not only for your practices but also useful from the exam point of view. These questions may be asked this year. Articles on Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Summit, Yekaterinburg Declaration, Counter-Terrorism Convention and First BRIC Summit are available. These articles are written in a way that its useful for long answer type questions, as well as short answer type questions. Our readers will fi d B n udget 2009- 10 in very com r ehe ns iv m nne r. In th s articl e each and every p e a i thing of this year’s budget is described. Budgetary glossary has also been provided. Besides of these, no compromise have been done in regualar traditional features of Aspirants Times. Personality, News makers, Awards, Sports are continued. A very important topic, Section 377 of the IPC, Fundamental Rights vs Acculturation is covered under the Hot Topics column. Read, understand and become ready to do best in the coming battle. I wish all the best. R. K. Pandey Editor, Magazine 4 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  5. 5. Section -1 (Article Hind Mains Exam Strategy) SECTION - 1 (Article: : CSE Civil Services (Main) Examination-2009 Winning Strategy By R. K. Pandey right decision, right optional, chosen right study mate- rials but ultimately they could not succeed, because of Civil Services in India provide not only jobs for earning their lack in self- confi enc e. D e to lack o sel f-confi- d u f and surviving, but a power seat; from where, one can dence some time they see wrong in choosing options, change the world. Yes, here you can change the face of some time books, some time timing and some time in country, you can eradicate poverty and problems, and their-self. So after deciding, be determined and go for- you can change society. In ward till the process is not completed. this service you execute de- Remember, self confi enc e d d oes n ot cisions and also participate mean over-confi enc e, so be cl ear d in decision making and con- and ready to accept any negative side. tribute in making law. After Self-confi enc e is about b anc e. d al being successful at this exam, your fate is changed Low self-confi enc e a o d nd ver-confi- and the same time you can dent are two extremes. If one is un- change others fate. So ready der-confient , h ll a d taki n risks d e’ voi g to face one of the toughest and stretching himself; and he might hurdle and if you cross it, not try at all. And if he is over-confi- you are the king. dent, he may take on too much risk, stretch himself beyond his capabili- To become a king, you ties, and crash badly. Getting this should have a winning strat- right is a matter of having the right egy, doing hard work systematically and good guidance. amount of confience, fo d unded in r ity. W th th right eal i e Here, through this article, I am trying to make easy the amount of self-confi enc e, o w ll take in o m d ri sks , d ne i f r e toughest examination. Preliminary examination is only stretch oneself and try hard. gateway of mains, nothing more, but main exam is a real test and here each mark not only decide your suc- Time Management: cess but also your ranking. A good ranking means the Last but not least, time management is very important more chance for you to get your dream job. This article to achieve success. It plays very important role in prepa- is useful for those, who are going to appear at main this ration. For this you should divide your study plan in year and it also guides them, who are making plan to parts. Set a goal to complete one or some parts in given appear in coming year. time. If you complete a part in given time you will not feel overburdened and this mental freedom will pro- Ten Success Mantras vide you more understanding and grasping capacity. So make a plan according to your need and convenient Self-Confi enc e: d rather than following others path. Robert Collier says ‘Your chances of success in any un- dertaking can always be measured by your belief in Clarity: yourself.’ Yes self confi enc e p ays m s t im or tant rol e d l o p Candidate must have a clear approach during the prepa- in success of a person. A diffi t and lengt h p ocess cul y r ration and examination. If you have clarity, you will of Civil Services exam demands self-confi enc e b d ecaus e easily overcome of many problems. One should be clear only this can keep you on the right track during the about optionals, study materials, concept, thought, facts long preparation and examination. Many candidates, and at every step. Do not stay in dilemma. After select- who are hard working and intelligent and have taken ing optionals, materials and selection of study portion of syllabus, follow them strictly. 5 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  6. 6. Section -1 (Article Hind Mains Exam Strategy) SECTION - 1 (Article: : CSE Go through the syllabus and past-year Q papers: Sometimes the questions are ‘conceptual’ in nature, Read syllabus past year questions of GS and your two aimed at testing the comprehension levels of the basic optionals carefully, specially past two years. In this way, concepts. Get a list of standard textbooks from the suc- you will understand what and how to read to tackle the cessful candidates, or other sources and also selective questions and also important and less important part of good notes. The right choice of reading material is im- syllabus. Follow the syllabus instead of reading whole portant and crucial. . For subjects like Mathematics and of the book. Choose only those portions of the book Statistics and Geography maps etc, practice is very im- which are part of your syllabus and especially you have portant. One should also practice other subjects and made guess for this year examination. When ever what should not treat the same examination, as an “experi- ever you read, frame questions on them and try to ence gathering” exercise to get a chance for writing present an ideal answer. In this way you can increase mains is a great thing, which you may not get again. understanding and expression. Go through the unsolved papers of the previous papers and solve them to stimulate the atmosphere of A Balanced Approach: the examination. A balanced approach is needed at every step during preparation. Give equal importance to both of optionals Try not to exceed the word limit, as far as possible. Stick- and compulsory papers. Do not neglect any area of syl- ing to the word limit that will save time. Besides, the labus. To get good marks in the exam, on should take numbers of marks you achieve are not going to increase seriously question number 1 and 5 (short notes). While even if you exceed the word limit. It’s the quality that preparing, one must note down, from where short notes matters not the quantity. Revision is very important. can be asked. It will facilitate you in exam hall. In this Revise after a gap. The reason is that you have been way you can write your complete answer in within the preparing for months or years together. It is a human time frame. Many of you often do not take every part of tendency to forget something after some time. Follow General Studies seriously. paragraph writing rather than essay form. A new point should start with a new paragraph. It is easy to write Such step may futile, so read every portion of GS and and understand.. If the question needs answer in point prepare them well. In your answer, balanced view is format give it a bullet format. Try to maintain unifor- important and at the same time one should give approxi- mity in the writing throughout the paper. Under time mately equal time to all long answer type questions. Do pressure, the script should not go from bad to worse in not write some answer very long and some very short. the later stages of the answer sheets. This may irritate the evaluator. Stick to the time frame. Speed is the very Develop Writing Skill: essence of this examination. Hence, time management Writing skills play an important role in the IAS Mains. is very crucial. For developing the writing skills, write Most of the candidates appearing for the Mains exami- model answers at the time of preparation. This helps nation have a lot of knowledge, but lack writing skills. get into the habit of writing under time pressure in the You should be able to present all the information/knowl- examination. Develop and follow your own style of writ- edge in a coherent and logical manner, as expected by ing. Try not to be repetitive and maintain a fl w in th o e the examiner. For example: Quoting with facts and sub- style of your writing. stantiating your answer with related concepts and em- phasizing your point of view. Prepare a standard an- swer to the question papers of the previous years. This will also make your task easy in examination hall. Do not neglect the concepts. 