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Evolution OF town in India

the brief on how towns in India came into existence and features

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Evolution OF town in India

  2. 2. Content: 1) Introduction 2) Evolution of town 3) Development of town 4) Ancient period a) Indus valley civilization b) Vedic period c) Buddhist period 5) Medieval period 6) Mughal period 7) Pre-independence period 8) Post independence period 9) Summary 10) References 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 2
  3. 3. Introduction: • Planning — It is defined as the process of systematic and scientific thinking for choosing the best option before it starts taking place. • It is the process of thinking about tomorrow. • This presentation deals with the evolution of towns in a planned manner in Indian subcontinent. • The aim is to see the progress in planning schemes with the increase in population and hence their requirements. 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 3
  4. 4. Terminology: • Cantonment- the British colonies laid in the outskirt to get rid of unhygienic condition by the Britishers during pre-independence period. • Grid iron pattern- The system of road laid in such a way that they intersect at right angle and the rectangular areas are formed. • Moat- Canal full of water running around the town and is for safety purpose. • Rajmarg- The widest road passing through the town. 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 4
  5. 5. Evolution of town: • Most of the early civilization have sprung on the banks of some navigable rivers or at any natural port which not only provide security to the town but also acted as a communicating link from one civilization to another. • Physical Safety and communication links are the two prime factors which lead to the development of towns. • The earliest civilizations were seen on the banks of rivers like Nile, Ganga, Sindhu. 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 5
  6. 6. Development of towns periodically: • Towns flourished since prehistoric times in India. Even at the time of Indus valley civilization, towns like Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were in existence. The second phase of urbanization began around 600 BC. It continued with periodic ups and downs until the arrival of Europeans in India in 18th century. Urban historians classify towns of India as: • Ancient • Vedic • Medieval • Modern 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 6
  7. 7. Ancient period: • Ancient period is considered to be between 3000-5000 BC . In this period, so many towns were created with some unique features. • Development of towns taken place like 1. Indus valley civilization 2. Vedic towns 3. Buddhist towns is considered to be the ancient period. 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 7
  8. 8. Indus valley civilization: (3000 B.C) • It was located on the bank of river Indus(presently in Pakistan) and Ravi. • In 1920, excavation was done by a British Archeologist in Indo-Gangatic region. • He found that there is an old city/civilization and there was human settlement named Mohenjo-Daro (which means Hill of Deads). • It was covering an area of about 260 hectares with Harappa(on bed of river Ravi) now in Pakistan; Kalibangan in Rajasthan; Lothal, Sukortada and Dholavira in Gujarat; Rakhigadhi in Haryana, shows that it was developed around 4000-3000 BC. 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 8
  9. 9. Salient features of Indus Valley Civilization: 1. Street of 9m width divided the city in 12 blocks each of 365m x 244m. 2. Layout of street was based on ‘grid-iron’ pattern. 3. Series of houses were arranged around open-to-sky central court. 4. They dependent fully on ventilation and roof lighting. 5. Houses with G+1 storey made of kiln-brick with complete bathing establishment. 6. City had effective system of drainage. 7. It had a Great bath of 7m width, 12m length and 2.4m depth made of bricks at bottom and was made waterproof by providing layers of bitumen and it formed to be part of ritualistic bathing forming part of Hindu temple. 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 9
  10. 10. Rakhigadhi, Haryana: • It has three distinctive phases of the pre-Harappan culture. In the earliest people lived in pits. • In the second, molded mud bricks were used to line the dwellings. In the third phase bricks were used to make square and rectangular houses. • They may have been used by the king or an elected headman and his consort. 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 10
  11. 11. Kalibangan, Rajasthan: • Kalibangan is the third excavated city of Harappan sites and the earliest town destroyed by earthquake. Excavated between 1960-61 and 1968-69, this ancient city of Indus valley civilization is located on the bank of the dry bed of the Ghaggar. • Kalibangan comprises two mounds: a small mound is located in the western direction and the larger mound is situated in the east with an open space in between them. • The excavations revealed that the western mound was a fortified enclosure with rectangular salient and towers. This was further partitioned into two units by an inner wall with stairways on either side for movement between the two units. 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 11
  12. 12. Surkotada,Gujarat: • Surkotada is located 160 km (99 m) north-east of Bhuj, in the district of Kutch, Gujarat. • The ancient mound stands surrounded by an undulating rising ground clustered by small sandstone hills. These hills are covered with red laterite soil giving the entire region a reddish brown colour. • The vegetation is scarce and consists of cactus, small babul and pilu trees and thorny shrubs. The mound was discovered in 1964 by Shri Jagat Pati Joshi of the Archaeological Survey of India. The mound is higher on the western side and lower on the eastern side and has an average height of 5 to 8 m (16-26 ft). • In the ancient days, a river 750 m (½ mi) wide flowed past the north-eastern side of the site. • This river, which emptied into the Little Rann, might have been an important reason for sitting the town here. Now this river is only a small nalla (stream). 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 12
  13. 13. Vedic period: (400 BC) • In this period, Vedas as well as books were wrote on town planning. • In “Vishwa-karmaprakash” it was stated that “First layout the towns and then plan the houses.” • “Shilpshastra” wrote by “Architect Mansara” discussed study on soil, topography, climatology and various layouts like Dandaka, Swastika, Padmaka, Nandyavarta. 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 13
