edge901Spring2012ChrisAssignment 2


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  • edge901Spring2012ChrisAssignment 2

    1. 1. Indigenous Australians a focus on the digital divide and participation in theinformation economy Images copied from (Overcoming indigenous disadvantage KeyIndicators 2011. Overview. Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision Commonwealth of Australia)
    2. 2. Abstract• The disadvantage of indigenous Australians as compared to non-indigenous Australians is well documented and a current focus of government policy.• Educational disadvantage resulting from the current digital divide is one of many highly enmeshed factors that contribute to the current landscape.• Upon this backdrop, Australia’s information economy is taking on increasing significance and requires students to be equipped with 21st century skills in order to take full advantage of this emerging economy.• Employment statistics indicate that indigenous Australians are not accessing employment opportunities that exist within the information economy nor do they attain employment in high income streams within the information economy sector.• Culturally appropriate government strategies are required to address the digital divide to ensure equal access to employment opportunities in the information economy by indigenous Australians.
    3. 3. Current state of aboriginal education of Aboriginal children significantly behind non-Aboriginal children by the60% time they start Year One. of Aboriginal children who graduate from Year 12 compared to non36% aboriginal children. of indigenous students continued their school from years 7/8 through to47% Year 12 compared to 76% of non-indigenous students (2008). of Aboriginal children who stay at school until year 12, compared to 76%40% among non-indigenous children. of aboriginal people with a vocational or higher education qualification in40% 2008 compared to 65% for non-indigenous people. (Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs, 2010)
    4. 4. A complex issue Life expectancy The indigenous / non- indigenous divide Young child Disability &An example of the complexity andenmeshed state of indigenous mortality chronic diseasedisadvantage.Causes of ‘life expectancy’ as an Early child developmentindicator of equality reveals the • Birthweightcomplexity of aboriginaldisadvantage: Early child development• birth weight • Obesity & nutrition• obesity and nutrition • Tobacco consumption and harm• home environment Early child development• alcohol and drug consumption • Functional water, sewerage & electricity and harm • Overcrowding• education and training Early child development• employment • Alcohol & drug consumption and harm (Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision Early child development Commonwealth of Australia, 2011, p8)
    5. 5. Causes and impact of inequality in educationContributing factors• “Educational disadvantage normalised by the legacy if colonialism• Past attempts at educational ‘reform’ have ben embedded in racism, deficit theory and assimilation• The limitations of traditional approaches to public administration highlighted by complexity• The challenges of sustaining reform• The impact of broader ideological currents in Indigenous affairs on education policy and practice” (Gray et al, 2008 pg 203 – 215)
    6. 6. The tyranny of distance on indigenous education(Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision Commonwealth of Australia, 2011, p16)
    7. 7. The significance of education in aboriginal affairsA correlation exists between education achievement and significantmeasures of well being such as:• income• economic participation• health outcomes• social participation• crime and justice• as well as other determinants such as health risk behaviours.(Australian Societal Trends, 2011)
    8. 8. Relationship of school qualification to full time employment(Australian Bureau of Statistics. Indigenous statistics for schools, Education and Employment, 2010)
    9. 9. The information economy and its impact in AustraliaWhat is the information economy? Click here to watch this YouTube video(Karmarker, 2008)Running parallel with the information economy, information andcommunication technology (ICT) will continue to have far reaching effectson modern day life.This influence carries over to future employment opportunities whereprofessional groups with higher than average incomes are experiencingsignificant growth while lower paid routine cognitive and manual jobs arelikely to experience a decline. (Kosma, 2011)
    10. 10. Employment sector and associated skill demand trends USA graph of percentage theAustralia, like other developed workforce by sector and decade.countries is reflecting similarworkforce trends to the onesshown in these two graphs. Kosma (2011) p108 USA graph outlines the trends in job skill demand. Routine manual and cognitive jobs are in decline. Warschauer (2010) p181
    11. 11. Impact of Australia’s changing economy on indigenous employment“Female indigenous workers favour high growth industriessuch as non-residential care services, childcare services andcleaning services, however they all constitute lower incomeoccupations.” (Fordham et al. 2007 piii) • “Male indigenous workers are characteristically consecrated in declining industries and low- growth occupations.” (Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. Australian Government. 2012 p27)
    12. 12. What is required to equip students with the competence to benefit from these changes: 21st Century SkillsWith the widespread use of computers and internet, the need to memorise factsas the mainstay of pre-vocational education is in decline. What is apparent withthe rise of the service economy coupled with the information economy in manycountries, is the need for students to possess the ability to respond to complexproblems, to communicate effectively, to work in teams and develop creativestrategies to new opportunities and produce new in an information andcommunication technology environment. (Kosma, 2011)What are 21st century skills? Click here to watch this YouTube video (Jones, 2011)
    13. 13. Where to start with Aboriginal preparedness with 21st century skills – address the digital divide by improving access to the internetTo participate in this new frontier, students require 21st century skills which, inturn requires access to the internet and general information communicationtechnology.This is where aboriginal communities experience being on the poorer side of thedigital divide. Barriers to access include initial setup and access costs whichimpede lower income families. As well, a lack of physical access which isexacerbated for aboriginal communities in rural communities reinforce the divide.(Berner, 2002)
