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World Class Education: Educating Creative and Entrepreneurial Students (By Yong Zhao)


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The world needs creative and entrepreneurial talents who are globally competent to take advantage of the opportunities brought about technology and globalization and tackle the tough challenges facing human beings. But our schools are being pushed to produce homogenous, compliant, and employee-minded test-takers, as a result of seductive power of the traditional education paradigm. In this presentation, Dr. Yong Zhao challenges the traditional paradigm, debunks the myth of international tests such as PISA and TIMSS, and proposes a new paradigm of education aimed to cultivate diverse, creative, and entrepreneurial talents.

Dr. Zhao’s presentations is based on the massive amount of evidence from a variety of sources he gathered for his new book World Class Learners: Educating Creative and Entrepreneurial Students (Corwin, 2012) and his Catching Up or Leading the Way: American Education in the Age of Globalization (ASCD, 2009).

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World Class Education: Educating Creative and Entrepreneurial Students (By Yong Zhao)

  1. 1. U.S.:53% of Recent College Grads Are Jobless or UnderemployedThe Atlantic April 23, 2012 College Is Top Advice for World-Beating KoreansBusiness Week. September 12, 2012,000 graduates unemployed, and Why so?Sina, June 12, 2012, anger grows for Spanish youth, with 51 percent unemployedCBS Evening News, June 9, 2012 Africa:Young, jobless and desperate – Degrees with no guaranteesCity Press, June 16, 2012
  2. 2. Individual differences!Multiple intelligences Employable!Cultural diversity Schooling skillsCuriosity, passion, creativity
  3. 3. The Known Knowns Human nature: Diversity The economy: Changed Information: Everywhere The world: Globalized
  4. 4. Global Education Reform Movement GERM
  5. 5.
  6. 6. The future: The Age ofGlobalization The stone age did not end because they ran out of stones
  7. 7. 2005To create the same value in the U.S., 1970 it takes… 1940 1910
  8. 8. productivity-more-than-chinas-currency-responsible-for-loss-of-u-s-jobs/
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Distribution of Value for iPhone 2010 Cost of inputs: Non-China Labor Cost of inputs: China Labor 3% 2%Apple Employees:43,000 US, 20,000 overseasPeople working on Apple Products:700,000Apple profit: 400,000 per employee Cost of inputs: materials 22% Unidentified profits Apple Profits 5% 58% Korea Profits 5% Japan Profits 1% E.U. Profits Taiwan 1% Profits Non-Apple U.S. Profits 1% 2% Kraemer, K. L., Linden, G., & Dedrick, J. (2011). Capturing Value in Global Networks: Apple’s iPad and iPhone. Irvine, CA: Personal Computer Industry Center, UC-Irvine.
  11. 11. Employees Entrepreneurs
  12. 12. Mass Entrepreneurship Business entrepreneurs Social entrepreneurs Intrapreneurs Policy entrepreneurs
  13. 13. Entrepreneurial QualitiesConfidence Friends Risk-takingPassion Creativity Alertness to opportunityGlobalcompetency Uniqueness Empathy
  14. 14. Individual differences!Multiple intelligences Employable!Cultural diversity Schooling skillsCuriosity, passion, creativity
  15. 15. Side Effects
  16. 16. Why Didn’t China Have a Big Party?