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  15. 15. 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 15 •The main roads were aligned east-west to get the roads purified by air. •Short roads were aligned in north-south direction. •Roads running around the village were preserved for priests. •Moats were all around the town to secure the town for outside forces. •Rajmarg were the widest road through which four elephants can pass at a time. Such roads are found in Mysore.
  16. 16. Buddhist period: (up to 320 AD) • During the period of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya, Kautilya and Chanakya was the chief minister who wrote the famous “Arthashastra”, a treatise of Town Planning. Features stated in it were: 1. Regulation of zoning depending on communities. 2. Highway (Rajamarga) to be parallel to the main cardinal direction. 3. Road were aligned in grid-iron form. 4. Rajmarga to be not less than 30 ft. or nearly 3 lanes of traffic. • The excavation carried out at Patliputra, capital of Magadha (now in Bihar), shows evidence of advance knowledge of planning. • Taksha-sila and Nalanda, the renowned place for learning were formed in this period. • Nalanda consist of three main essentials – stupas, temples & hotels for monks. It had 300 halls for accommodating 10,000 pupils and libraries were nine-storeyed high. 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 16
  17. 17. Medieval period: (350-1500 AD) • Trade and commerce were developed in that period. One of the towns that became famous due to trade & commerce is Dhaka (Bangladesh), which is famous for Malmal and hence become a port. • Other towns developed and become famous were: 1. Krishnanagar for clay models. 2. Agra for marble and perfumery. 3. Murshidabad for silk. 4. Jaipur for palatial buildings. 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 17
  18. 18. Mughal period: (1500-1700 AD) • Cities like Agra, Delhi were re-developed. • Other important thing started in this period was laying of gardens and parks. It was a new trend in planning, many ornamental gardens, of Mughal period. • Lal-kila , Kutub Minar was developed in this period by them. • “Moghal garden” in front of Rashtrapati Bhavan was also developed by them. • “Fatehpur Sikhri” was developed by them during this period. 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 18
  19. 19. Pre-independence period: (before 1947) • When the Britishers first settled in India, they found most of the towns are unhygienic. So they built independent colonies on the outskirts of existing towns. These extensions were called “Cantonments” and “Barracks” for military occupied areas and “Civil lines” for the residents of civilians. Hence they created these cantonments: – Delhi cantonment known as British colonies. – Agra cantonment. – Bangalore cantonment. – Ahmadabad cantonment. • After this, they found that the climate of India is so hot. So they developed the hill- stations in the nearby area of cantonments. They were: – Shimla nearer to Delhi. – Matheran nearer to Mumbai. – Kodai canal nearer to Chennai. – Darjeeling nearer to Kolkata. 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 19
  20. 20. • In the first decade of 20th century, they took up the work of building New Delhi. Plan was prepared based on modern town planning principle by eminent town planner “Edwin Lutyens”. • He also designed Rashtrapati Bhavan. • The industrial buildings were separated from the residential sector. • Lutyen also contributed for making “Canaught place” which is the common area having circular plan. 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 20
  21. 21. Post-independence period: (after 1947) • After independence, Jawaharlal Nehru was appointed as the first prime minister of India. He invited Le Corbusier to visit India and develop cities. Hence, Chandigarh was planned by him. • “Rourkela” & ”Jamshedpur” were also planned by him. • Towns planned and developed during this period were: 1. Steel towns- • Durgapur- West Bengal • Bhilai- Madhya Pradesh • Rourkela- Orissa 2. Industrial towns- • Jamshedpur- Bihar • Bhadravati- Karnataka • Chittaranjan- West Bengal 3. Capitals- • Gandhinagar- Gujarat • Chandigarh- Punjab 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 21
  22. 22. • Cities like “Gandhinagar”,”Navi Mumbai” were planned by Charles Correa in this period. • The other cities like Lavasa, New Nashik and New Aurangabad are coming up. 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 22
  23. 23. Summary: • The town planning done in ancient time was central based. • The important structures were planned at the corner of the town so the outside people can access it easily. • The water supply was based on central distribution on highest elevation hence less consumption of electricity is done. • The roads were having N-S alignment and hence less glare effect is observed. • The new cities are planned in such a manner that all the industrial units are on the outskirts/periphery. • Schools are provided at the walkable distance. • And roads are planned based on grid-iron pattern. • Development of town is done in a way that natural beauty is maintained. • Moats were made on outer periphery to provide security. • Social, cultural and religious values were taken care while planning. • Industries were provided on the outskirts. • More green belt and open space were kept. • Needs as well as aesthetics, both were taken care of. • Circulation inside the town and outside was provided from all side. 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 23
  24. 24. Reference: • A. R. Gallion & S. Eisner(2005), “The Urban Pattern”, CBS Publishers & Distributors Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. • Binode Bihari Dutt, “Town Planning in Ancient India”, Isha books, Delhi. 1925. • G. K. Hiraskar (2008), ‘Fundamentals of Town Planning’, Dhanpatrai publication, New Delhi. • K.C.Singhal & Roshan Gupta, “The Ancient History of India (Vedic Period)”, Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, 2003. • Kamlesh Kapur , “History of Ancient India”, Sterling Publishers,2010. • M.Muthumari & V. Zafar Ahmed, “History”, Tamilnadu Text Book Corporation-Chennai-2007. • Meenakshi Jain, “Medieval India”, National Counsil of Educational Research and Training. • R. Ramachandran, “Urbanization and Urban systems in INDIA”, Oxford University, U.K. • V.K.Agnihotri (2005), “Indian history” , Allied publishers, Tamil Nadu. 05-02-2015 CED,SVNIT 24
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