Cloud computing


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Cloud computing

  1. 1. WHAT IS ?  Cloud computing is a type of computing that relies on sharing computing resources rather than having local servers or personal devices to handle applications.  Describes a variety of different computing concepts that involve a large number of computers that are connected through a real-time communication network (typically the Internet).  At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of converged infrastructure and shared services.  Cloud computing is comparable to grid computing, a type of computing where unused processing cycles of all computers in a network are harnesses to solve problems too intensive for any stand-alone machine.
  2. 2. CLOUD SUMMARY  Cloud computing is an umbrella term used to refer to Internet based development and services  A number of characteristics define cloud data, applications services and infrastructure:  Remotely hosted: Services or data are hosted on remote infrastructure.  Ubiquitous: Services or data are available from anywhere.  Commodified: The result is a utility computing model similar to traditional that of traditional utilities, like gas and electricity - you pay for what you would want!
  3. 3. Cloud Computing Characteristics Common Characteristics: Low Cost Software Virtualization Service Orientation Advanced Security Homogeneity Massive Scale Resilient Computing Geographic Distribution Essential Characteristics: Resource Pooling Broad Network Access Rapid Elasticity Measured Service On Demand Self-Service
  4. 4. Cloud Computing Architecture  There are two sections: the front end and the back end. They connect to each other through a network, usually the Internet.  The front end includes the client's computer (or computer network) and the application required to access the cloud computing system.  On the back end of the system are the various computers, servers and data storage systems that create the "cloud" of computing services.  A cloud computing system can include any computer program. Its based on a technique called server virtualization. Usually, each application will have its own dedicated server.  A central server administers the system, monitoring traffic and client demands to ensure everything runs smoothly.
  6. 6. Cloud Computing Architecture  A central server follows a set of rules called protocols and uses a special kind of software called middleware.  Middleware allows networked computers to communicate with each other.  A Cloud Computing System follows Data Redundancy which enables the central server to access backup machines to retrieve data.  Server Virtualisation : It's possible to fool a physical server into thinking it's actually multiple servers, each running with its own independent operating system. The technique is called server virtualization.  By maximizing the output of individual servers, server virtualization reduces the need for more physical machines.
  7. 7. Hardware Operating System App App App Traditional Stack Hardware OS App App App Hypervisor OS OS Virtualized Stack
  8. 8. Virtual Machines  VM technology allows multiple virtual machines to run on a single physical machine. Hardware Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) / Hypervisor Guest OS (Linux) Guest OS (NetBSD) Guest OS (Windows) VM VM VM AppApp AppAppApp Xen VMWare UML Denali etc. Performance: Para-virtualization (e.g. Xen) is very close to raw physical performance!
  9. 9. Utility computing  Examples: Amazon’s EC2, GoGrid, AppNexus Platform as a Service (PaaS)  Example: Google App Engine Software as a Service (SaaS)  Example: Gmail
  10. 10. Application Service (SaaS) Application Platform Server Platform Storage Platform Amazon S3, Dell, Apple, ... 3Tera, EC2, SliceHost, GoGrid, RightScale, Linode Google App Engine, Mosso,, Engine Yard, Facebook, Heroku, AWS MS Live/ExchangeLabs, IBM, Google Apps; Quicken Online, Zoho, Cisco
  11. 11. HOW CLOUD COMPUTING WORKS?  To accomplish its goals, cloud computing uses networks of large groups of servers typically running low-cost consumer PC technology with specialized connections to spread data-processing chores across them.  This shared IT infrastructure contains large pools of systems that are linked together.  Often, virtualization techniques are used to maximize the power of cloud computing.
  13. 13. BASIC CLOUD CHARACTERISTICS 1. The “no-need-to-know” in terms of the underlying details of infrastructure, applications interface with the infrastructure via the APIs. 1. The “flexibility and elasticity” allows these systems to scale up and down at will 1. utilising the resources of all kinds 2. CPU, storage, server capacity, load balancing, and databases 2. The “pay as much as used and needed” type of utility computing and the “always on!, anywhere and any place” type of network- based computing.
  14. 14. BASIC CLOUD CHARACTERISTICS  Cloud are transparent to users and applications, they can be built in multiple ways  branded products, proprietary open source, hardware or software, or just off-the-shelf PCs.  In general, they are built on clusters of PC servers and off-the-shelf components plus Open Source software combined with in-house applications and/or system software
  15. 15. Cloud Storage  Several large Web companies are now exploiting the fact that they have data storage capacity that can be hired out to others.  allows data stored remotely to be temporarily cached on desktop computers, mobile phones or other Internet- linked devices.  Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and Simple Storage Solution (S3) are well known examples  Mechanical Turk
  16. 16. APPLICATIONS OF CLOUD COMPUTING  They could access the cloud computing system using any computer linked to the Internet. Data wouldn't be confined to a hard drive or any internal network.  It could bring hardware costs down. Cloud computing systems would reduce the need for advanced hardware on the client side.  Cloud computing gives these companies the option of storing data on someone else's hardware, removing the need for physical space on the front end.  If the cloud computing system's back end is a grid computing system, then the client could take advantage of the entire network's processing power.  Corporations might save money on IT support. Streamlined hardware would, in theory, have fewer problems than a network of heterogeneous machines and operating systems
  17. 17. GOALS OF CLOUD COMPUTING  To apply traditional supercomputing, or high-performance computing power normally used by military and research facilities.  To perform tens of trillions of computations per second, in consumer- oriented applications such as financial portfolios.  To deliver personalized information.  To provide data storage or to power large, immersive computer games.
  18. 18. Cloud Computing Concerns  Security : Corporate executives might hesitate to take advantage of a cloud computing system because they can't keep their company's information under lock and key. The counterargument to this position is that the companies offering cloud computing services live and die by their reputations. It benefits these companies to have reliable security measures in place.  Privacy : Cloud computing companies will need to find ways to protect client privacy. One way is to use authentication techniques such as user names and passwords. Another is to employ an authorization format -- each user can access only the data and applications relevant to his or her job.
  19. 19. ADVANTAGES OF CLOUD COMPUTING  Used in marketing to sell hosted services in the sense of application service provisioning that run client server software on a remote location.  It allows users the mobility necessary in this day and age of global marketing.  Versatile Compatibility : Users are often surprised to find that the various cloud apps available are accessible on both platforms.  Cloud allows users to literally get what they pay for. This scalability allows for you to simply purchase the applications and data storage you really need.  Individuality : One of the most convenient aspects of working in the cloud is that it is compatible with aspects specific to the company. For example, cloud IT services can be scaled to meet changing system demands within a single company.
  20. 20. DISADVANTAGE OF CLOUD COMPUTING  Less Control : Utilising the public cloud in business does have an obvious downside. By using this technology you risk losing a level of control over your company.  Not Always Enough Room : Many have been disappointed with cloud technology, because they find that once they have instituted a cloud system within their business, they run out of storage space.  Security and Confidentiality : Cloud computing does pose the risk of increased security threats. While most companies have an up-to-date virus database, this does not make the files and information stored in the cloud immune to hackers.
  21. 21. The Future...  Many of the activities loosely grouped together under cloud computing have already been happening and centralised computing activity is not a new phenomena.  Grid Computing was the last research-led centralised approach.  However there are concerns that the mainstream adoption of cloud computing could cause many problems for users.  Many new open source systems appearing that you can install and run on your local cluster  should be able to run a variety of applications on these systems.