Mind, Brain, and Education:      How Cognitive & Neuro Science       Inform Educational Practice.          Kurt W. Fischer...
Brain: Most Complex Object in Universe       The Brain - is wider than the Sky -       For - put them side by side -      ...
Creating New Field of          Mind, Brain, & Education! International MBE Society & University Programs <   Harvard U., C...
Neuroplasticity:               The Adaptive Brain  • Learning experiences literally shape how  neurons in the brain connec...
But School Is [Students Fill in].                                                           BORING!                       ...
Illegitimate Claims from Neuroscience                                              XWorldPlugInBrainBucketVTS_05_1.VOB.lnk...
Response to Seeing a Word            Flashed                 What Other Regions                 Participate in Network for...
Speech: Broca’s Area & Wernicke’s Area   Parietal lobe:                                         Touch,                    ...
Inflating the Brain Image (throughComputer Processing) to Make More             Areas Visible.                            ...
Need for Research Schools:Research and Development for Schools! Research and development are commonplace in  most industri...
Prime Example Is Sesame Street:        Research on Practice Every Day ! Ongoing Assessment of Practice ! Tool for Improvin...
Educating All Children:Many Different Pathways to Learning. Educating 25% of Our Students Successfully            Is Not G...
Learning Pathways Involve Webs,              Not Ladders.              Standard Model of Reading              With an Alph...
Developmental Webs, with Coordination        of Separate Domains   3 Domains to Coordinate  Meaning     Sound     Visual- ...
Study of Children Reading Single Words               Knight & Fischer, 1992! Grades 1-3! Full Range from Good to Poor Read...
6 Tasks for Each Word! Word Definition (Meaning)! Letter Identification (Visual-graphic)! Rhyme Recognition (Sound)! Rhyme...
Modal         Standard Simple                          and    Model                                    of                 ...
Dendrogram for Tasks      For Entire Sample, including High & Low Readers! Based on Partially Ordered Scaling technique  (...
Profiles of 6 Tasks for Main Developmental PathwayStep    Word         Letter        Rhyme      Reading     Rhyme      Rea...
ModalDevelopmental               WORD DEFINITION  Pathway                              .11                              .1...
Are There Several Pathways Hidden                  Here?! Based on Pattern Analysis of Profiles of 6 Tasks  for Each of 16...
SecondDevelopmental        WORD DEFINITION  Pathway:Read & Rhyme              LETTER Independent          IDENTIFICATION  ...
Third Developmental             WORD DEFINITION   Pathway:Read, Rhyme, &    Letter Identification Independent             ...
The Centrality of Culture          Cultural Assumptions:      Which Direction Do You Read?       Right to Left, or Left to...
Cultural Assumptions:     Right to Left
Differences in Pathwaysfor Visual Talents in People with Dyslexia! New Research on Visual Talents in Dyslexic  Scientists ...
Distribution of Sensitivity in Visual Field              Differs in Dyslexics.Development: MoreSensitivity in Periphery,Le...
•l vl         dyslexia  linked to visual talents?       dyslexia over-     represented in art        schools by a         ...
•l vl      impossible        figures People with dyslexia are 50%faster at distinguishing possible    and impossible figur...
Talents for Holistic Integration   across the Visual Field Example: Star Fields and Astrophysicists
•l vl       enhanced peripheral ability                                            d                                  w   ...
•l vlGeiger, G. and J. Y. Lettvin (1987). New England Journal of Medicine 316(20): 1238-1243.
•l vlGeiger, G. and J. Y. Lettvin (1987). New England Journal of Medicine 316(20): 1238-1243.
•l vlblack hole detection
Scientists Dyslexia at        with     Excel                    Peripheral       •l                            Detection. ...
Dyslexia Advantagein Black Hole Detection
Compare Normal? Students (Harvard)  with Landmark College Students            (Dyslexic)
With Image Blurred, Harvard StudentsNot Able to Detect Letters in Photos.    Landmark Students Did Learn!     Memory Targe...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Mind, Brain, and Education: How Cognitive & Neuro Science Inform Educational Practice (By Kurt Fischer)

1,915 views

Published on

Our goal is to connect the knowledge base from cognitive development and neuroscience to practical knowledge about learning and teaching in educational environments. Grounding learning and teaching in research about learning, we have discovered a universal scale for learning – which greatly increases the power of assessments and makes possible the use of a common toolkit for learning sequences in any domain. In addition, we have been able to design on-line computer-based assessments that make assessment both less expensive and more convenient. The tests start with assessments that are connected to learning environments and can be used directly to promote and guide learning. Our goal is to move beyond using tests as sorting mechanisms and toward using them as powerful aids for education.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,915
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
53
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Mind, Brain, and Education: How Cognitive & Neuro Science Inform Educational Practice (By Kurt Fischer)