6 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  7. 7. Section -1 (Article Hind Mains Exam Strategy) SECTION - 1 (Article: : CSE Importance of General Studies Language Papers: Though, language papers are of qualifying nature only, Many candidates, particularly those with a professional on should also give some time. Take the last fi e y v ear degree in science, often ignore serious preparation of papers and solve them, later either check yourself or GS and focus mainly on their optional subjects. Such asked to do so to a teacher or any friend. If you get attitude is more like a bad gamble. Economy, Science & more than 50 percent marks, then I think no reason to Technology and Statistical Analysis are the areas that worry. But if you get less than 40 marks, you should can pose problems in scoring. If you have prepared give some time. For this, reading news papers and any economy for your Prelims, doing it for the mains must grammar book is suffi ent . If o is very poor , h or ci ne e not be diffi t. St at istical ana l y is h s to b pr act ised cul s a e she must prepare well on regular basis. with the help of previous years' solved questions given in all the guides as also the NCERT's Statistical Analy- Current Affairs: sis. It plays very decisive role in your success. Why is it decisive? Because, if you are good in current affairs, you One year regular reading of a national daily, India Year can write better answer of Polity, Economy, Science, book relevant NCERT books and magazines for the pur- Geography questions in GS. Beside these it helps you in pose are the basic necessities that you must go through. the optionals like Political Science, Public Administra- Scoring in GS is mathematical and any additional score tion, Sociology, Anthropology and others many gained through serious preparations must be tried. optionals. Do not forget that it also may become a deci- sive factor in essay writing in the personality test. Pre- Do Not Forget Essay: paring current affairs is very tedious job, so during the Where each number is important to give the shape of whole preparation, you must develop your own meth- your future, how can you miss manage Essay, which odology. But there is some common approach, which carries 200 marks. Essay paper was re-introduced in one must not forget to be good at the current affairs. 1993, created a sort of storm among the aspirants. Ru- mors was spread that the step had been taken to neu- To study current affairs, it is essential to read one na- tralize the scoring pattern which is highly skewed in tional newspaper, Mainstream, one from Frontline, In- favour of some subjects. Though there is no denying dia Today and Outlook and one from any competitive the fact that many subjects like Maths, Physics, Com- magazine. When you are studying the round up of na- merce etc do not encourage the development of lan- tional and international affairs, efforts should not be guage skill. Those of you with such an academic back- merely taking up the information but also to under- ground but a natural fl r for w i tin d ai r g evel o ped d i n ur g stand the issues involved. Go into the background of school or college days, should be defi i tel y a a a n t n dvan- events. for example, the recent Lok Sabha elections, tage. racial attack in Australia threw up many issues. Get to know these issues and be clear about them so that you Writing an essay is an art and if you are not naturally can answer questions on them. inclined to write that way, you will have to spend at least some time in practising; more so because many of Study Idea for GS the issues asked in the form of essay are the ones that you generally prepare for your GS where you limit your The books published by the NCERT are important preparation upto about 250 words. Candidates are ad- source material. Take up the text-books for classes IX, vised to keep a thorough eye on all the happenings of X, XI and XII. Beside it, some books published by NBT the last one year with critical evaluation of those which and India Year Book is also useful. But only reading could be asked in the form of an essay. 7 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  8. 8. Section -1 (Article Hind Mains Exam Strategy) SECTION - 1 (Article: : CSE these books will not serve the purpose. What is crucial is that the person taking up self-study must pick up past question papers and write down the answers to ques- tions asked therein. A practice in writing is what is re- quired to attempt the paper. Many students make the mistake of studying for hours but have no practice in writing down the answers, which costs heavily during the exam. The skill required is that of organising the arguments and making a coherent answer from the di- verse material. One more thing that must be kept in mind is that the answers must be a little different from others and must have some extra bit that is missed out by others. This is not diffi t if o h s u cul ne a nderstood th issue in d h e ept . One important characteristic of the Civil Services Mains Exam is that the questions do not ask for mere informa- tion as a reply, but seek analysis backed with opinion from the candidates. Usually, one gets the impression that one knows everything but thoughts do not fl w o Advertise your out naturally as one puts pen to paper. Therefore, writ- Business Here ing down the answers is an important facet of the prepa- ration. Contact Us Online: Next thing is that one must carefully read the questions in order to make out what the examiner is asking. After this important is to organise one's thoughts before writ- ing and the sequence of the answer should be from the most important/potent aspect to less important aspects. If you do not have someone to check your answers, keep them away and after a gap of time, read them again. You will discover many mistakes, which earlier you could not. Analyse the answers in order to improve them. This exercise of re-analysis of answers improves the ability to be precise. One of the important require- ments of this exam is that the answers should be crisp and to-the-point. 8 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  9. 