    14. 14. Where to start with Aboriginal preparedness with 21st century skills Access to ICT“Indigenous people are about halfas likely to have Broadband accesscompared to non-indigenouspeople.” IndigenousAustralian Bureau of Statistics, 20078146.0.55.001 - Patterns of internet access Non-indigenousin Australia“People who do not have tertiary level education, people who live in rural and remoteareas, people of Aboriginal or Torres Straight Islander heritage, people with disability,people of non-English speaking background, unemployed people, people who areaged over 55 years, and women are groups that are under-represented in terms ofInternet connectivity and use of ICT” (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2007, 8146.0.55.001- Patternsof internet access in Australia)
    15. 15. Home, community and school access“To prepare students for access to the career opportunities inherent within theinformation economy, access to the new technologies, be it at home or school isthe first step.” (Warschauer et al. (2010) p404)Innovative programs such as providing access the internet and informationcommunication technology through aboriginal Community Centres has beentrailed with success.Recognising the current disparity of access to the internet in indigenous homes, itscrucial that schools with higher proportions of indigenous students be equippedwith adequate information communication technology. (Warschauer et al. 2010 p 188)
    16. 16. ICT use: Its about quality, not just access“Just as a fire radiates heat, many people expect a computer to radiatelearning. Unfortunately, that is not the case. Rather… Informationtechnologies are more like clothes; to get a benefit, you must makethem a part of your personal space, tailored to your needs” Warschauer etal. 2010 p 201)
    17. 17. Information Communication Technology (ICT) use: Its also about quality educationAccess to the internet is one aspect Teachers need to equip their students withthe following 21st Century Skills: (Singleton et al. 2009, p404) )“Information, Media, and Technology Skills• Information Literacy• Media Literacy• ICT LiteracyLearning and Innovation Skills• Creativity and Innovation• Critical Thinking and Problem Solving• Communication and CollaborationLife Career Skills• Flexibility and Adaptability• Initiative and Self-Direction• Social and Cross-Cultural Skills• Productivity and Accountability• Leadership and Responsibility” (Warschauer et al. 2010, p206)
    18. 18. RecommendationsWhile it is acknowledged the digital divide is a complex multifactorial issuerequiring culturally appropriate government policy to also address otherissues of aboriginal disadvantage, the following education specificinterventions need to be supported in order to address this situation:• Government policy needs to ensure aboriginal children have equal access at home, in the community and at school to digital learning opportunities and other 21st century skill development opportunities. Government policy and strategy is required to address the issues of access inequality in indigenous communities• Raising of both awareness and capability in aboriginal communities and schools with higher proportion of indigenous children needs to occur regarding the importance of 21st century skills and the emerging information economy
    19. 19. Recommendations (continued)• Education policy needs to ensure 21st century skills are embedded within school curriculum• Aboriginal and non-aboriginal teachers need to be equipped with the competence to promote and model 21st century skills in classrooms
    20. 20. ReferencesKozma, R. (2011). ICT, Education Transformation, and economic development: an analysis of the US National EducationTechnology Plan. E-Learning and Digital Media. V8(2) pp 106- 120, accessed 21/9/2012http://www.wwwords.co.uk.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/pdf/validate.asp?j=elea&vol=8&issue=2&year=2011&article=2_Kozma_ELEA_8_2_webMark Warschauer and Tina Matuchniak (2010) New Technology and Digital Worlds: Analyzing Evidence of Equity inAccess, Use, and Outcomes. Review of Research in Education. 34 ,Chapter 6 ,pp179-225Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs (MCEECDYA). Indigenous Education Action PlanDraft 2010-2014 For public Comment (PDF), accessed 18/9/2012, http://www.aecg.nsw.edu.au/publications.phpAustralian Bureau of Statistics 2007, 8146.0.55.001- Patterns of internet access in Australia, Accessed 20/9/2012http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/8146.0.55.001Gray, J. & Beresford, Q. 2008 A Formidable Challenge: Australias Quest for Equity in Indigenous Education. The Australian Journalof Education, Vol 52, 2, Aug : 197-223.Fordham, A. & Schwab, RG. 2007, Education, Training and Indigenous Futures CAEPR Policy Research: 1990–2007. October. TheAustralian National University. Ministerial Council on education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, accessed22/9/2012, http://caepr.anu.edu.au/sites/default/files/project_page/2010/06/education%20futures.pdfAustralian Bureau of Statistics. 2010. Indigenous statistics for schools, Education and Employment, accessed23/9/2012, http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/CaSHome.nsf/4a256353001af3ed4b2562bb00121564/890a30a941556494ca25758b0011b46b!OpenDocument
    21. 21. ReferencesBerner, S. 2002, Digital divide in Australia: where the real invisibility lies. South African Journal of Information Management, vol 4,p4.Australian Societal Trends March 2011: Education and indigenous wellbeing. Australian Bureau of Statistics catalogue no. 4102.0http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/LookupAttach/4102.0Publication23.03.116/$File/41020_Indigenouseducation_Mar2011.pdfDepartment of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. Australian Government. 2012 Australian Jobshttp://www.deewr.gov.au/Employment/ResearchStatistics/Documents/AustralianJobs.pdfCAEPR Policy Research: 1990–2007. October. The Australian National University. Ministerial Council on education, Employment,Training and Youth Affairs http://caepr.anu.edu.au/sites/default/files/project_page/2010/06/education%20futures.pdfJones, Z., 2011, ACTFL World Languages 21st Century Skills: A Visual Introduction, accessed 1/10/2012http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CXurDF0IbuQSingleton, G., Rola-Rubzen, M., Muir, K., Muir, D. & McGregor, M. 2009, ‘Youth empowerment and information andcommunication technologies: a case study of a remote Australian Aboriginal community’, GeoJournal, Vol 74, pp403-413.Karmarker, Uday, 2008, Service Industrialization and the Global Information Economy. UCLA Anderson School of Management,accessed 16/09/2012, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DhUtwDI5rXI