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Enhancing the Creativity of Children through
    the Use of Digital Video Technology
                 Janak Bhimani, Ichiya Nakamura
         Keio University, Graduate School of Media Design
Theme
At the crossroads of creativity and technology,
   children, through the use of digital video
    hardware and software, combined with
 traditional play artifacts and activities, have
    unique opportunities to enhance their
     imaginative output like never before.
Overview
• Background and Motivation
• Literature Review and Related works
•Workshop Method
•Workshops
• Evaluation and Discussion
•Conclusion
Background and Motivation
• Time is right
   • Children as earliest “early adopters” in digital age
   • Economic Factors  affordability
   • Digital Video Technology  portability



   • Convergence Culture
       • Paradigm shift in media production and consumption
       • Parallel in education  passive to active learning


• Author’s Professional Background
   • Elementary Education                     Learning Niche
   • Broadcast Media
Literature Review and Related Works
• Creativity In Children
   • Vygotsky –children, by their nature, are creative
   • Csikszentmihalyi – creativity must be developed (adults)
   • Sternberg – outside factors affect creativity (+ and -)

• Participatory Culture
   • Bruner – learning is collaborative; old models of education
     defunct in age of communication and interconnectedness
   • Jenkins – New Media Literacies to confront obstacles
     hampering progression of participatory culture
Literature Review and Related Works
• Interaction Design for Children
   • Interdisciplinary – education, mobile devices, robotics, art,
     sociology, video technology, etc. – emphasis on creativity
   • Focus on narrative story telling
   • Activities with educational and emotional value


• Related Works
   • Corporations, private companies, international and
     regional non-profit organizations
   • The video L.A.B. (BBC Scotland), Kidzania Tokyo, Kids with
     Cameras (India and Global), Canvas (Japan)
Method
                                NAM++ Method                                   [1]                                                            T2=C method




[1] Decortis, F., A. Rizzo, and B. Saudelli. "Mediating effects of active distributed instruments on narrative activities." Interacting with Computers 15.6 (2003): 801-830.
Workshops Incorporating Digital Video
                 Technology
1.




2.
                        Background
                        Design
3.
                        Process and
                         Creative Output
4.
Social    Finger
Issues    Puppets
Through
Story
          and HD
Telling   Video
WEF KIDS
Background

Design

 Process and Creative Output
.




               Real-time
    Media      Blue
    Literacy   Screen
               Reporting
KIDS VIDS
Background

Design

 Process and Creative Output
3




             Film-
Video        making
Journalism   and editing
             (Documentary)
1 Day Reporter – Behind the Scenes at Yokohama Burg 13


Background             @
Design

 Process and Creative Output
Traditional    Start to
               Finish
&              Production
Digital        w/stop
Storytelling   motion
               filming
Nendomation
Background                     @
Design

 Process and Creative Output
Evaluation
• Analysis of the four workshops
    To demonstrate that workshops for children incorporating digital video
     technology provide children with means of expressing their creativity
     in ways which are different, and even new, from those they are
     exposed to in their everyday life
    Quantitative: Results and Findings
        • Data from Interviews and/or questionnaires
        • Two perspectives:
             •   Children – Participants
             •   Parents /Guardians -- observers with intimate knowledge of the participants

     Qualitative: Observation and Reflection
        • Lessons Learned  improvements/modifications for future workshops
        • Management/Design perspective
Evaluation
Nendomation Survey Questions for Children                                      Nendomation Survey Questions for Parents/Guardians

                                                                               1) How did you hear about this event? (Select as many as you like)
1) Was this your first time making clay animation?
                                                                                  1.Flyer 2.Internet 3.Friends 4.School 5.Other__________________________
   1.Yes 2.No
                                                                               2) Please tell us your reasons for having your children participate in the workshop?
2) Was this workshop fun?                                                         (Select as many as you like)
   1.Very Fun 2. Fun 3. Average 4. Not so fun 5. Not fun at all                   1.Looked interesting/fun 2.Looked educational 3.Child/children wanted to
                                                                                  participate 4.Wanted child/children to be familiar with digital technology
                                                                                  5.Other_______________________________
3) Was this workshop difficult?
   1.Very difficult 2.Difficult 3.Okay 4.Easy 5.Very easy                      3) “What did you expect your children to learn from the workshop?”