9. Section -1 (Article Hind Mains Exam Strategy) SECTION - 1 (Article: : CSE PAPER - I (Syllabus, Related Questions and Strategy) (a) Age of Sangam Literature (a) History of Modern India and Indian (b) Bhakti (c) Ashtadhyayi of Panini Culture (d) Charvakas (e) Ajivikas The History of Modern India will cover history of the (f) Gandhara Art Country from about the middle of nineteenth century (g) Mlechchas and would also include questions on important (h) Lingayats personalities who shaped the Freedom Movement and (i) Megasthenes Social reforms. The part relating to Indian Culture (j) R. C. Dutt will cover all aspects of Indian Culture from the (k) Nagarjunakonda ancient to modern times. (1) Pastoralism (m) Rudramadevi Questions (n) Sati (0) Ramanuja 1. Answer anyone of the following questions (in about 250 words): 30---2007 Study Material -Topper’s Choice (a) What was the character of social religious reforms For the complete understanding of India's freedom in the 19th Century and how did they contribute to the struggle, NBT'S, India's freedom struggle by Bipin national awakening in India? Chandra and Barun De's books are important and 12th class N.C.E.R.T. From the period 1939-1947, (b) The crisis of the colonial order during 1919 and 1939 History spectrum is comprehensive, it is also helpful was directly linked to the constitutional reforms, disil- for specifi topi cs such as evol u io o p ess, educa- c t n f r lusionment and militant anti-colonial struggles. Eluci- tion etc. date. This is also handy for fi a l revi sio 2 m rkers - n eds n n. a e 2. Answer any two of the following questions (in to be focused from all the three periods- Ancient, Me- about 150 words each) : 15x2 = 30---2007 dieval and Modern. Now focus should be on art, cul- ture, religion, science, rather than on political person- (a) What are the salient features of the Government of alities. India Acts of 1858 and 1909? (b) Geography of India (b) Do you think Mahatma Gandhi's support to Khilafat Movement had diluted his secular credentials? Give your In this part, questions will be on the physical, economic argument based on the assessment of events. and social geography of India. (c) Evaluate the contribution of revolutionary terror- Questions ism represented by Bhagat Singh to the cause of India’s Struggle of independence. 4. Answer any two of the following questions (in about 125 words each) : l0x2=20--------2007 3. Write about the following (not 20 words each) : 2x15 = 30---------------------2007 (a) Explain how the Himalayan and the Tibetan 9 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  10. 10. Section -1 (Article Hind Mains Exam Strategy) SECTION - 1 (Article: : CSE highlands play an important role in the development of 7. Answer anyone of the following questions (in about the South West monsoon. 250 words): 30----------------2007 (b) Technological changes have brought in a major shift (a). What is regionalism ? In which way regionalism in the use of roads as transport corridors in India. How has affected the Indian Polity. far do you agree with this view? (b). what are the Main determination of voting behav- (c) Explain the nature and causes of growing slum prob- ior in India? lems in the metropolitan cities of India. 8. Answer any two of the following questions (in 5. Write notes on the following (in about 20 words about 150 words each): 15x2 = 30---------2007 each): 2 x 5= 10-----------------2007 (a) Special Economic Zone (SEZ) (a) What are the exceptions when the President of In- (b) Inceptisol dia is not bound by the aid and advice of the Council of (c) Jarawas Ministers? (d) Indira Point (b) What is pro tem Speaker? (e) Causes of Chambal Ravines (e) Under what circumstances, Parliament may legis- late on State subjects? Study Material -Topper’s Choice 9. Answer the following questions (in about 20 words Class XII books of Geography (NCERT), Mains Guide each): 2 x 5 = 10------------2007 in Geography and a good atlas. (a). What is criminalization of politics? (C) Indian Polity (b). How president of India elected? (c). what is casting vote? (d). what is the difference between council of Minister This part will include questions on the Constitution of and Cabinet? India, Political system and related matters. (e). what is the importance of Right to constitutional remedies? Questions Study Material -Topper’s Choice 6. Answer anyone of the following questions (in about 250 words) : 30 ------------------2007 For polity I had made notes from Vazi Ram material and Magazines. (Special issues of Polity). For particular (a) What is a Constitution? What are the main sources topics, DD Basu is authentic and reliable book. of the Indian Constitution? (b) Bring out the differences between the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy. Dis- cuss some of the measures taken by the Union and State Governments for the implementation of the Directive Principles of State Policy. 10 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  11. 11. Section -1 (Article Hind Mains Exam Strategy) SECTION - 1 (Article: : CSE (d) Current National issues and topics of (b) Prime Minister's 5-point agenda for India's devel- opment as a knowledge society. social relevance (c) The Lokpal Bill. This part is intended to test the Candidate's awareness 13. Write short notes on the following ( in about 20 of current national issues and topics of social relevance words each ) 2 x 5 = 10----------2007 in the present-day India, such as the following. (a) Yakshagana Demography & Human Resource & related issues. (h) PACE. Behavioural & Social issues & Social Welfare problems, (c) Footloose Industries such as child labour, gender equality, adult literacy, re- (d) The Statue of Liberty habilitation of the handicapped and other deprived seg- (e) Genome ments of the society, drug abuse, public health etc. Study Material -Topper’s Choice Law enforcement issues, human rights, corruption in public life, communal harmony etc. Internal Security For Current Affairs, National and Social Issues, the need and related issues. Environmental issues, ecological pres- is to read National Newspaper such as Hindu regularly. ervation, conservation of natural resources and national Issues such as child labour, gender inequality, Poverty, heritage. Problems of Senior Citizens, should be focused on, and 2 or 3 pages on each of these above topics should be The role of national institutions, their relevance and prepared. For this Manorama Year Book and Yojna need for change. would be helpful. Questions PAPER - II 10. Answer anyone of the following questions (in about 250 words): 30----------2007 Syllabus, Related Questions and Strategy (a). what were the main recommendations of the Plat- form for Action (PFA) adopted at the Beij g W m n in o e Conference 1995? (a) India and the World (b) Discuss the steps to get rid of child labour in India. This part is intended to test candidate's awareness of 11. Answer any two of the following questions (in India's relationship with the world in various spheres, about 125 words each): l0x2=20--------207 such as the following:- Foreign Affairs (a) What is stealth technology? External Security and related matters (b) Differentiate between Natural and Cultural heritage. Nuclear Policy (c) What is value-based politics? Indians abroad 12. Write notes on any two of the following (in about Questions 125 words each) : I0x2=20---------2007 1. Answer any two of the following (answer to each (a) Integrated Child Services (lCDS) Development qu esti on s houl d be in about 1 50 words ): 11 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  12. 12. Section -1 (Article Hind Mains Exam Strategy) SECTION - 1 (Article: : CSE 15x2=30-2007 Questions (a) Indo-Russian Defence Co-operation 4. Answer anyone of the following (in about 250 (b) India's response, to political crisis In Bangladesh words): 30--2007 (c) Elaborate on India's Nuclear Doctrine (a). What is Dumping? Evaluate the remedial measures 2. Write about the following (answer to each ques- taken by Government of India vis-à-vis WTO provi- tion should be in about 20 words): 2x5=I 0-2007 sions regarding dumping. (a) SAFTA (b) Comment on the relationship between credit avail- (b) India and East Asia Summit (EAS) ability and agricultural growth in India. (c) Shanghai Cooperation Organization, (S.C.O.) (d) Panchsheel in India's Foreign Policy 5. Answer any two of the following (answer to each (e) Relevance of NAM question should be in about 150 words )--2007 3. Write about the following (answer to each ques- (a). What is the meaning and aim of social forestry ? tion should be in about 20 words) : 2x5=10--2007 What are the main weakness noticed in social forestry programme? (a) Pravasi Bhartiya Bima Yojana, 2006 (b) Indian All-Women Contingent to Liberia (b). Bring out the main objective of Rastriya Krishi Bima (c) Madheshis in Nepal Yojana. The scheme is being implemented by which (d) Know India Programme (KIP) agency. (e) Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs (c). Explain Mega Food park Scheme of Government of Study Material -Topper’s Choice India. For International Relations- both related to India and 6. Write about the following (answer to each ques- the world and International Politics, I had, relied on tion should be in about 20 words ) : 2x15=30--2007 coaching class notes, but for comprehensive prepara- tion, 12th Standard N.C.E.R.T. of Political (a) Explain the term Merit Goods Science - particular chapters- related to India's Foreign (b) What is Cheap Money? Policy should be focused. (c) What is Countervailing Duty? (d) What is Hot Money? b) Indian Economy (e). Explain the Concept Trickle Down Theory (f) What is Stagfl io at n? (g) What is Engel's Law? In this part, questions will be on the planning and eco- (h) Meaning of CCIL nomic development in India, economic & trade issues, (i) What is Administered Price? Foreign Trade, the role and functions of I.M.F., World (j) What is Venture Capital? Bank, W.T.O. etc. (k) Explain the term Balance on Current Account (I) What is Consolidated Fund? (m) What is Budget Defi t? ci (n) Explain the term Most Favored Nations (0) Meaning of Capital- Output Ratio 12 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  13. 