Isabel pereira hdr2009 april2010_upwardly global

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Isabel pereira hdr2009 april2010_upwardly global

  1. 1. Human Development Report 2009 Overcoming b i O i barriers: Human mobility and development y p Isabel Medalho Pereira HDRO‐UNDP Upwardly Global Panel Discussion Upwardly Global Panel Discussion New York 20 April 2010
  2. 2. HDR09: Overcoming Barriers • Focus on people and broader dimensions of well‐being – brings  important insights to the topic of migration. covers movement across and behind borders, process and  outcomes  Broad reach: between October‐ end November 2009,  end November 2009 • over 3 million views, with  visitors from 223 countries  and territories; • over 150,000 downloads of  HDR in full or part . 1
  3. 3. Key Messages 1. Migration can have human development gains for  migrants and their families, but also origin and  migrants and their families, but also origin and destination communities. 2. But unequal opportunities and barriers reduce  2 But unequal opportunities and barriers reduce potential gains and reveal a major policy agenda. 3. Core package of policy reforms and initiatives – 3 Core package of policy reforms and initiatives – ambitious but politically feasible – can help expand  the potential gains for human development. 2
  4. 4. Key Messages 1. Migration can have human development gains for  migrants and their families, but also origin and  migrants and their families, but also origin and destination communities. 2. But unequal opportunities and barriers reduce  2 But unequal opportunities and barriers reduce potential gains and reveal a major policy agenda. 3. Core package of policy reforms and initiatives 3 Core package of policy reforms and initiatives – ambitious but politically feasible – can help expand  the potential gains for human development. 2
  5. 5. Some Clarifications… • Most movement in the world does not from  developing to developed countries, nor even  between countries… most movement within  borders of countries (internal migration) ♦ Of the nearly 1 billion movers in the world, 740 million are internal migrants. ♦ US i 2005 US in 2005: ~ 302.7 million people ~39 million international immigrants ~ 44 million internal migrants (lifetime, last census) 3
  6. 6. Some Clarifications… • Most movement within borders of countries  (internal migration) • Internationally, the share of world’s population   moving almost stable since 1960… but g direction of movements has changed 3
  7. 7. Some Clarifications… • Most movement within borders of countries  (internal migration) • Internationally, the share of world’s population   moving almost stable since 1960… but g direction of movements has changed • International migration to US: International migration to US: Immigrant and non-immigrant visas issued at Foreign Service Posts 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 immigrant categories (permanent residents) ) 402,247 449,103 434,409 470,098 468,770 non-immigrant categories (temporary residents, short term visits) 5,388,937 5,836,730 6,444,285 6,603,073 5,804,182 temporary workers with special occupation (H1B) 124,099 135,421 154,053 129,464 110,367 intra-company transferees (L1) 65,458 72,613 84,532 84,078 64,696 exchange visitors (J1) 275,161 309,951 343,946 359,447 313,597 total 5,791,184 6,285,833 6,878,694 7,073,171 6,272,952 Source: US Dpt State 3
  8. 8. At destination, positive aggregate effects positive aggregate effects • Most studies find positive aggregate gains for Most studies find positive aggregate gains for  destination countries  ♦ Commissioned analysis of flows from 50+ developing countries  Commissioned analysis of flows from 50 developing countries into 14 OECD countries found that investment and output rises  proportionately. ♦ Innovation impacts:        US, between 1950‐2000, a 1.3% increase in share of migrant university graduates increase  15% nr patents issued per capita → talent competition.  15% nr patents issued per capita → talent competition. 4
  9. 9. At destination, positive aggregate effects positive aggregate effects • Most studies find positive aggregate gains for Most studies find positive aggregate gains for  destination countries  ♦ Commissioned analysis of flows from 50+ developing countries  Commissioned analysis of flows from 50 developing countries into 14 OECD countries found that investment and output rises  proportionately. ♦ Innovation impacts:        US, between 1950‐2000, a 1.3% increase in share of migrant university graduates increase  15% nr patents issued per capita → talent competition.  15% nr patents issued per capita → talent competition. PhDs in Economics granted  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 by US universities by US universities Total (number) 903 932 960 1061 1029 Non‐US citizens (%) 56.2 62.4 61.5 67.6 65.6 4
  10. 10. At destination, positive aggregate effects positive aggregate effects • Most studies find positive aggregate gains for Most studies find positive aggregate gains for  destination countries • Migrants’ complementary skills increase labour force participation 4
  11. 11. Migration is a complement of  development… not a substitute ! development not a substitute ! Long term agenda ‐> core package of suggestions: core package  ♦ Liberalize and simplify regular channels, conditional on  labour market conditions → employment portability and circularity ♦ Ensure basic rights for migrants → equal remuneration and conditions for equal work ♦ Reduce transaction costs associated with migration → information, reduce cost and ease access of certificates, prevent abuses and fraud ♦ I Improve outcomes in destination communities t i d ti ti iti ♦ Enable benefits from internal migration ♦ Make mobility an integral part of HD strategies 5
  12. 12. Thank Th k you ! http://hdr.undp.org/en/ Isabel.pereira@undp.org

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