  1. 1. Mind, Brain, and Education: How Cognitive & Neuro Science Inform Educational Practice. Kurt W. Fischer, Harvard G.S. Education! Relating Mind, Brain, & Education (MBE) < Need for Sound Science, Not Mere Brain Claims < Brain Plasticity! Using Cognitive & Neuro Science To Inform Educational Practice. < Different Pathways for Learning! Research Schools: Studying Learning and Teaching in Schools Barcelona, 26 Nov 2012
  2. 2. Brain: Most Complex Object in Universe The Brain - is wider than the Sky - For - put them side by side - The one the other will contain With ease - and You - beside - Minister of The Brain is deeper than the sea - For - hold them - Blue to Blue Education in a The one the other will absorb - European As Sponges - Buckets - do - Country The Brain is just the weight of God - For - Heft them - Pound for Pound And they will differ - if they do - As syllable from Sound - Emily Dickinson 1862
  3. 3. Creating New Field of Mind, Brain, & Education! International MBE Society & University Programs < Harvard U., Cambridge U., U. Texas at Arlington, East China Normal University! Journal & Books < Wiley-Blackwell, Cambridge U. Press, Guilford..... AAP Award! Collaboration with Other International Groups < OECD < Pontifical Academy of Sciences 400th < Learning & Brain < Japanese Baby Science! Beyond the Fad to Build a Field < Building a Network of Research Schools
  4. 4. Neuroplasticity: The Adaptive Brain • Learning experiences literally shape how neurons in the brain connect with one another.Learning a New Skill Requires Growing a New Neural Network. • Connectivity patterns influence how the brain processes new information. Dendrites Cell body Axon OECD, 2007
  5. 5. But School Is [Students Fill in]. BORING! C & M Suàrez-Orozco Treating Students as Disembodied Brains into Which We Pump Knowledge!Better Model: ActiveIntelligence –Grasping & Buildingwith the Mind XWorldPlugInBrainBucketVTS_05_1.VOB.lnk
  6. 6. Illegitimate Claims from Neuroscience XWorldPlugInBrainBucketVTS_05_1.VOB.lnk (Command Line)! Learning Involves Filling Our Brains with Knowledge – NOT.! There Are Left-Brain and Right-Brain People – NOT.! We Only Use Half (or Less) of Our Brains – NOT.! Boys & Girls Have Fundamentally Different Brains – NOT.
  7. 7. Response to Seeing a Word Flashed What Other Regions Participate in Network for Seeing a Word?dog º Visual Area
  8. 8. Speech: Broca’s Area & Wernicke’s Area Parietal lobe: Touch, Spatial, etc. Frontal lobe: Motor action, Executive, Occipital lobe: Emotion, Vision, etc. etc. Seeing Word Temporal lobe: Brain Stem, Hearing, etc. Cerebellum Front of Head
  9. 9. Inflating the Brain Image (throughComputer Processing) to Make More Areas Visible. Watch the Brain Activity Pattern Several Times. Duration: Less Than a Second (Halgren, Poldrack)Shortcut to meg_word_readingSld20PoldrackVideoEHalgren.mpeg.lnk (Command Line)
  10. 10. Need for Research Schools:Research and Development for Schools! Research and development are commonplace in most industries and fields. < Cosmetics, Chemicals, Agriculture.... < Traffic Safety: National Data Base < We Need Research and Development in Education!! Educational theory should be tested by its consequences in action (Dewey, 1896, 1938).! Research informs practice, and practice informs research.
  11. 11. Prime Example Is Sesame Street: Research on Practice Every Day ! Ongoing Assessment of Practice ! Tool for Improving Learning and Teaching. ! Gerald Lesser, Children and television: Lessons from Sesame Street. Random HouseDoing Research in Schools: Establishing Partnershipbetween Schools and Universities to Study Learning.
  12. 12. Educating All Children:Many Different Pathways to Learning. Educating 25% of Our Students Successfully Is Not Good Enough!Tower of Babel: Different Languages, Different Learning Pieter Brughel the Elder
  13. 13. Learning Pathways Involve Webs, Not Ladders. Standard Model of Reading With an Alphabetic System: 3 Domains to Integrate! 1. Meaning of Words (Definition)! 2. Sound Analysis, especially Rhyme! 3. Visual-Graphic (Letters Spell Words)! Standard Model: Child Must Integrate These Domains to Read Effectively.
  14. 14. Developmental Webs, with Coordination of Separate Domains 3 Domains to Coordinate Meaning Sound Visual- Analysis Graphic