13. Section -1 (Article Hind Mains Exam Strategy) SECTION - 1 (Article: : CSE (b) BEMs Study Material -Topper’s Choice (c) IAEA (d) BIMSTEC N.C.E.R.T. 11th Standard (New) and Uma Kapila for (e) ECJ understanding the problems of Indian Economy have been very helpful for in depth analysis of Indian Study Material -Topper’s Choice Economy. For two markers - India Year Book and Pratiyogta Darpan special issues are important. The cur- Any Book on International Organization such as UN, rent happening can be studied through Economic sur- Regional Organizations, Human Rights Organization vey and Newspaper. etc, Frontline, World Focus etc (c) International Affairs & Institutions (d) Developments in the fi d o sci enc e el f & technology, communications and This part will include questions on important events in space world affairs and on international institutions. Questions In this part, questions will test the candidate's aware- ness of the developments in the fi d o sci enc e & tech- el f 7. Write about any two of the following (in about nology, communications and space and also basic ideas 150 words each): 15x2=30 of computers. (a) Impact of globalization on state system and its insti- Questions tutions 10. Answer any one of the following in about 250 (b) SAARC Summit 2007--2007 words: 30 --2007 (a). Explain the phenomenon of ozone depletion, its (c) The UN conference on Environment and Develop- cause and effects . What efforts are needed to reduce it. ment (The Earth Summit) (b). what do you understanding by the term 8. Write about the following (in about 20 words each): ‘biodiversity’? Examine the cause and consequence of 2x5 = 10--2007 degeneration of biodiversity? (a) G-8 Summit 2007 (b) Hyde Act of 2006 11. Answer any two of the following (answer for each (c) Global Governance question should be in about 150 words) : 15x2=30 -- (d) Operation Silence 2007 (e) SAARC Human Rights Report 2006 (a) What are the alterative fuels available for the trans- 9. Write about the following by expanding and ex- port sector? Discuss their characteristics, advantages 'and plaining the objectives (in about 20 Words each): disadvantages in their utilization. 2x5=10 --2007 (b) Explain the objectives and the current achievements (a) ICT4D of human genome project. 13 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  14. 14. Section -1 (Article Hind Mains Exam Strategy) SECTION - 1 (Article: : CSE (c) Discuss the missile technology initiatives undertaken by India. (i) Put the above information in a proper table with title. 12. Answer all the fi e (in about 20 w r ds each) : v o (ii) Calculate the increase in the percentage of the fe- 2x5=10 --2007 male workers belonging to the union in that fi e y v ear period. (a) What is fi a l l ? rew (b) What is mal ware ? (b) The marks obtained by 20 students in a subject are given: 8 (c) What do the following stand for? 32, 62, 72, 46, 52, 74, 53, 42, 58, 61, 59, 46, 36, 76, 58, (i) MPEG 77, 62, 48, 36, 39. (ii) ISP (iii) HTML Form a frequency distribution table with class interval (iv) ASCII 10. Also Draw the Histogram. (d) What is Root kit? 14. (a) For the following distribution of statistics test (e) What is computer architecture? grades, construct a frequency polygon and answer the following: 8 --2007 Study Material -Topper’s Choice (i) How many test grades are greater than 87 ? Science and Technology from Hindu, Yojna and Vaji Ram Notes. (ii) What percentage of test grades are greater than 83? (e) Statistical analysis, graphs and (iii) What percentage of test grades are lower than72? diagrams (iv) What percentage of test grades are between 72 and 79 (inclusive ) This part will include exercises to test the candidate's ability to draw common sense conclusions from infor- Test Grades: mation presented in statistical, graphical or 73, 92, 57, 89, 70, 95, 75, 80, 47, 88, 47, 48, 64, 86, 79, diagrammatical form and to point out defi enc i es, lim - ci i 72, 71, 77, 93, 55, 75, 50, 53, 75, 85, 50, 82, 45, 40, 82, tations or inconsistencies therein. 60, 89, 79, 65, 54, 93, 60, 83, 59 Questions (b). Construct an appropriate diagram to show the following data of a university: 8 --2007 13. (a) In the year 2000 out of a total 1750 workers of a factory 1200 workers were members of a union. Course No. of Students: The number of women employed was 200 of which Engineering 440 175 did not belong to the union. In 2005 , the num- Arts 220 ber of union workers increased to 1510 of which 1290 Agriculture 120 were men . On the other hand the number of non Home Science 80 union workers fell down to 208 of which 180 were Economic 60 men. 8 --2007 Total = 920 14 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  15. 15. 15. (a) What do you understand by 2 --2007 (i) Primary and secondary data (ii) Data classifi io cat n (iii) Measures of central tendency (iv) Characteristics of good average (b) The mean wage of 100 laborers working in a factory running two shifts of 60 and 40 workers respectively is Rs. 38. The mean wage of 60 labourers working in the morning shift is Rs 40. Find the mean wage of 40 Labourers working in the evening shift. 2 --2007 (c) The mean age of a group of 5 boys is 16 years. Another boy joins the group and then the mean age of the group becomes 18 years. How old is the newcomer? 2 --2007 (d) Arithmetic means of two completely different sets of values may be same. When extreme values are taken into consideration, the arithmetic mean is largely affected. Is it merit or demerit of arithmetic mean and give reasons for your statement? 2--2007 Study Material -Topper’s Choice Spectrum is good. Practice last 10 year questions properly. Time management is the most important thing in Statis- tics. This Article is Available Online Also:- Advertise your Business Here Contact Us Online: 15 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  16. 16. Successful Tips » Test you self with the revision-type Model Test Papers. » Do not dishearten by initial low score. » Emphasis on your weak-spots, same time do (IMP) Get UPSCPORTAL , Jobs, Re- not forget to improve your plus portion. sults, Notification Alerts on Email. » Test yourself at a regular interval. Step-1: Fill Your Email address in form be- » Make a mental note of areas you have cov- low. you will get a confirmation email within ered and what remains to be covered. 10 min. » Be analytical in response. » Do not overstretch yourself area of cover- Step-2: Varify your email by clicking on the link in the email. (check Inbox and Spam fold- age-wise. ers) » Revise your stuff a number of times. » A calm mental state is most important. Step-3: Done! Now you will regular Alerts » Since there is negative marking in the exam on your email. now, it is suggested to leave any questions that you are not sure of, unanswered. » Do not get stuck at any question. Move on from question to question and attempt the diffi- cult ones at the end. 16 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  17. 