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A Sustainable, Rechargeable Battery for Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles
A Sustainable, Rechargeable Battery for Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles Claire Fullarton1, Andrew P. Abbott1, A. Robert Hillman1, Karl S. Ryder1, Emma L. Smith1 1Chemistry Department, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH Summary This research focuses on the design, production and properties of a new type of sustainable, rechargeable battery for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid EVs. The aim is to construct and test a prototype battery. Electrically conducting plastics and metal electrodes are to be used in conjunction with novel, inexpensive, environmentally compatible solvents called Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES). Petrol and Diesel Car Fears New Battery Technology Most vehicles on the roads are petrol or The new rechargeable battery works by the deposition and diesel powered, which have issues concerning: dissolution (transfer back into solution) of zinc metal and the change in charge on the plastic electrode. • high environmental impact (CO2 emissions) • rising fuel prices annually • looming shortage of oil This has created a high interest drive to Zinc Plastic develop new batteries for electric vehicles. Electrode Electrode Dangers and Downfalls of Electric Vehicles EVs commercially available can utilise one of these batteries: Deep Eutectic Solvent Fig 2: Battery Prototype The improvements in safety are realised by the use of Deep Lead Acid Nickel Metal Lithium Ion Eutectic Solvents. These are air and moisture stable, formed Hydride from sustainable chemicals, and have been successfully used However, these have reached their practical limits in terms in metal deposition, thus are ideal for battery applications. A of energy (usage time) and power. The major concern is range of electrochemical techniques and microscopes will with safety; short circuiting can cause decomposition of be used to understand charge storage and transport of battery solvent and gas evolution, potentially resulting in ions/solvent in the conducting plastic electrode and battery packs setting on fire. This can be triggered by impact examine the metal electrode structure. of the battery units in a road traffic accident. Fig 1: Zotye Multipla EV sets on fire in Hangzhou, China in April 2011 cause unreported but can infer from Li Ion Battery fault (LiFePO4). Image Fig 3: Using the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and an AFM image of a reproduced from www.chinaautoweb.com plastic film Research funded by the EU FP7 framework programme.Leicester Ionic Liquids Group  www.polyzion.eu  Abbott AP, Barron JC, Ryder KS, Wilson D, Chem. Eur. J., 2007 ,13, 6495-6501  Smith EL, Fullarton C, Harris RC, Saleem S, Abbott AP, Ryder KS, Trans. Met. Fin. ,2010, 88, Green Solutions 66,285-293