  15. 15. Study of Children Reading Single Words Knight & Fischer, 1992! Grades 1-3! Full Range from Good to Poor Readers frog! N = 120 boat cake! Words were from school curriculum. fish (16 words) train string ......
  16. 16. 6 Tasks for Each Word! Word Definition (Meaning)! Letter Identification (Visual-graphic)! Rhyme Recognition (Sound)! Rhyme Production (Sound)! Reading Recognition (Integration)! Reading Production (Integration)
  17. 17. Modal Standard Simple and Model of Reading Developmental Pathway: WORD DEFINITION Integration ofRead & Rhyme LETTER RHYME IDENTIFICATION RECOGNITION READING RECOGNITION Integration of Domains Leads to Single Sequence of Tasks instead of RHYME Branching. PRODUCTION READING PRODUCTION
  18. 18. Dendrogram for Tasks For Entire Sample, including High & Low Readers! Based on Partially Ordered Scaling technique (POSI)! which does Guttman Scaling that allows Branching.! Many studies use techniques analyzing orderings of all pairs of items. < Today Rasch scaling is widely used.
  19. 19. Profiles of 6 Tasks for Main Developmental PathwayStep Word Letter Rhyme Reading Rhyme Reading Definition Identification Recognition Recognition Production Production0 - - - - - -1 + - - - - -2a + + - - - -2b + - + - - -3 + + + - - -4 + + + + - -5 + + + + + -6 + + + + + +
  20. 20. ModalDevelopmental WORD DEFINITION Pathway .11 .17 RHYME LETTER RECOGNITION IDENTIFICATION .11 .17 READING RECOGNITIONWhat about Poor Readers? What about Hard Words? .44Does This Integration Model Capture the Whole Story? RHYME Dendrogram PRODUCTION from POSITotal Sample = .28120 Childrenin Grades 1-3 READING PRODUCTION
  21. 21. Are There Several Pathways Hidden Here?! Based on Pattern Analysis of Profiles of 6 Tasks for Each of 16 Words,! There Are Two Additional Pathways Besides the Modal One. < Every Student Fit One of These Pathways! P It Is Rare to Successfully Characterize All Subjects in a Study.
  22. 22. SecondDevelopmental WORD DEFINITION Pathway:Read & Rhyme LETTER Independent IDENTIFICATION READING RECOGNITION RHYME RECOGNITION READING PRODUCTION RHYME PRODUCTION
  23. 23. Third Developmental WORD DEFINITION Pathway:Read, Rhyme, & Letter Identification Independent READING RHYME RECOGNITION RECOGNITION LETTER IDENTIFICATION READING RHYME PRODUCTION PRODUCTION
  24. 24. The Centrality of Culture Cultural Assumptions: Which Direction Do You Read? Right to Left, or Left to Right? Assumption by AdvertiserBruno della Chiesa
  25. 25. Cultural Assumptions: Right to Left
  26. 26. Differences in Pathwaysfor Visual Talents in People with Dyslexia! New Research on Visual Talents in Dyslexic Scientists < Matt Schneps, Todd Rose, and Kurt Fischer, in journal Mind, Brain, and Education: P Plus 7 new articles in press or submitted.! Development of Visual Fields in Dyslexics and Normal Readers < Escher Figures < Geiger & Lettvin, Winner & von Karolyi < Visual Scanning Fields
  27. 27. Distribution of Sensitivity in Visual Field Differs in Dyslexics.Development: MoreSensitivity in Periphery,Less in Fovea.Result: Greater Capacityfor Detecting Patternsacross Wide Areas ofVisual Fields, e.g.Astronomers(But More Distractability)Task for the Future:Describing These Talents& Limits.
  28. 28. •l vl dyslexia linked to visual talents? dyslexia over- represented in art schools by a factor of 2 chuck closeWolff, U. and I. Lundberg (2002). "The prevalence of dyslexia among art students."Dyslexia 8(1): 34-42.
  29. 29. •l vl impossible figures People with dyslexia are 50%faster at distinguishing possible and impossible figures.
  30. 30. Talents for Holistic Integration across the Visual Field Example: Star Fields and Astrophysicists
  31. 31. •l vl enhanced peripheral ability d w vary eccentricity very quick flash ~15 msGeiger, G. and J. Y. Lettvin (1987). New England Journal of Medicine 316(20): 1238-1243.
  32. 32. •l vlGeiger, G. and J. Y. Lettvin (1987). New England Journal of Medicine 316(20): 1238-1243.
  33. 33. •l vlGeiger, G. and J. Y. Lettvin (1987). New England Journal of Medicine 316(20): 1238-1243.
  34. 34. •l vlblack hole detection
  35. 35. Scientists Dyslexia at with Excel Peripheral •l Detection. vl finding black holes detection is often difficult
  36. 36. Dyslexia Advantagein Black Hole Detection
  37. 37. Compare Normal? Students (Harvard) with Landmark College Students (Dyslexic)
  38. 38. With Image Blurred, Harvard StudentsNot Able to Detect Letters in Photos. Landmark Students Did Learn! Memory Target Is Letter on Tire.

×