17. Section -11(Article Hind SECTION - (Article: : Union Budget 2009-10) Union Budget 2009-10 Major Allocations to Boost Up Economy By Sangeeta Gupta ishing of surcharge, fringe benefi tax a c mo d- t nd om Author is an expert of various competitive examina- ity transaction tax. Extension of tax benefi u t nder tions. Sections 10A and 10B are also welcome though this could have been for a longer period of three years, Minister of Finance Sh. Pranab Mukherjee has which would have provided more visibility. The presented Union Budget 2009-10 on July 6, 2009 in industry’s demand for reduction in rates of corpo- the Lok Sabha. This Budget must be looked at rate tax has unfortunately not been accepted this against the larger back- time. The decision to in- drop of the unprec- troduce a full-fl edged edented global economic GST from April 1, 2010 crisis. Finance minister is perhaps the most no- had to do a fi e b anc - n al table announcement in ing act between fi scal the area of indirect taxes. compulsions and the Besides this however, need to provide contin- there is no relief for the Courtesy: PIB.NIC.IN ued stimulus to the struggling medium and economy. In the given heavy commercial ve- circumstances, he has hicle industry and the done reasonably well automotive component though clearly he has not sector. With a time lag, been able to meet the ex- private investment pectations of all sections should resume, marking in the economy. The focus of the Budget has been the return to high economic growth. The worries on infrastructure development, agriculture, exports, in this regard are two-fold. Firstly, the nature of the social sector and education and skill develop- the government’s borrowing programme and its im- ment. The initiatives in these areas are largely aimed pact on the interest rates and the role of private at supporting short-term economic revival. In- investments. The second one arises out of the high creased allocation for highways, urban infrastruc- quantum of the outlay without an attempt to ex- ture, power and the national gas grid are welcome. tract accountability and effi enc y from th im l e- ci e p However, the relief to exporters could have been mentation machinery. The feel good for the people more. comes from lowering of the threshold of personal income tax. Corporate will surely welcome the abo- The fi a nc e m n ster h s pr opos ed m di u - term n i i a e m lition of the irritating and unproductive FBT and stimulus for the economy through institutional re- will not dispute the logic of MAT. A Budget that is forms. We will have to wait for specifi in a cs reas of positive for the economy is good for industry. Ex- petroleum product pricing, taxes, disinvestment and tension of weighted expenditure deduction for in- the proposal to raise the threshold for non promot- house R&D is welcome. ers’ shareholding in listed companies, though. In the area of direct taxes, fi a nc e m n ster h s sig- n i i a The government has shown foresight by provision- nifi ly m t th in try’ s expect at io b abol - cant e e dus n y ing to keep the banks and insurance under public 17 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  18. 18. Section -11(Article Hind SECTION - (Article: : Union Budget 2009-10) sector control under the present recessionary sce- terim Budget for 2009-10, he had stated that the nario. The emphasis on the social sector develop- new Government would need to anchor its policies ment is in line with the government’s mantra of for 2009-10, in a medium term perspective that inclusive growth. Special emphasis on education is would have to: a welcome step. The provision for the Scheme ‘Mis- sion in Education through ICT’ has been increased (a) sustain a growth rate of at least 9 per cent per to Rs 900 crore and will create a better talent fl wo annum over an extended period of time; in the years to come. The speed of progress —in talent assessment, training needs analysis for a range (b) strengthen the mechanisms for inclusive growth of services sectors including IT and development of for creating about 12 million new work opportuni- a new technology architecture which would sup- ties per year; port learner centric education by connecting cam- puses, content specialists and the student commu- (c) reduce the proportion of people living below nity will now be possible by the up-gradation for poverty line to less than half from current levels by Polytechnics under the Skill Development Mission 2014; for which allocations have also been increased. The enhancement of overall Plan Budget for higher edu- (d) ensure that Indian agriculture continues to grow cation by Rs 2,000 crore over interim budget esti- at an annual rate of 4 per cent; mates and allocation of Rs 2,113 crore for IITs and NITs is just one of many initiatives our country (e) increase the investment in infrastructure to more needs—especially in J&K, North East, and other than 9 per cent of GDP by 2014; states to reduce digital divide. New projects such as (f) support Indian industry to meet the challenge modernisation of the employment exchanges and of global competition and sustain the growth mo- unique identifi io c cat n ard w th p ic p iv e p i ubl r at art- mentum in exports; nership also focuses on effi enc y o d iv ci f el ery o gf ov- ernment programmes and is an important step in (g) strengthen and improve the economic regula- ushering greater transparency in public decision- tory framework in the country; making process. (h) expand the range and reach of social safety nets Union Budget Speech: In his Budget speech fianc e n by providing direct assistance to vulnerable sections; minister said that the Just 140 days back, he had the privilege to present the Interim Budget for 2009- (i) strengthen the delivery mechanism for primary 10. It is a rare honour that he has been called upon health care facilities with a view to improve the to present the regular budget after the new Gov- preventive and curative health care in the country; ernment assumed offi T C ngres s-led U A ce. he o P Government has come back to power with a re- (j) create a competitive, progressive and well regu- newed mandate. As Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan lated education system of global standards that Singh, said recently It is a mandate for continuity, meets the aspiration of all segments of the society; stability and prosperity. It is a mandate for inclu- and sive growth and equitable development. In the In- 18 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  19. 19. Section -11(Article Hind SECTION - (Article: : Union Budget 2009-10) (k) move towards providing energy security by pur- suing an Integrated Energy Policy. The structure of India economy has changed rap- idly in the last ten years. External trade and exter- The Government recognizes the challenges that this nal capital fl w are an i m or tant part of the os p task entails, particularly at a time when the world economy and so is the contribution of the services is still struggling with an unprecedented fi a nc i al n sector to the GDP at well over 50 per cent. The crisis and an economic slowdown that has also af- share of merchandise trade (exports plus imports) fected India . The fi cha l leng e is to l ead th rst e as a proportion of GDP has more than doubled over economy back to the high GDP growth rate of 9 the past decade to 38.9 per cent in 2008-09. Simi- per cent per annum at the earliest. Growth of in- larly, trade in goods and services taken together has come is important in itself, but it is as important also doubled to 47 per cent during this period. Gross for the resources that it brings in. These resources capital fl w ros e to a peak of over 9 per cent of os provide the means to bridge the critical gaps that GDP in 2007-08 before falling in the wake of the remain in our development efforts, particularly with global fi a nc i al crisis. T signi fi n he cant in eas e i n cr regard to the welfare of the vulnerable segments of the infl w of for ei gn