4) What was the most interesting part of the workshop?                         4) What did you like the most about the workshop?
                                                                                  1.Story/scenario making 2.Character making 3.Filming 4.Presentation
   1.Story/scenario making 2.Character making 3.Filming 4.Presentation
                                                                               5) How would you rate the quality of the workshop?
5) How would you describe your facilitator’s performance?                         1.Very good 2.Good 3.Standard 4.Not good 5.Bad
   1.Very Good 2.Good 3.Avergae 4. Not so good 5. Not good
                                                                               6) How would you evaluate the structure of the workshop?
                                                                                  1.Very Good 2.Good 3.Average 4.Bad 5.Very bad
6) How would you evaluate the structure of the workshop?
   1.Very Good 2.Good 3.Average 4.Bad 5.Very bad                               7) How familiar were your children with digital technology before participating in the
                                                                                  workshop?
7) How would you describe using the camera, computer and animation software?      1.Very familiar 2.Familiar 3. Average 4.Not very familiar 5.Not familiar
   1.Very difficult 2.Difficult 3.Average 4. Easy 5.Very easy
                                                                               8) Would you like your child to participate in a similar type of workshop?
                                                                                   1.Yes 2.No
8) Please leave any comments or suggestions.
                                                                               9) Please leave any comments or suggestions.
Evaluation
         Discussion
            Researcher's observation combined with quantitative and qualitative
              results
            Commonality: T2=C method
            Ethnographic methodology[2] to evaluate research:
                                   Substantive Contribution: creative output with technology is not possible without it
                                   Aesthetic Merit: workshop detail, children’s enjoyment, imaginative contents by children
                                   Reflexivity: project leader, responsible for design, management and oversight
                                   Impact: participants moved intellectually (novelty) and emotionally (involvement and/or
                                    research)
                                   Expresses a Reality: participants gain an understanding of digital video based workshops both
                                    in both intricate detail and state of the art in the larger scope of society




[2]Richardson, Laurel. "Evaluating Ethnography." Qualitative Inquiry 6.2 (2000): 253-255.
Conclusion
 Never stop starting
    Research never ends
    More work needed
 Future Works
    More participation/involvement
    Manual development
      •   First step in building a community based workshop-knowledge database
      •   Grassroots distribution/contribution with potential global impact
      •   Simplicity: Adaptability and Scalability  easy to modify and adapt
      •   Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License
Conclusion
Conclusion
Enhancing the creativity of children through the use of digital video technology (By Janak Bhimani)

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Enhancing the creativity of children through the use of digital video technology (By Janak Bhimani)

