LESSON STUDY as aProfessionalDevelopment Model Arlene P. de la Cruz Amelia E. Punzalan Marcelita C. Magno Chemistry Workgroup This is UP NISMED’s first UP NISMED research on lesson study. 2004
Statement of the Problem This study aimed to find out whetherlesson study will be accepted, practiced,and result to improvement of teachers’effectiveness in High School Chemistry. Will itwork for Filipino teachers considering ourculture, teacher’s attitude and relevantinterpersonal skills, and school andclassroom realities?
This study proposed to answer the following questions: What is the significant difference between traditional lesson planning as practiced by Filipino chemistry teachers and collaborative lesson planning? Will the lesson study practice improve teachers’ effectiveness in High School Chemistry as indicated by the teacher’s: 1) mastery of the subject matter, 2) strategies adopted in teaching, 3) reactions and response to students’ queries and problems,communication skills, 4) classroom management style, 5) relationships with colleagues in collaborative planning, and 6) confidence.
Description of Study This study focuses on the effectiveness of Lesson Study as a school-based approach to professional development of Chemistry teachers in a typical Philippine public high school. A group of six (6) chemistry teachers and three (3) science education specialists jointly discussed, developed lesson plans and observed classroom implementation of study lessons to examine the teachers’ teaching practice.
Description of Study The learning cycle consisted of writing and revising lesson plan, brainstorming/discussing with other teachers, objective-oriented teaching, and receiving comments for improvement was repeated six times and produced six well-developed lessons plans as outputs. This activity requires voluntary efforts coming from teachers to develop and improve instructional practices.
Distribution of tasks of lesson study group Learning Lesson Teacher Teacher Section and observers Cycle Topic 1 2 taught Unit 2 SEC 2 SEC 13 1 classifying A E matter E&C A,B,D,F Unit 3 B D SEC 1 SEC 6 2 concentration of DF B, F solutions Unit 4 C B SEC 14 SEC 1 3 preparation of B, F C colloids Unit 5 diffusion D F SEC 6 SEC 5 4 of gases F E, D Unit 6 atomic E C SEC 10 SEC 1 5 properties C, A E Unit 7 chemical F A SEC 25 SEC 32 6 symbols A F
Measures of Teachers’ Effectiveness Lesson Plan Appropriateness of materials for the class Appropriateness of strategy to subject matter Consistent achievement of stated objectives Careful planning and organization of the lesson around one or more basic concepts, processes, or attitudes & Logical organization of the lesson
Classroom management fairand equal concern for all students, encouragement and facilitation of quality interaction among students, time and resource management for maximum learning, keeping students attentive all the time, management of inappropriate and disruptive behavior of students, and adeptness in handling of unexpected classroom situations.
Knowledge of Content andPedagogyaccurate knowledge of subject matter,stimulating and meaningful introduction of the lesson to the students,asking questions that require students to express their prior experiences, knowledge, & thoughts,
Knowledge of Content andPedagogyasking questions that lead students to analyze, synthesize & think critically,checking students’ comprehension effectively,
Knowledge of Content andPedagogyeffective reviews of the major points of the lesson.encouraging students to ask questions,using student’s questions to encourage or to bring others to ask questions,
Knowledge of Content andPedagogyanswering student’s questions in straightforward and understandable manner,altering the pace and content of teaching to meet students’ needs,using varied transitions and sequences in instruction
Communication skillsAppropriateness of vocabulary used for the grade levelUse of acceptable written and oral expressionsGiving clear directions and explanations
Communication skillsEffective eye contact with the studentsEffective pitch and tone of the that voiceEffective gestures, pauses, & silenceDemonstrating proper listening skills
Measures of Teachers’ Confidence Enthusiasm & commitment Positive attitude to students Fairness, acceptance, respect, & flexibility
Use of Instructional Devices Thedata given in Figure 1 summarized the preferred instructional devices by all teachers of the lesson study group. Before the study, four such devices were used. Arranged in decreasing order of usage, these were: blackboard > laboratory equipment > poster ~ chart ~ textbooks ~ pictures.
Figure 1. Use of Instructional Devices 7 Prior to LSG 6 T1 T2 5 Post LSG 4Score 3 2 1 0 P os t e r s / C ha r t s B l a c kboa r d Ove r he a d pr oj e c t or & C onc r e t e obj e c t s T e xt books P r i nt e d or P i c t ur e s La bor a t or y i l l us t r a t i ons t r a ns pa r e nc i e s mi me ogr a phe d e qui pme nt ma t e r i a l s Instructional Device
Score Figure 2. Classroom Activities Observed 7 Prior to LSG 6 T1 5 T2 4 Post LSG 3 2 1 0 Group dynamics Group work Questions and answers Experimentation Games Classroom Activities
Teaching Methods andTechniques The teaching methods and techniques observed prior to lesson study support the findings in the previous section. The teachers prior to Lesson Study employed four varieties of teaching techniques: questions and answers ~ discussion > lecture > games During Lesson Study, demonstration and laboratory techniques were added to the teachers’ strategies. There was also a noted increase in the number of teachers employing varied kinds of teaching methods.
Score Teaching Methods & Techniques Observed 7 6 Prior to LSG 5 T1 4 T2 3 Post LSG 2 1 0 Lecture Dis cus s io n Ques tio ns and Demo ns tratio n Labo rato ry Others (Games ) ans wers technique Methods & Techniques
Assessment Methods Used Priorto Lesson Study, the teachers employed only three methods of assessment – paper test, laboratory report, and answers to questions asked. During Lesson Study, two teachers added oral report by students. After Lesson Study, there was a noted increase in the kinds of assessment methods and the number of teachers using varied kinds of assessment. Concept mapping and oral report/demonstration were added to the teachers’ assessment methods.