capi tal is im or tant , not so o p Indian population. The second challenge is to much for bridging the domestic savings-investment deepen and broaden the agenda for inclusive de- gap, but for facilitating the intermediation of fi an- n velopment; and to ensure that no individual, com- cial resources to meet the growing needs of the munity or region is denied the opportunity to par- economy. ticipate in and benefi from th d t e evel o e nt p o- pm r cess. The third challenge is to re-energize govern- This growing integration of the Indian economy ment and improve delivery mechanisms. Our in- with the rest of the world has brought new oppor- stitutions must provide high quality public services, tunities and also new challenges. It has made the security and the rule of law to all citizens with trans- task of sustaining high growth more complex. Over parency and accountability. the past month, we have critically evaluated Government’s efforts at both short term economic Overview of the Economy: The principal growth recovery as well as medium term economic growth. driver in this period has been private investment, The economic recovery and growth is a coopera- which has been predominantly funded by domes- tive effort of the Central and State Governments. tic resources. During the year 2008-09, there has been a dip in the growth rate of GDP from an aver- Towards Economic Revival age of over 9 per cent in the previous three fi scal year to 6.7 per cent. It has affected the pace of job Short-term measures: To counter the negative fall- creation in certain sectors of the economy and the out of the global slowdown on the Indian economy, investment sentiments of the business community. the Government responded by providing three fo- It has also resulted in considerably lower revenue cused fi scal stim l u packages in th for m of tax u s e growth for the government. Another feature of the relief to boost demand and increased expenditure year 2008-09 was a sharp rise in the wholesale price on public projects to create employment and pub- index to nearly 13% in August 2008 and an equally lic assets. The RBI took a number of monetary eas- sharp fall close to 0% in March 2009. ing and liquidity enhancing measures to facilitate fl w o fu o f nds from th fianci al sy emt ome t th e n st e e 19 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  20. 20. Section -11(Article Hind SECTION - (Article: : Union Budget 2009-10) needs of productive sectors. This fi scal accom - mo current budget. To improve the lot of the urban dation led to an increase in fi scal deficit from 2 .7 poor, Ministry proposed to enhance the allocation per cent in 2007-08 to 6.2 per cent of GDP in 2008- for housing and provision of basic amenities to ur- 09. The difference between the actuals of 2007-08 ban poor to Rs.3,973 crore in the current years bud- and 2008-09 constituted the total fi scal stim l u . u s get. This includes the provision for Rajiv Awas This fiscal stim l u a 3 5 o G u s t . % f DP a c rent m r- t ur a Yojana (RAY), a new scheme announced in the ket prices for 2008-09 amounts to Rs.1,86,000 crore. address of the President of India. This scheme, the These measures were effective in arresting the fall parameters of which are being worked out, is in- in growth rate of GDP in 2008-09 and we achieved tended to make the country slum free in the fi e v a growth of 6.7 per cent. There are signs of revival year period. in the domestic industry and the foreign investors have also returned to the Indian market in the May- Brihan Mumbai Storm Water Drainage Project jun,2009. (BRIMSTOWA) Infrastructure Development To address the problem of fl odi n in M m ai , o g u b Brihan Mumbai Storm Water Drainage Project To stimulate public investment in infrastructure, (BRIMSTOWA) was initiated in 2007. The entire government has set up the India Infrastructure Fi- estimated cost of the project at Rs.1,200 crore is nance Company Limited (IIFCL) as a special pur- being funded through Central assistance. A sum of pose vehicle for providing long term fi a nc i al as- n Rs.500 crore has been released for this project upto sistance to infrastructure projects. Government will 2008-09. Government have enhanced the provision ensure that IIFCL is given greater fl b lity to a exi i g- for this project from Rs.200 crore in Interim BE to gressively fulfi its m ndat e. l a Rs.500 crore to expedite the completion of the project. Highway and Railways: The allocation during the current year to National Highways Authority of Power: The Accelerated Power Development and India (NHAI) for the National Highways Develop- Reform Programme (APDRP) is an important ment Programme (NHDP) is being stepped up by scheme for reducing the gap between power de- 23 per cent over the 2008-09 (BE). Government mand and supply. Government has proposed to in- have also increased the allocation for the Railways crease the allocation for this scheme to Rs.2,080 from Rs.10,800 crore made in the Interim Budget crore, a steep increase of 160 per cent above the for 2009-10 to Rs.15,800 crore. allocation in the BE of 2008-09. Urban Infrastructure: The Jawaharlal Nehru Na- Gas: With the recent fi d o n t u al g in th K n f a r as e G tional Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) has been Basin on the Eastern offshore of the country, the an important instrument for refocusing the atten- indigenous production of Natural Gas is set to double tion of the State governments on the importance of with natural gas emerging as an important source urban infrastructure. In recognition of the role of of energy. LNG infrastructure in the country is also JNNURM, the allocation for this scheme is being being expanded. Government has proposed to de- stepped up by 87 per cent to Rs.12,887 crore in the velop a blueprint for long distance gas highways leading to a National Gas Grid. This would facili- 20 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  21. 21. Section -11(Article Hind SECTION - (Article: : Union Budget 2009-10) tate transportation of gas across the length and to make the following changes in the scheme: breadth of the country. » Services received by exporters from goods trans- Agricultural Development port agents and commission agents, where the li- ability to pay service tax is ab initio on the exporter, Agriculture has been the mainstay of Indian would be exempted from service tax. Thus, there economy with 60 per cent of our population deriv- would be no need for the exporter to fi p th rst ay e ing their sustenance from it. In the recent past, the tax and later claim refund. sector has recorded a growth of about 4 per cent per annum with substantial increase in plan alloca- » For other services received by exporters, the ex- tions and capital formation in the sector. Agricul- emption would be operated through the existing ture credit fl w w s R . 