  • 1. Enhancing the Creativity of Children through the Use of Digital Video Technology Janak Bhimani, Ichiya Nakamura Keio University, Graduate School of Media Design
  • 2. Theme At the crossroads of creativity and technology, children, through the use of digital video hardware and software, combined with traditional play artifacts and activities, have unique opportunities to enhance their imaginative output like never before.
  • 3. Overview • Background and Motivation • Literature Review and Related works •Workshop Method •Workshops • Evaluation and Discussion •Conclusion
  • 4. Background and Motivation • Time is right • Children as earliest “early adopters” in digital age • Economic Factors  affordability • Digital Video Technology  portability • Convergence Culture • Paradigm shift in media production and consumption • Parallel in education  passive to active learning • Author’s Professional Background • Elementary Education Learning Niche • Broadcast Media
  • 5. Literature Review and Related Works • Creativity In Children • Vygotsky –children, by their nature, are creative • Csikszentmihalyi – creativity must be developed (adults) • Sternberg – outside factors affect creativity (+ and -) • Participatory Culture • Bruner – learning is collaborative; old models of education defunct in age of communication and interconnectedness • Jenkins – New Media Literacies to confront obstacles hampering progression of participatory culture
  • 6. Literature Review and Related Works • Interaction Design for Children • Interdisciplinary – education, mobile devices, robotics, art, sociology, video technology, etc. – emphasis on creativity • Focus on narrative story telling • Activities with educational and emotional value • Related Works • Corporations, private companies, international and regional non-profit organizations • The video L.A.B. (BBC Scotland), Kidzania Tokyo, Kids with Cameras (India and Global), Canvas (Japan)
  • 7. Method NAM++ Method [1] T2=C method [1] Decortis, F., A. Rizzo, and B. Saudelli. "Mediating effects of active distributed instruments on narrative activities." Interacting with Computers 15.6 (2003): 801-830.
  • 8. Workshops Incorporating Digital Video Technology 1. 2. Background Design 3. Process and Creative Output 4.
  • 9. Social Finger Issues Puppets Through Story and HD Telling Video
  • 11.
  • 12. . Real-time Media Blue Literacy Screen Reporting
  • 14.
  • 15. 3 Film- Video making Journalism and editing (Documentary)
  • 16. 1 Day Reporter – Behind the Scenes at Yokohama Burg 13 Background @ Design  Process and Creative Output
  • 17.
  • 18. Traditional Start to Finish & Production Digital w/stop Storytelling motion filming
  • 19. Nendomation Background @ Design  Process and Creative Output
  • 20.
  • 21. Evaluation • Analysis of the four workshops  To demonstrate that workshops for children incorporating digital video technology provide children with means of expressing their creativity in ways which are different, and even new, from those they are exposed to in their everyday life  Quantitative: Results and Findings • Data from Interviews and/or questionnaires • Two perspectives: • Children – Participants • Parents /Guardians -- observers with intimate knowledge of the participants  Qualitative: Observation and Reflection • Lessons Learned  improvements/modifications for future workshops • Management/Design perspective
  • 22. Evaluation Nendomation Survey Questions for Children Nendomation Survey Questions for Parents/Guardians 1) How did you hear about this event? (Select as many as you like) 1) Was this your first time making clay animation? 1.Flyer 2.Internet 3.Friends 4.School 5.Other__________________________ 1.Yes 2.No 2) Please tell us your reasons for having your children participate in the workshop? 2) Was this workshop fun? (Select as many as you like) 1.Very Fun 2. Fun 3. Average 4. Not so fun 5. Not fun at all 1.Looked interesting/fun 2.Looked educational 3.Child/children wanted to participate 4.Wanted child/children to be familiar with digital technology 5.Other_______________________________ 3) Was this workshop difficult? 1.Very difficult 2.Difficult 3.Okay 4.Easy 5.Very easy 3) “What did you expect your children to learn from the workshop?” 4) What was the most interesting part of the workshop? 4) What did you like the most about the workshop? 1.Story/scenario making 2.Character making 3.Filming 4.Presentation 1.Story/scenario making 2.Character making 3.Filming 4.Presentation 5) How would you rate the quality of the workshop? 5) How would you describe your facilitator’s performance? 1.Very good 2.Good 3.Standard 4.Not good 5.Bad 1.Very Good 2.Good 3.Avergae 4. Not so good 5. Not good 6) How would you evaluate the structure of the workshop? 1.Very Good 2.Good 3.Average 4.Bad 5.Very bad 6) How would you evaluate the structure of the workshop? 1.Very Good 2.Good 3.Average 4.Bad 5.Very bad 7) How familiar were your children with digital technology before participating in the workshop? 7) How would you describe using the camera, computer and animation software? 1.Very familiar 2.Familiar 3. Average 4.Not very familiar 5.Not familiar 1.Very difficult 2.Difficult 3.Average 4. Easy 5.Very easy 8) Would you like your child to participate in a similar type of workshop? 1.Yes 2.No 8) Please leave any comments or suggestions. 9) Please leave any comments or suggestions.
  • 23. Evaluation  Discussion  Researcher's observation combined with quantitative and qualitative results  Commonality: T2=C method  Ethnographic methodology[2] to evaluate research:  Substantive Contribution: creative output with technology is not possible without it  Aesthetic Merit: workshop detail, children’s enjoyment, imaginative contents by children  Reflexivity: project leader, responsible for design, management and oversight  Impact: participants moved intellectually (novelty) and emotionally (involvement and/or research)  Expresses a Reality: participants gain an understanding of digital video based workshops both in both intricate detail and state of the art in the larger scope of society [2]Richardson, Laurel. "Evaluating Ethnography." Qualitative Inquiry 6.2 (2000): 253-255.
  • 24. Conclusion  Never stop starting  Research never ends  More work needed  Future Works  More participation/involvement  Manual development • First step in building a community based workshop-knowledge database • Grassroots distribution/contribution with potential global impact • Simplicity: Adaptability and Scalability  easy to modify and adapt • Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License