Score Assessment Methods Used 7 6 Prior to LSG T1 5 T2 4 Post LSG 3 2 1 0 P aper Tes t Labo rato ry repo rt Ans wers to ques tio ns Co ncept map Oral repo rt / as ked Demo ns tratio n Assessment Methods
Lesson Plan CharacteristicsThere were five aspects of lesson planning thatwere looked into: appropriateness of materials for the class, appropriateness of strategy to subject matter, consistent achievement of stated objectives, careful planning and organization of the lesson around one or more basic concepts, processes, or attitudes, and logical organization of the lesson.
Lesson Plan Characteristics Pre T1 4.5 T2 4 PostMeasure of Effectiveness 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 A B C D E F Teacher
Classroom Management SkillsSix aspects of classroom management wereevaluated. These were: fair and equal concern for all students, encouragement and facilitation of quality interaction among students, time and resource management for maximum learning, keeping students attentive all the time, management of inappropriate and disruptive behavior of students, and adeptness in handling of unexpected classroom situations.
Classroom Management Skills F E DTeacher Post T2 C T1 Pre B A 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Measure of Effectiveness
Knowledge of Content andPedagogyThis element of teacher’s effectiveness had the mostitems covered. These were: accurate knowledge of subject matter, stimulating and meaningful introduction of the lesson to the students, asking questions that require students to express their prior experiences, knowledge, and thoughts, asking questions that lead students to analyze, synthesize and think critically, checking students’ comprehension effectively,
Knowledge of Content andPedagogy encouraging students to ask questions, using student’s questions to encourage or to bring others to ask questions, answering student’s questions in straightforward and understandable manner, altering the pace and content of teaching to meet students’ needs, using varied transitions and sequences in instruction, and effective reviews of the major points of the lesson.
Knowledge of Content & Pedagogy F E Post D T2Teacher T1 Pre C B A 0 1 2 3 4 5 Measure of Effectiveness
Communications SkillsThe teacher’s communication skills were evaluated using the following criteria: appropriateness of vocabulary used for the grade level, use of acceptable written and oral expressions, giving clear directions and explanations, effective eye contact with the students, effective pitch and tone of voice, effective gestures, pauses, and silence, and demonstrating proper listening skills.
Teachers Communication Skills Post T2 F T1 Pre ETeacher D C B A 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Measure of Effectiveness
Teachers’ ConfidenceThe teachers’ confidence was evaluatedusing the following criteria: Enthusiasm and commitment Positive attitude to students Fairness, acceptance, respect, and flexibility
Teachers Confidence F Post T2 E T1 Pre DTeacher C B A 0 1 2 3 4 5 Measure of Effectiveness
Type of PRE LSG T1 T2 POST LSGQuestionsAskedBasic recall of 13.2 11 13.7 11.8factsClarification of 3.8 3.8 5.8 4.7procedureApplying facts 1.7 2 3.3 4.2& dailyexperienceRequiring 0.5 2 2.2 1.5analysisRequiring 0.5 2.2 1 0.3synthesisRequiring 0.33 2.2 1.3 0.67evaluationAsking 1.3 1.7 4.5 4.2opinion
CONCLUSIONS The brainstorming session prior to teaching a lesson plan was found beneficial by most teachers. Some misconceptions & concerns expressed about the study lesson were corrected during brainstorming. Thus, the teacher became more competent and confident while teaching the class even for the first time.
The Lesson Study practice has made the teachers more aware of the importance of paying attention to every aspect of instructions and examining their teaching practice in a collegial atmosphere. They become more cognizant of their own capabilities to question & modify prescribed instructional materials to achieve their teaching objectives.
After Lesson Study, the teachersbecame more aware of laboratory skills, kind of assessment questions they asked (usually at the knowledge and comprehension level), their overemphasis on functional literacy (appropriate use of terms, knowledge of conventions) instead of building conceptual literacy (establishing connections between isolated concepts and fitting them in a conceptual framework), and the variety of teaching strategies and assessment methods that they can use in teaching chemistry.
Lesson Study has proved to be apractical, economical, & effective school-based method for continuous professionaldevelopment of teachers done in acollegial atmosphere for teachers in thisstudy.
RECOMMENDATIONSLesson Study must be done continuously & regularly throughout the school year until it becomes a well- entrenched practice for professional development of chemistry teachers (and other group of teachers) in a given school.
Lesson Study group should include a subject expert or a teacher who is a major in the subject. In case certain questions about content are not resolved, the group should look up resources to find the correct concepts. Teachers must be aware of their responsibility to their students, to teach them correctly.
Asimilar study design using theLesson Study as the interventiontool should be replicated to abigger population to make theconclusions more substantive &to underline the advantage ofusing Lesson Study as a tool forprofessional development ofteachers.
Lesson Study as adopted in this study could serve as a mentoring model for those who are involved in teacher’s preparation, both pre-service and in-service.The mentor could sit in all the study sessions and do class observations.
School administrators must support the science teacher with physical resources such as laboratory room, running water, laboratory equipment, and needed materials to implement any innovation. They should also provide a supportive school environment and management systems for implementation of innovations.
Supervisors and principals should encourage their teachers to express their views about curriculum matters e.g., assessment and to examine and critique the instructional materials prescribed by DepEd without fear of rebuke or reprisals. It is only in such environments that teachers could grow professionally.
Curriculum developers who want to involve the teachers in curriculum development activity could adopt the Lesson Study model in this study. Instructional materials are tested in actual classroom environments and continuous improvement of the lesson takes effect immediately.