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  2. 2.  The word cryogenics comes from Greek word kryos and means “the production of freezing cold” the term is used today as a synonym for the low-temperature state.  In physics, cryogenics is the study of the production of very low temperature (below −150 °C, −238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures .
  3. 3.  A cryogenic rocket engine is a rocket engine that uses a cryogenic fuel and oxidizer, that are the gases which are liquefied and stored at very low temperatures.  Rocket engines need high mass flow rate of both oxidizer and fuel to generate a sufficient thrust.  Generally oxygen and low molecular weight hydrocarbons are used as oxidizer and fuel pair.  The combination of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen offers the highest energy efficiency for rocket engines that need to produce large amounts of thrust.
  4. 4. The Russians were the first to reach into space. Solid-fuel rocket engines were the first engines created by man. All the current Rockets run on Liquid-propellant. The United States was the first country to develop cryogenic rocket engines. They register their first successful flight in 1963 with RL-10 engine and is still used on the Atlas V rocket. Then The Japanese LE-5 engine flew in 1977 ,French HM-7 in 1979 , Chinese YF-73 in 1984 . The Russians who put a first satellite and later a human in space, successfully launched a rocket with a cryogenic engine in 1987. India successfully launched cryogenic engine on 5th January 2014. BRIEF HISTORY OF CRYOGENIC ENGINE
  5. 5. Classification Of Space Propulsion System
  6. 6. cooling and compressing gases into liquids, we can vastly increase their density and make it possible to store them in large quantities in smaller tanks. super cooled gases are stored at the temperature lower than their freezing point. Nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, helium argon, neon, etc, Liquid oxygen being the oxidizer and liquid hydrogen being the fuel. Liquid oxygen boils at 297oF and liquid hydrogen boils at 423oF. CRYOGENIC FUEL
  7. 7. Thrust chamber or combustion chamber Igniter Fuel injector Fuel turbo-pumps Valves Regulators Fuel tanks Rocket engine Nozzle Among them, the combustion chamber & the nozzle are the main components of the rocket engine. Components Of Cryogenic Rocket Engine
  8. 8. DIFFERENT TYPES OF ROCKET ENGINE POWER CYCLES 1. Gas Pressure Feed System 2. Gas – Generator cycle 3. Staged Combustion Cycle
  9. 9. 1. Gas Pressure Feed System
  10. 10. 2. Gas – Generator cycle
  11. 11. 3. Staged Combustion Cycle
  12. 12. Diagram of Combustion Chamber
  13. 13. Injector Plate
  14. 14. Different Types of Fuel Injector
  15. 15. Different Types Of Cryogenic Engine VULCAIN ENGINE HM-7B Cryogenic Engine
  16. 16. RL 10 Cryogenic Engine CE 20 Cryogenic Engine
  17. 17. 300 N Cryogenic Engine VINCI Cryogenic Engine
  18. 18. Production & Manufacturing  The Indian cryogenic engine is produced by Godrej and the Hyderabad-based MTAR Technologies working together as a consortium.  Instead of ISRO first mastering the technology and transferring it to industry, the two companies were involved from the start and even the early prototypes were built by them.
  19. 19. Advantages  High Energy per unit mass: Propellants like oxygen and hydrogen in liquid form give very high amounts of energy per unit mass due to which the amount of fuel to be carried aboard the rockets decreases.  Clean Fuels Hydrogen and oxygen are extremely clean fuels. When they combine, they give out only water. This water is thrown out of the nozzle in form of very hot vapour. Thus the rocket is nothing but a high burning steam engine  Economical Use of oxygen and hydrogen as fuels is very economical, as liquid oxygen costs less than gasoline.
  20. 20. Disadvantages • Highly reactive gases • Leakage • Hydrogen Embrittlement • Zero Gravity Condition
  21. 21. The next generation of the Rocket Engines  All rocket engines burn their fuel to generate thrust . If any other engine can generate enough thrust, that can also be used as a rocket engine  There are a lot of plans for new engines that the NASA scientists are still working with. One of them is the “ Xenon ion Engine”. This engine accelerate ions or atomic particles to extremely high speeds to create thrust more efficiently. NASA's Deep Space-1 spacecraft will be the first to use ion engines for propulsion.  There are some alternative solutions like Nuclear thermal rocket engines, Solar thermal rockets, the electric rocket etc.  We are looking forward that in the near future there will be some good technology to take us into space