2 8 0 cror e in 2 o a s , 7, 00 008- 09. refund mechanism based on self-certificatio o th n f e The target for agriculture credit fl w for th y o e ear documents where such refund is below 0.25 per cent 2009-10 is being set at Rs.3,25,000 crore. To achieve of fob value, and certifi io of docum nt s by a cat n e this, Government has proposed to continue the in- Chartered Accountant for value of refund exceed- terest subvention scheme for short term crop loans ing the above limit. to farmers for loans upto Rs.3 lakh per farmer at the interest rate of 7 per cent per annum. for this Budget Estimate 2009-10 year, the Government shall pay an additional sub- vention of 1 per cent as an incentive to those farm- » Fiscal defi t as a p ci ercent age o G f DP is p oj ect ed r ers who repay their short term crop loans on sched- at 6.8 per cent compared to 2.5 per cent in B.E. ule. Thus, the interest rate for these farmers will 2008-09 and 6.2 per cent as per provisional accounts come down to 6 per cent per annum. For this, gov- 2008-09. ernment is making an additional Budget provision of Rs.411 crore over Interim BE. » Increase in Non-plan expenditure is mainly due to implementation of Sixth Central Pay Commis- Service tax: It is an international practice to zero- sion recommendations, increased food subsidy and rate exports. To achieve this objective, a scheme higher interest payment arising out of larger fiscal was announced in 2007, granting refund of service defi t in 2 ci 008- 09. tax paid on certain taxable services used after the clearance of export goods from the factory. For some » Interest payments estimated at Rs.2,25,511 crore time now, the exporting community has been ex- constituting about 36 per cent of Non-plan revenue pressing dissatisfaction over the diffi ties faced cul expenditure in B.E. 2009-10. in obtaining such refunds. Several procedural sim- » Subsidies up from Rs.71,431 crore in B.E. 2008- plifi io at tem t ed i n th past ha ve al so not cat ns p e 09 to Rs.1,11,276 crore in B.E. 2009-10. yielded satisfactory results. The solution seems to lie in placing greater trust on the claims fi by led » Outlay for Defence up from Rs.1,05,600 crore in the exporters. B.E. 2008-09 to Rs.1,41,703 crore in B.E. 2009-10. Keeping this in view, Government has proposed » Gross Budgetary Support for Annual Plan 2009- 21 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  22. 22. Section -11(Article Hind SECTION - (Article: : Union Budget 2009-10) 10 enhanced by Rs.40,000 crore over Interim B.E. pct hike from 2008-09 budgetary allocation 2009-10.. » Service tax imposed on certain legal services » State Governments to be permitted to borrow ad- » Customs duty to be reduced on drugs for heart ditional 0.5 per cent of their GSDP by relaxing the treatment fiscal d eficit target u de r FR f rom 3 .5 per cent n BM » Mobile phone accessories to become cheaper to 4 per cent of their GSDP. This will enable the » Branded jewellery to become cheaper States to borrow Rs.21,000 crore additionally over Interim B.E. 2009-10. » Customs duty on bio-diesel reduced » Tax holiday textile units extended » Gross tax receipts budgeted at Rs.6,41,079 crore » Customs duty on gold and silver import increased in B.E. 2009-10 compared to Rs.6,87,715 crore in » Custom duty on gold re-imposed B.E. 2008-09. » Small businesses exempt from advance tax » Non-tax revenue receipts estimated at Rs.1,40,279 » Overall customs and excise duty structure main- crore in B.E. 2009-10 compared to Rs.95,785 crore tained in B.E. 2008-09. » To impose 5 pct customs duty on set top boxes » Revenue defi t p oj ect ed at 4 8 p cent o G ci r . er f DP » Custom duty on LCD panels halved in B.E. 2009-10 compared to 1 per cent in B.E. 2008- » Tax holiday to natural gas extended 09 and 4.6 per cent as per provisional accounts of » Anonymous funds to charitable bodies get tax 2008-09 relief Union Budget Main Features » MAT rate hiked to 15% of book profi t » Commodities Transaction Tax to be abolished » Total budget expenditure for 2009-10 will be Rs » Effort is to improve tax collection by eliminating 10,28,032 cr distortions in tax system and expanding the base » Exemption limit for income tax raised by Rs 10,000 » Direct Tax code to be released in 45 days along » Hike in IT exemption for women to Rs 1,90,000 with discussion paper » Hike in IT exemption to Rs 2,40,000 for senior » Share of direct taxes has increased to 56 pct in citizens 2008-09 over 41 pct in 2007-08 » No change in corporate tax » Tax holiday for exporters extended until 2012 » Eliminate surcharge on personal Income Tax by » Fringe Benefi T x to b abol ish d t a e e 10 pct » Income tax incentives on education loans ex- » Service tax exempted for exporters on select ser- panded to cover vocational studies after schooling vices » Goods and Services Tax to be introduced from » Defence gets Rs 1,41,703 crore for 2009-10, a 34 April 1, 2010 22 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  23. 23. Section -11(Article Hind SECTION - (Article: : Union Budget 2009-10) » New tax code to be set up in 45 days » Action initiated to provide social security to » Govt committed to tax reforms unorganised sector workers » Plan expenditure, for Centre and States, to go » Full interest subsidy for students taking courses up by Rs 61,000 cr in approved institutions; fi e l akh stu v dent s to » Fiscal defi t seen at 6 8 p ci . ct benefi t » Higher public investment in infrastructure » To add handloom cluster in Tamil Nadu and » Rs 500 crore allocated for rehabilitation of in- West Bengal ternally displaced Tamils in Sri Lanka » 50 pct of all rural women to be brought into » Rs 1,000 crore for rebuilding infrastructure self-help group programmes damaged by 'Aila' in West Bengal » Rashtriya Mahila Kosh allocation to be raised » Rs 25 cr allocated each for AMU campuses in » to Rs 500 cr Murshidabad, Mallapuram » National Mission for Female Literacy with em- » One lakh dwelling units for paramilitary forces phasis on minorities, SC/ST to be launched personnel to be constructed » Interest subsidy for home loans hiked to Rs 1 » Pension of non-commissioned offi cers to be lakh hiked » Allocation for Bharat Nirman programme » One rank, one pension for ex-servicemen from raised by 45 pct July 1,2009 » Full interest subsidy for poor students for » Rs 2,113 cr for IITs and NITs higher education » Allocation of Rs 50 cr to Chandigarh Univer- » Rs 100 cr one-time grant to expand banks in sity unbanking areas » Commonwealth allocation hiked to Rs 16,300 » Work on National Food Security scheme for cr providing food at cheaper rates to the poor has » Govt to hike allocation to National Ganga begun Project to Rs 562 cr » Indira Awaas Yojna hiked by 63 pct to Rs 8,883 » First Unique ID to citizens to roll out in 12-18 cr months; Rs 120 crore proposed for the project » Rs 31,100 crore allocated to NREGA » Allocation for National Rural Health Mission » NREGA gave employment opportunities to to be raised by Rs 257 cr more than 4.479 cr households in last fi scal » National action plan on climate change » To return to FRBM target for fi scal d sci p in i l e » Allowances to para-military forces at par with at the earliest defence forces » Subsidy regime for fertilisers to change to nu- » Modernisation of national employment ex- trient-based rather than price-based changes to be carried out 23 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  24. 24. Section -1 (Article Hind SECTION - 1 (Article: : Union Budget 2009-10) » Banking network to be expanded » Uncertainties of global economy remain » Banks and insurance fi s to rem i n in p ic rm a ubl » IIFCL to be given greater fl b lity exi i sector » Govt took 3 stimulus packages to fi slo d ow ght w n » Threshold for non-promoter public listed com- » Trade in goods and services doubled in 2008 panies raised » Significant h k in for ei gn capi tal i e » Saral-II forms to simplify taxation process » Infra investment to exceed 9% of GDP by 2014 » Move towards energy security via Integrated En- » Policy target to revive agriculture and industrial ergy Act growth » An expert group to look into petroleum product » Ensure 4 pct growth for agriculture pricing » Increase investment in infrastructure » Export Credit Guarantee scheme extended till » Growth Target at 9 pct per annum March 2010 Budget Aims At Inclusive Growth » Print media stimulus package extended by 6 months National Food Security Act: » Target for agriculture credit raised to Rs 3,25,000 » National Food Security Act to be brought in to cr in FY10 ensure entitlement of 25 kilo of rice or wheat per month at Rs.3 per kilo to every family living below » Allocation of Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojna the poverty line in rural or urban areas. Food Secu- stepped up by 30 pct rity Bill to be put on the website of the Depart- » Will create close to 12 million jobs ment of Food and Public Distribution for public » Farmers loan interest to come down to 6 pct debate. » Total fiscal stim l u d in F 9 is R 1 8 0 u s ur g Y0 s , 6, 00 National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme cr (NREGS) » Fund allocation for urban poor accommodation is 3,973,000 cr » Allocation under NREGS increased by 144 per cent to Rs.39,100 crore in B.E. 2009-10 over B.E. 2008- » Housing allocation hiked under Rajiv Awaas 09. Yojana » Mumbai fl od m na gem nt a lo io h k to o a e l cat n i ed » To increase productivity of assets and resources Rs 500 cr under NREGA, convergence with other schemes relating to agriculture, forests, water resources, land » IIFCL will re-fia nc e 6 p o c me rci al b n 0 ct f om ank resources, rural roads initiated. In the fi stage 1 rst 15 loans in PPP pilot districts selected for convergence. » Share of trade has doubled to 38 % of GDP 24 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  25. 