  17. 17. Math Sciences Reading Shanghai,  China   Shanghai,  China   Shanghai,  China  Singapore    Finland    South  Korea  2009 PISA Results Hong  Kong,  China   Hong  Kong,  China   Finland    South  Korea   Singapore   Hong  Kong,  China    Taiwan   Japan   Singapore    Finland    South  Korea   Canada    Liechtenstein   New  Zealand   New  Zealand    Switzerland   Canada   Japan    Japan    Estonia    Australia    Canada    Australia   Netherlands  
  18. 18. Arne Duncan: “A wake-up call” Barack Obama: “A Sputnik moment”
  19. 19. A Grattan Institute report, to be released today, shows Australianperformance has slipped since 2000, with maths students now morethan two years behind children in Shanghai and one to two yearsbehind children in Hong Kong, Singapore and South Korea.--Sydney Morning Herald, 02-17-2012 become a nation of wusses. The Chinese are kicking our buttin everything. If this was in China do you think the Chinese wouldhave called off the game? People would have been marching downto the stadium. They would have walked and they would have beendoing calculus on the way down…--Former Pennsylvania Governor Ed Rendell on the rescheduling of an NFL game, 2010 am happy to confess I’d like us to implement a cultural revolutionjust like the one they’ve had in China…Like Chairman Mao, we’veembarked on a Long March to reform our education system.--Michael Gove, British Secretary of State for Education
  20. 20. Qian Xuesheng: “Why doesn’t China have great talents?”Wen Jiabao: “China must have entrepreneurs like Steve Jobs”Kai-fu Lee: The next Apple or Google will appear, but not in China…unless it abolishes its education.
  21. 21. Real Dragon or Paper Tiger: Patent filings in 2008 Europe 14,525 filings U.S.A. 400,769 filings U.S.A. 14,399 filings Japan 502,054 filings Japan 13,446 filings China 203,481 filings China 473 filings In 2010 China accounted for20% of the worlds population9% of the worlds GDP12% of the worlds R&D expenditure1% of the patent filings with or patents granted by any of theleading patent offices outside China.50 % of the China-origin patents were granted tosubsidiaries of foreign multinationals Source: Chinese Innovation is a Paper Tiger SB10001424053111904800304576472034085730262.html?mod=googlenews_wsj
  22. 22. Steve Wozniak: Apple couldn’t emerge in societies like Singapore where ‘badbehavior is not tolerated’ and people are not taught to think for themselves.Alexis Ong: Wozniak’s comments are really a scathing indictment of theSingapore education system, its strictly regimented curriculum and by-rote studytechniques that sustain the city’s “formal culture.”
  23. 23. Why Aren’t the Model Minority Happy?
  24. 24. 2008 NAEP Math Scores by Race/Ethnicity 350 300 250 200Scores 150 100 50 0 White Black Hispanic Asian Native Am 13 Yr Olds 290 262 268 304 274 17 Yr Olds 314 287 293 321 305
  25. 25. Asian Americans•  5% of the US population•  15 to 25% of Ivy League enrollment•  24% at Stanford•  46% at UC Berkeley•  64 percent of Asians versus 52 percent for Caucasians want to hold top positions•  2% of total 5,520 board seats of the Fortune 500 (98 of them have Asians on their board)
  26. 26. Why Is the U.S. Still Here?
  27. 27. Alexei vs Stephen: Curriculum and TimeInside photosshowed Alexeidoingcomplicatedexperiments in Stephen, byphysics and contrast, retreatedchemistry and from a geometry problem on thereading aloud blackboard and thefrom Sister caption advised,Carrie. "Stephen amused class with wisecracks about his ineptitude."1958 Seated at a typewriter in typing class, Stephen tells us I type about one word a minute.
  28. 28. Our Nation is at risk. Our once unchallenged preeminence in commerce, industry, science, and technological innovation is being overtaken by competitors throughout the world. the educational foundations of our society are presently being eroded by a rising tide of mediocrity that threatens our very future as a Nation and a people. We are raising a new generation of Americans that is scientifically and technologically illiterate.1983 Japan
  29. 29. Elephant vs. doctor: Aspirations 2 Million Minutes Bob ComptonSource: pressblog6.html
  30. 30. A Long History of Bad Test-takers•  1960s! –  FIMS: 12th out of 12 countries! –  FISS: 14th out of 18 countries!•  1970s/1980s! –  SIMS: 12, 14, 12, 12out of 15 (number systems, algebra, geometry, calculus)! –  SISS: 14th (biology), 12th (chemistry), 10th (physics) out of 14!•  1990s—2007: TIMSS (8th graders)! –  28th out of 42 in 1995! –  15th in 2003! –  9th in 2007
  31. 31. …America still has the largest, most prosperous economy in theworld. (Applause.) No workers -- no workers are more productivethan ours. No country has more successful companies, or grantsmore patents to inventors and entrepreneurs. We’re the home tothe world’s best colleges and universities, where more studentscome to study than any place on Earth.--President Obama, 2011 State of the Union Address
  32. 32. Possible Explanations
  33. 33. Asian Countries USATest scores Confidence USA Asian Countries 2003 TIMSS Results 2003 TIMSS Results
  34. 34. Singapore Disagree a USA lot 5% Disagree a litte Disagree 11% Agree a a lot lot 12% 18% Agree a lot Disagree 39% a litte 24% Agree a Agree a little little 45% 46%Responses to “I usually do well in Math”
  35. 35. Correlations between TIMSS Math Score and Confidence and Enjoyment Grade Correlation 4 -0.58 Confidence 8 -0.64 4 -0.67 Enjoyment 8 -0.75 Tom Loveless (2006): How Well Are American Students Learning
  36. 36. It is a miracle that curiosity survivesformal education.! --Albert Einstein
  37. 37. Correlations between PISA and Entrepreneurship Indicators PISA Reading PISA Math PISA SciencesPerceived Capabilities -.595** -.586** -.608**Nascent Entre Rate -.693** -.636** -.678**New Biz Ownsp Rate -.371* -.374* -.392*Total Early Stage Entre -.658** -.620** -.658**ActivityData source: OECD PISA 2010, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, 2010
  38. 38. Lady Gaga
  39. 39. Lady Gaga
  40. 40. If you judge a fish by its ability to climba tree, it will live its whole life believingthat it is stupid.! --Albert Einstein!
  41. 41. In our travels to China it was everywhere, that laser-focus oneducation…This public school in Shanghai where the childrenare two years old. By three they are in school from 8 until 4,already learning phrases in English…On average Chinesestudents attend schools 41 more days than American studentsa year and with extra lessons on the weekend, Chinesestudents receive 30% more hours of instruction.! --ABC World News with Diane Sawyer, 2010 !!
  42. 42. …what they learn and how they learn are subjects ofconstant debate. Critics see young people as being “fed”learning because they are seldom left on their own tolearn in a way of their choice. They have little directencounters with nature, for example, and little experiencewith society either. While they have learned a lot, theymay not have learned how to learn. ! --OECD, 2011!
  43. 43. The Difference between a $10,000 Education and a $10 Education
  44. 44. Individual differences!Multiple intelligences Employable!Cultural diversity Schooling skillsCuriosity, passion, creativity It is a miracle that curiosity survives formal education.! ---Albert Einstein
  45. 45. Individual differences!Multiple intelligences Employable! SchoolingCultural diversity skillsCuriosity, passion, creativityIndividual differences!Multiple intelligences Employable! SchoolingCultural diversity skillsCuriosity, passion, creativity
  46. 46. New Paradigm
  47. 47. Individual differences!Multiple intelligences Enhanced !Cultural diversity Schooling Human TalentsCuriosity, passion, creativity
  48. 48. If Lady Gaga is useful…
  49. 49. Personalized and strength-based educational experiences: Summerhill School
  50. 50. Austin’s Butterfly…
  51. 51. Product-oriented Learning:Multiple revisions, sustained anddisciplined process, peer reviews High Tech High
  52. 52. The Chicken Project
  53. 53. The Globalized Campus: Partners, Customers, and Investors: Oxford and Cherwell School
  54. 54. Entrepreneurship-oriented Education What: Student Autonomy How: Product- Where: The oriented Global Campus Learning
  55. 55. • Global partners Where: • Global markets The Global • Global resource Campus How: Product- oriented Learning• Authentic product• Drafts and review• Persistence and What: Student discipline Autonomy • Curriculum • Governance • Environment
  56. 56. Actions we could take:
Fixing the ship or building a new ship
  57. 57. Some experiments
  58. 58. OBA
  59. 59.