What is Leadership?<br />A Small Story<br />Trait Theory<br />Relationship Between Trait and Behavior<br />Personality<br />Measures of Personality<br />Difference Between Leaders and Managers<br />Behavioral Theories<br />Ohio States Study<br />University Of Michigan Studies<br />The Managerial Grid<br />Topics Covered<br />
Contingency Theories<br /><ul><li>Fiedler Model
What is leadership ?<br /> Leadership :-<br />Leadership is the ability to influence an individual or a group of individual towards the achievement of a predefined goals.<br />Leadership <br />
A group of workers and their leaders are set a task of clearing a road through a dense jungle on a remote island to get to the coast where an estuary provides a perfect site for a port. <br />The leaders organise the labour into efficient units and monitor the distribution and use of capital assets – progress is excellent. The leaders continue to monitor and evaluate progress, making adjustments along the way to ensure the progress is maintained and efficiency increased wherever possible. <br />Then, one day amidst all the hustle and bustle and activity, one person climbs up a nearby tree. The person surveys the scene from the top of the tree.<br />A Leadership Story:<br />
And shouts down to the assembled group below…<br />“Wrong Way!”<br />(Story adapted from Stephen Covey (2004) “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People” Simon & Schuster).<br />“Management is doing things right, leadership is doing the right things”<br />(Warren Bennis and Peter Drucker) said by them<br />A Leadership Story:<br />
Difference Between Leader and Manager (Cont…)<br />
‘Not all leaders are manager and, for that matter,<br /> not all managers are leaders.’<br />
What is trait theory ?<br />Traits Theory :-<br />Differentiate leader from non leader by focusing on there personal qualities and characteristics. personal qualities like charismatic , courageous etc.<br />Trait Theory<br />
What is Personality ? <br />Personality isthe complex of all the attributes-- behavioral, temperamental, emotional and mental--that characterize a unique individual. <br />Personality <br />
Extroversion :- this dimension captures ones comfort level with relationship . These people tend to be gregarious, assertive and social. <br />Agreeableness :- this dimension refers to an individual propensity to defer to other .Highly agreeable persons are cooperative ,warm and trusting.<br />The Big Five (measures of personality)<br />
Conscientiousness :- This dimension is a measure of reliability a highly conscientious person is responsible , organized and dependable<br />Emotional stability :- This dimension taps the ability of person to handle stress.<br />Openness to experience: - This dimension address one’s range of interest and fascination with novelty .<br />
People are born with inherited traits.<br />Certain physical, social and personal traits are inherent in leaders.<br />You should look for people with the “right” traits when looking to fill leadership roles. <br />Assumptions: To trait theory <br />
Physical Traits:<br /> Being young to middle-aged<br /> Energetic<br /> Tall<br /> Handsome<br />Social Background Traits:<br />Educated at the “right” school<br />Socially prominent <br />Upwardly mobile<br />Types<br />
It is found that people with some special characteristics & quality generally establishes them self as leaders . <br /> leaders like Mahatma Gandhi who was often recognized as charismatic ,enthusiastic and courageous person . <br />Relationship between traits & leadership <br />
Traits that are consistent determinants of leadership success:<br />1.Emotional stability and composure: Remaining calm, confident and predictable, particularly when under stress. <br />2.Willingness to admit to errors: Owning up to mistakes, rather than putting energy into covering up. <br />3.Interpersonal skills: Ability to communicate and persuade others without resorting to negative or coercive tactics. <br />4.Intellectual breadth: Ability to understand a wide range of areas, rather than having a narrow (and narrow minded) area of expertise. <br />Relationship between traits & leadership (cont..)<br />
Initially examined leadership in only one context.<br />Assumed the traits observed were inherent, not learned .<br />Have yet to identify a set of traits that will consistently separate leaders from followers. <br />Drawbacks of trait theory <br />
Failure of trait theory led researchers to go in different directions<br />These were theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non-leaders<br />Researchers wondered if there was something unique in the way that effective leaders behave.<br />If yes, then we can implant these behavioral patters to individual and make them effective leaders.<br />
Trait theory<br />Based on selection<br />Leaders are born rather than made<br />Behavioral theory<br />We could train people to be leaders<br />To implant behavior patters in individuals to make effective leaders<br />BASIC ASSUMPTION<br />
Behavioral theories include a number of studies that looked at the behavioral styles or skills exhibited by the leaders or they have in them . <br /> 1.The Ohio state leadership studies<br /> 2. The university of Michigan studies<br /> 3. The managerial grid<br />
Research began at Ohio state university in late 1940’s<br />To identify independent dimensions of leader behavior.<br />Resulted in two dimensions:<br />Initiating structure<br />consideration<br />OHIO STATE STUDIES<br />
INITIATING STRUCTURE - the extend to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinate in the search for goal attainment<br />CONSIDERATION - the extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust ,respect for subordinates’ ideas , and regards for their feelings.<br />
High on one dimension does not mean low on another<br />Followers of leaders high in consideration were more satisfied , motivated and had respect for their leaders<br />Leaders high in initiating structure increased organizations productivity and performance.<br />CONCLUSION OF OHIO STUDIES<br />
Objective= to locate behavioral characteristics of leaders that appeared to be related to measure of performance effectiveness<br />Came up with two-dimension of leadership behavior<br />Employee-oriented<br />Production-oriented<br />UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN STUDIES<br />
Employee-oriented--- emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interests in the needs of employees; and accepting individual differences among members<br />Production-oriented --- one who emphasizes technical or task aspect of the job <br />Closely related to Ohio state dimensions<br />Employee oriented = consideration<br />Production oriented = initiating structure<br />
Favored the leaders who were employee-oriented in behavior .<br />Recommended only one dimension important for a manger to be successful<br /> i.e. employee-oriented leadership (or consideration)<br />CONCLUSION OF MICHIGAN RESEARCHERS<br />
A graphic portrayal of two-dimensional view of leadership styles<br />Developed by Blake and Mouton<br />Based on the styles of “concern for people” and “concern for production”<br />It doesn’t tell us why a manager falls into one part or another grid<br />Helps in understanding both the Ohio studies and the Michigan university studies<br />THE MANAGERIAL GRID<br />
THE MANAGERIAL GRID<br /> <- Concern for people -><br /> 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 <br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9<br />Concern for production-><br />
It’s a 9 by 9 matrix outlining the 81 different leadership styles.<br />(1,1) – impoverished manager<br />(1,9) – manger who seeks “cheap popularity”<br />(5,5) – middle of the road manager<br />(9,1) – task master <br />(9,9) – team manager , ideal manager<br />99.5% researchers say that 9.9 style is the soundest way to manage<br />
Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. <br />According to this theory, no one leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers, and aspects of the situation.<br />Contingency Theory<br />
The Fiedler contingency model proposes that effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader.<br />Fiedler Model<br />
A High LPC Score ---------- Relationship Oriented.
A Low LPC Score ---------- Task Oriented</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Fiedler assumes that an individual’s Leadership Style is fixed.
This is Important because it means that if a situation requires a task-oriented leader and the person is relationship oriented leader, either the situation has to be modified or the leader replaced if optimal effectiveness is to be achieved.</li></li></ul><li>Defining the Situation<br /><ul><li>Three Contingency dimensions as defined by Fiedler are as follows :</li></ul>Leader-Member Relations:<br />The Degree of confidence, trust and respect members have in there leader.<br />Task Structure:<br />The Degree to which the job assignments are procedurized<br />(i.e. Structured or Unstructured)<br />Position Power:<br />The Degree of influence a leader has over power variables <br />such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions and salary increases.<br />
Position Power ---------- Either Strong or Weak.
Accordingly there are 8 different types of Situations, as stated by Fiedler</li></ul>Fiedler States that “The better the leader member relations, the more highly structured the jobandstronger the position power, the more control the leader has”<br />
How much position power the leader has.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Developed by Fred Fiedler and Joe Garcia in 1987.
Focused on the Role of Stress in different Situation’s and how leader’s intelligence and experience influence his reactions to stress.</li></ul>What is Stress?<br /> In Simple Terms:<br /> Stress can be defined as a difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension or in other words a state of mental or emotional strain to a person.<br />Cognitive Resource Theory(Introduction)<br />
<ul><li>The Importance of leader’s intelligence and experience to effectiveness differs under low and high stress situations.
Intellectual abilities correlated positively under Low stress.
Intellectual abilities correlated negatively under High Stress</li></ul>Cognitive Resource Theory<br />
<ul><li>So, According to Fiedler and Garcia:</li></ul> It’s the level of stress in the situation that determines whether an individuals intelligence or experience will contribute to leadership performance.<br /><ul><li>A Study, has confirmed that:
When Stress level was low the leader was directive, and intelligence was important to leaders effectiveness.
When the Stress level was high, the leader was afraid to share his thoughts, and intelligence was of no or very little use as he couldn’t address properly.</li></ul>These results were exactly what this theory predicted.<br />Cognitive Resource Theory(Conclusion)<br />
<ul><li>“Successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style, which Is contingent to the followers readiness.”
Regardless of what a leader does, effectiveness depends upon the actions of followers.
Follower’s are who accept or reject the leader.
Leader-Follower relations are analogous to that between a parent and a child.</li></ul>Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory<br />
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory (SLT MODEL)<br />
LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY<br /><ul><li>Leader-Member Exchange Theory[LMX] describes how leaders in groups maintain their position through a series of tactic exchange agreements with their members.
Formation of groups known as In-group & out-group
The in-group consists of a small number of trusted followers with whom the leader usually establishes a special higher quality exchange relationship.</li></li></ul><li>The out-group includes the followers with whom the relationship of the leader remains more formal.<br />LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY<br />
Follower’s characteristics play major role in driving leader’s decision<br />Research says that leader do differentiate employees <br />Being part of inner-circle is dangerous as one may fall and rise with his leader <br />
Developed by Robert House<br />It is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining goals and to provide the direction and support needed to ensure that their goals are compatible with the organization’s goals.<br />Theory provides 4 leadership behaviors<br />Directive<br />Supportive<br />Participative<br />Achievement- oriented<br />PATH-GOAL THEORY<br />
The Situational Factors of the Path-Goal Theory are:<br />I) Subordinates' Personality: A Locus of Control (A participative leader is suitable for subordinates with internal locus of control; A directive leader is suitable for subordinates with external locus of control). B Self-perceived ability (Subordinates who perceive themselves as having high ability do not like directive leadership).<br />
II) Characteristics of the environment: - When working on a task that has a high structure, directive leadership is redundant and less effective. - When a highly formal authority system is in place, directive leadership can again reduce workers' satisfaction. - When subordinates are in a team environment that offers great social support, the supportive leadership style becomes less necessary.<br />
DEVELOPED BY VROOM AND YETTON <br />Provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations.<br />This model is often too complicated for managers/leaders to actually put into place in organizations.<br />LEADER-PARTICIPATION MODEL<br />
Leaders usually are the members of an organization who provide the direction towards goal attainment.<br />Traits - Generally speaking, individuals who are ambitious; have high energy, a desire to lead, self-confidence, intelligence, and are flexible are more likely to succeed as leaders than those without these traits.<br />No particular style (behavioral theories) is effective in all situations<br />Contingency models help us better understand leadership. Consider…..Task structure of the job, level of situational stress, group support, leader intelligence and experience, and follower characteristics (personality, experience, ability and motivation)<br />CONCLUSION<br />
BOOK<br />ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR BY STEPHEN ROBBINS AND TIMOTHY A JUDGE<br />WEB<br />WWW.WIKIPEDIA.ORG<br />WWW.CHANGINGMINDS.ORG<br />BIBLIOGRAPHY<br />