25. Section -11(Article Hind SECTION - (Article: : Union Budget 2009-10) Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana ter infrastructure to the people of Chandigarh. (PMAGY) » Rs.2,113 crore allocated for IITs and NITs which » New scheme Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana includes a provision of Rs.450 crore for new IITs (PMAGY) with an allocation of Rs.100 crore and NITs. launched on pilot basis for integrated development of 1000 villages having population of scheduled » Rs.827 crore allocated for opening one Central castes above 50 per cent. University in each uncovered State. Welfare of Minorities: Direct Taxes: » Rs.25 crore each allocated for establishing new » Scope of presumptive taxation to be extended to campuses at Murshidabad in West Bengal and all small businesses with a turnover upto Rs. 40 lakh. Malappuram in Kerala by Aligarh Muslim Univer- All such taxpayers to have option to declare their sity. income from business at the rate of 8 percent of their turnover and simultaneously enjoy exemption » Allocations made for the new schemes of National from the compliance burden of maintaining books Fellowship for Students from minority community of accounts. As a procedural simplifi n, th y a catio e re and Grants-in-aid to Central Wakf Council for com- also to be exempted from advance tax and allowed puterization of records of State Wakf Boards. to pay their entire tax liability from business at the time of fi g th i r ret u n T s n sche m to c e lin e r . hi ew e om » Plan outlay of Ministry of Minority Affairs en- into effect from the fi a nc i al y n ear 2010- 11. hanced from Rs.1,000 crore in B.E. 2008-09 to Rs.1,740 crore in 2009-10 registering an increase of » Deduction under section 80E of the Income-tax 74 per cent. This includes Rs.990 crore for Multi- Act allowed in respect of interest on loans taken Sectoral Development Programme for Minorities, for pursuing higher education in specifi fi ed elds of Grants-in-aid to Maulana Azad Education Founda- study to be extended to cover all fi d of stu el s dy, tion, National Minorities Development and Finance including vocational studies, pursued after comple- Corporation and pre and post matric scholarship for tion of schooling. minorities. » Donations to electoral trusts to be allowed as a Education: 100 percent deduction in the computation of the » Provision for the scheme Mission in Education income of the donor. through ICT substantially increased to Rs.900 crore and the provision for setting up and up-gradation » Commodity Transaction Tax (CTT) to be scrapped. of Polytechnics under the Skill Development Mis- Alternative dispute resolution mechanism to be cre- sion enhanced to Rs.495 crore. ated within the Income Tax Department for the resolution of transfer pricing disputes. Minimum » Rs.50 crore allocated for Punjab University, Alternate Tax (MAT) to be increased to 15 per cent Chandigarh. Plan allocation for Chandigarh to be of book profi from 1 p c . T p d a lo e d ts 0 er ent he erio l w suitably enhanced during the year to provide bet- to carry forward the tax credit under MAT to be extended from seven years to ten years. 25 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  26. 26. Section -11(Article Hind SECTION - (Article: : Union Budget 2009-10) Indirect Taxes: Union Budget 2009-10 Highlights » Proposals on indirect taxes to seek to achieve stable framework by maintaining the overall rate struc- » Budget spells out the target for the UPA: To bring ture for customs and central excise duties as well as back the 9% growth service tax. » Commodities Transaction Tax (CTT) to be » Full exemption from 4% special CVD on parts for scrapped manufacture of mobile phones and accessories to » 10% surcharge on personal Income tax scrapped be reintroduced for one year. » Fringe Benefi T x (F t a BT) to b scrapped e » Customs duty of 5% to be imposed on Set Top » IT exemption limit for Women hiked to Rs Box for television broadcasting. 190,000 » Customs duty on bio-diesel to be reduced from » IT exemption limit for Senior Citizens hiked to 7.5% to 2.5%. Rs 240,000 » Concessional customs duty of 5% on specifi m - ed a » Rs 12000 crore earmarked for expenditure on ru- chinery for tea, coffee and rubber plantations to be ral roads in FY 2010 reintroduced for one year, upto 06.07.2010. » Drugs related to heart diseases to be cheaper Excise duty on Special Boiling Point spirits to be » Service Tax to be now applicable on law fi s rm reduced to 14%. » Bio-diesel custom duty lowered » Excise duty on manmade fi r e and y b arn to b in e - » Customs Duty on import of Gold and Silver in- creased from 4% to 8%. creased » Branded women's jewellery to be cheaper » Full exemption from excise duty to be provided on goods of Chapter 68 of Central Excise Tariff » Rs 16300 Crore to be set aside for the upcoming manufactured at the site of construction for use in Commonwealth Games construction work at such site. » IITs and NITs to get Rs 2113 crore » Corporate Tax unchanged » Export Promotion Councils and the Federation of Indian Export Organizations (FIEO) to be exempt » One rank-one pension scheme to be in place for from service tax on the membership and other fees Ex-Servicemen collected by them till 31st March 2010. » National Ganga Project allocation to go up to Rs 562 Crore » Unique Identifi io (U D p oj ect u cat n I ) r nder N ndan a M. Nilekani to be out in 12-18 months » NRHM allocation to be raised by Rs 257 crore This Article is Available Online Also:- 26 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
  27. 27. Section -1 (Article Hind SECTION - 1 (Article: : Union Budget 2009-10) » A national level action plan in place for climate change » National Employment Exchanges to be modernised » Interest subsidy for home loans up to 1 lakh Courtesy: WN.COM » Indira Awaas Yojna bolstered up by 63% to Rs 8883 crore » Saral 2 forms to simply tax fi g p oces s lin r » Emphasis on fertiliser subsidy reaching out directly to farmers » Petroleum price expert panel to set petroleum prices which would be in sync with the global levels » Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojna allocation increased by 30% » IIFCL, a new company would look into the infrastructure needs » Extension of farm loan waiver scheme by 6 months » Allocation of National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) increased by 23% » Fiscal stimulus at 3.5% pf the GDP » Small scale businesses to be exempted from advance tax » 50% reduction in the Custom Duty on LCD panels » Set top boxes to be costlier » Goods and Services Tax (GST) to be in effect from April, 2010 » Textile units to enjoy continued tax holidays » Government has praised the 3 stimulus packages which were rolled out by the UPA to fi th g o ght e l bal economic meltdown Rail Budget 2009-10 Ms Mamta Banerjee has presented the fi R i l B rst a udget of the newly elected government and acknowledged a need to put in more efforts towards development of fa- cilities like passenger amenities, cleanliness, security and catering services. Main features of rail budget 2009-10 are following: » No change in Passenger Fares. » Freight Rates untouched. » One Doctor to be available on long distance trains to attend to passenger/staff medical emergencies. » Ticket booking services to open in 800 new locations. 27 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM