United Nations                                                                                                            ...
A/56/180    I. Introduction                                          year 2050, when it is estimated that there will be a ...
A/56/180influence the process meaningfully. Youth participation     economic situation in many countries is often notthus ...
A/56/180that by 2005 at least 90 per cent, and by 2010 at least      20. Issues of access to secondary and higher95 per ce...
A/56/180wastage of vital human resources. In both developed         developed countries, who were able to establishand dev...
A/56/180               Table               Summary of actions taken by Governments to implement the World Programme       ...
A/56/180     Asia and the Pacific                                   separate Department of Youth Affairs and Sports was   ...
A/56/180prepares and presents to the Government an annual          international youth forum called the Internationalnatio...
A/56/180employment and social development. Additionally, it is      and social facilities, such as parks, and public libra...
A/56/180May to 1 June and from 4 to 8 June 2001, respectively.   intergovernmental cooperation included, for example,The m...
A/56/180of young people to those living within its borders. The      programme establishes alliances with the public andEu...
A/56/180Youth” Global Forum on Drug Abuse Prevention, held         The UNEP Global Youth Forum (Youth for Sustainablein Ba...
A/56/180fourth World Youth Forum of the United Nations              52. The special session of the General Assembly onSyst...
A/56/180demonstrate the wide impact of WFP food assistance         58. The youth organizations that are currentlyon the li...
A/56/180organizations and representatives of United Nationsentities took the lead in all preparations for the event.The Co...
A/56/180Annexa               Status of implementation of national youth policies,               coordination mechanisms an...
A/56/180Papua New Guineab c d                         Seychellesb c d                              Trinidad and Tobagob c ...
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2001 - Implementation of the World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond (A/56/180)

  1. 1. United Nations A/56/180 General Assembly Distr.: General 12 July 2001 Original: EnglishFifty-sixth sessionItem 120 of the preliminary list*Social development, including questions relating tothe world social situation and to youth, ageing,disabled persons in the family Implementation of the World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond Report of the Secretary-General**Contents Paragraphs Page I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–2 2 II. Priority youth issues for the twenty-first century: globalization and empowerment of youth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–26 2 III. Implementation of the World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27–55 5 A. National level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27–38 5 B. Regional level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39–47 9 C. Global level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48–55 11 IV. Youth participation at the United Nations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56–62 14 Annex Status of implementation of national youth policies, coordination mechanisms and programmes of action as at May 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 * A/56/50. ** The footnote requested by the General Assembly in resolution 54/248 was not included in the submission.01-45753 (E) 170901*0145753*
  2. 2. A/56/180 I. Introduction year 2050, when it is estimated that there will be a total of 1,176 billion youth between 15 and 24 years.11. In its resolution 54/120 of 17 December 1999 on 5. It is important to note that a large majority ofpolicies and programmes involving youth, the General youth live in developing countries. For 2000, it wasAssembly requested the Secretary-General to report to estimated that 85 per cent of the total of 900 millionit at its fifty-sixth session on the implementation of the youth lived in developing parts of the world. That shareresolution, in particular, on progress made in the is expected to increase further as more developedimplementation of the World Programme of Action for countries show a larger growth of ageing populations.Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond (resolution 50/81,annex). 6. It should be recalled that, since the International Youth Year in 1985, the General Assembly has defined2. The present report is based on replies received youth participation as including four components:from Member States, entities of the United Nations economic participation, relating to work andsystem and non-governmental organizations, as well as development; political participation, relating toon statements by Member States to the General decision-making processes and distribution of power;Assembly at its fifty-fifth session. The report is also social participation, relating to community involvementbased on other information on youth policies and and the peer group; and cultural participation, relatingprogrammes collected by the Youth Unit, Division for to the arts, music, cultural values and expression (seeSocial Policy and Development, Department of A/40/256). In global terms, the Convention of theEconomic and Social Affairs, during 1999-2001. Rights of the Child (resolution 44/25, annex) has laid down some principles in relation to young people’s participation. Article 12 recognizes the rights ofII. Priority youth issues for the children and young people to express those views twenty-first century: globalization freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the and empowerment of youth child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child. Article 13 recognizes the3. The General Assembly first defined youth in right to freedom of expression, article 14, freedom of1985 for the International Youth Year as those persons thought, conscience and religion, and article 15,between 15 and 24 years of age, without prejudice to freedom of association and peaceful assembly.other definitions of Member States (A/40/256, para. 7. Participation is also a development strategy and19). Since 1985, all the statistical services of the can be seen as a process through which stakeholdersUnited Nations system have used the age cohort 15-24 influence and share control over developmentto collect global statistics on youth. When the initiatives and resources. Participation involvesAssembly, by its resolution 50/81 of 14 December transparency, openness and a voice in public decisions.1995, adopted the World Programme of Action for Democracy requires that citizens be vigilant inYouth to the Year 2000 and Beyond, it reiterated that expressing their right to participate and to have theirthe United Nations defined youth as the age cohort 15- views respected by political authority. Young people24. However, it was also recognized that, apart from and their organizations have often appeared as leadersthat statistical definition, the meaning of the term in demanding that right; in fact, youth and students“youth” varied in different societies around the world have often played crucial roles in bringing aboutand that definitions of youth had changed continuously political change and progress towards more democraticin response to fluctuating political, economic and structures of governance.socio-cultural circumstances. 8. The development process in which policy4. From 1995 to 2000, the world’s estimated youth formulation, implementation and evaluation take placepopulation grew from some 1,026 million to 1,066 often does not include young people as part of themillion, reflecting a decrease in the share of the global decision-making mechanisms. In many cases, decisionspopulation from 18.1 per cent to 17.6 per cent. As the about development activities are imposed on youngworld’s populations are ageing, the medium-variant people, even when they can contribute and benefitprojection for the share of youth in the global total is more from the development process if allowed toexpected to decrease further, to 13.2 per cent in the2
  3. 3. A/56/180influence the process meaningfully. Youth participation economic situation in many countries is often notthus enables young people to make decisions with favourable to youth participation and development.adults on a regular basis, in their schools, community Young people are not always able to perform their rolesor local government. It develops their capacity to as agents and beneficiaries of development and thebecome engaged citizens in society; it shifts public creation of wealth.action from implementing activities for youth to 12. At present, the quest for economic globalization,providing youth with support to bring about change on while it holds tremendous promise for all countries, istheir own. creating more difficulties for poor and developing9. The concept of empowerment includes nations. Furthermore, external debt of many countriesparticipation, rights and responsibilities, capacity- prevents those countries from meeting the needs ofbuilding and social integration. To empower youth their people, of whom youth make up a considerablesuggests conferring power to young people as segment. Full participation of youth in economicindividuals or as members of youth organizations, development thus becomes more problematic.communities and national and international bodies so 13. Macroeconomic instability has deep implicationsthat they have the opportunity to make decisions that for youth development. Also, regional economicaffect their life and well-being instead of having integration processes present major challenges fordecisions made for them that may go against their youth participation in the economic development ofactual wishes and interests. Empowerment thus their countries. The future of youth in those regionalinvolves young people as active agents for change and processes must be critically assessed in order to avoiddevelopment, instead of youth as passive targets of ad hoc approaches to the integration of young people.externally initiated programmes. An underlyingassumption behind the empowerment concept is that 14. In the new millennium, poverty continues to be ayouth actors lack the power or have insufficient major issue for young people. Poverty robs them ofcapacity to exercise their right to choose and act. their right to opportunities for a decent standard ofHence their autonomy should be respected, restored or living. In both developed and developing countries, asenhanced. To that end, it is important to build up their a result of poverty, many young people are living oncapacity and to remove obstacles that stand in the way the margins of their society, with little hope ofof the assumption of independence. In that context, overcoming their difficult circumstances. In rural andcapacity-building complements empowerment. urban areas, poverty strikes at the young, causing many young people to move from their homes to urban areas,10. At the community and national levels, youth where many, constantly live without any chance oforganizations, especially in developing countries, do reaching a decent standard of living. Furthermore, innot always have adequate capacity to empower many instances their situation of poverty leads tothemselves. In cases where youth organizations might drastic problems such as hunger, homelessness,possess the required capacity, many of them need to disease, crime, violence and alienation. In the midst ofuse that capacity to empower themselves to remove poverty, young people are expected to contribute tobarriers to articulating and acting themselves on their their societies. However, poverty itself prevents themconcerns and on issues that affect youth. Youth from doing so.empowerment in relation to globalization can thus bedefined as a greater awareness of both the constraints 15. With respect to health, young adults are particularlyto economic, political, social and cultural participation vulnerable to infection with human immunodeficiencyand an increased capacity to make the most of available virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/opportunities to overcome those constraints. AIDS): approximately half of the new HIV infections are in youth aged 15 to 24. An estimated 5.3 million11. The economic situation of developing countries people were newly infected with HIV/AIDS in 2000;contributes to the precarious situation of many young no fewer than 6,500 young people acquired the virus onpeople. In both developing and developed countries, a daily basis.millions of young people’s needs and aspirations arestill unmet. The state of a country’s economy is tied 16. In view of the consequent need for urgent action,directly to the ability of that country to address the Member States meeting at the special session of theneeds of large segments of the unemployed. The General Assembly on HIV/AIDS in June 2001 agreed 3
  4. 4. A/56/180that by 2005 at least 90 per cent, and by 2010 at least 20. Issues of access to secondary and higher95 per cent of young women and men should have education have continued to be influenced by highaccess to the information, education, peer education costs and increased rationalization of the formaland youth-specific HIV education and services education system by Governments. In addition, manynecessary to develop the needed life skills to reduce educational systems have not responded adequately totheir vulnerability. That process involves full the problems faced by youth and youth participation inpartnership with youth, parents, families, educators and vocational training systems has often been inadequate.health-care providers. Many young people are still not prepared to enter the labour market as competent and qualified workers,17. It was also agreed that, by 2003, national targets leading to a continued demand for education policiesshould be set in order to reach the international global that are relevant to and have a positive impact on theprevention goal to reduce HIV infections in young lives of young people.women and men in the severely affected countries by25 per cent by 2005 and globally by 25 per cent by 21. Beyond compulsory education, the system in2010. To achieve those targets, the active participation many countries is still geared towards an outmodedof young men and women is crucial. view of society based on manufacturing and a protected national economy. The growth in the services sector18. HIV/AIDS is not the only health issue and the exposure of national economies to globalconfronting young people. Millions of young people competition require major changes not only inare not able to receive adequate and quality health care curriculum content but also in the settings in whichbecause of the absence of a proper and modern health learning takes place and the outcome standardsinfrastructure. In other countries, young people often required. Education providers need to prove that theyhave little or no access to health services. Also, young are pursuing internationally recognized standards ofpeople are prevented from benefiting from good- literacy, numeracy and other life skills such asquality health services because of the costs location, teamwork, computer skills and problem-solving so thatand limited youth-friendliness of the services. their students can compete in a global labour market.Recommendations made by the World Conference of The Dakar Framework for Action approved by theMinisters Responsible for Youth in 1998 therefore World Education Forum in April 2000 committedincluded promoting equal health development for Governments to ensuring that the learning needs of allyoung women and young men and preventing and young people and adults were met through equitableresponding to health problems by creating safe and access to appropriate learning and life skillssupportive environments, providing information and programme. Directing resources to expandingbuilding skills and access to health services, including educational opportunities is a key element of thecounselling, involving the family unit, peer groups, poverty reduction strategies being developed throughschools, media health services and other partners; and participatory processes in relation to the Highlydeveloping programmes of information, education, Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative and thecommunication and campaign awareness among young poverty reduction strategy papers or plans (PRSP) forwomen and young men to fight HIV/AIDS and other each country. About 40 per cent of debt relief is beingsexually transmitted diseases. allocated for education in the 18 sub-Saharan African19. Educational opportunities for young people countries that benefit from the HIPC Initiative.remain a serious problem. Illiteracy in youth persists 22. Youth unemployment is one of the most criticalalthough many countries have been paying more issues confronting young people throughout the world.attention to it. The highest rates of illiteracy in youth According to the International Labour Organizationcontinue to be found in Africa and South Asia, where (ILO), over 70 million young people are unemployed1999 illiteracy rates were 18 and 23 per cent for men worldwide. That number is expected to continueand 27 and 41 per cent for women between 15 and 24, growing for the next 50 years, underlying the urgencyrespectively.2 Although those rates reflect of a forward-looking strategy to create youthimprovements of about 10 percentage points since employment.1990, achieving youth literacy, numeracy and ability toparticipate meaningfully and gainfully in society 23. Employment is one of the factors that plays aremains a challenge. Gender imbalances have persisted. major role in maintaining social order and avoiding the4
  5. 5. A/56/180wastage of vital human resources. In both developed developed countries, who were able to establishand developing countries, youth unemployment is a contacts and reinforce partnerships with each other,major concern, since for many young people, finding a with United Nations entities, Governments and thejob makes the difference between life and death. private sector.24. It is difficult for many countries to meet theemployment needs of millions of unemployed youth III. Implementation of the Worldwhen they are struggling with external debt, deficits,lack of access to external markets, low commodity Programme of Action for Youthprices and economic liberalization. At the same time, to the Year 2000 and Beyondunemployment creates psychological stress for manyyoung people. Frustration and guilt feelings are some A. National levelof the effects of unemployment on young people, whilemany are becoming impatient with the slow pace of 1. National youth policiestheir integration into the economic life of their 27. A national youth policy facilitates acountries. A large group of unemployed youth turn to comprehensive and integrated approach to youthan informal sector usually characterized by low pay, issues. It is an important way of addressing thelong working hours, dangerous working conditions and concerns of young people from a multidisciplinaryabsence of union representation. The difficult situation perspective that allows for integrated and cross-sectoralof youth unemployment exposes young people to the policy interventions.risk of social problems stemming from drug abuse andillegal activities. 28. Reviews have been presented in earlier reports of the Secretary-General in 1994, 1997 and 1999 (A/49/434,25. The Secretary-General’s Policy Network on A/52/60-E/1997/6 and A/54/59, respectively) on whatYouth Employment is exchanging information and progress has been made by Member States in thedrawing lessons learned from youth employment formulation and implementation of national youthinitiatives undertaken by a broad range of partners. A policies; the designation of a national youthprocess is now also under way to formulate policy coordinating mechanism; and the implementation ofrecommendations for presentation to the General national youth programmes of action; or a combinationAssembly. The objectives of the Policy Network are to of those three actions. Those data are summarized informulate a set of recommendations on youth the table below and specified by country in the annexemployment, which the Secretary-General will propose to the present report. As far as data are available,to world leaders for action in one year’s time; to progress appears to have stagnated since 1999 in alldisseminate information on good practices and lessons three areas. This may be due to the fact that of the fourlearned from specific past or ongoing youth new Member States (Kiribati, Nauru, Tonga andemployment policies and programmes; and to identify, Tuvalu), data are available for only two. Thefor implementation with its partners, a series of methodology used does not allow for a qualitativecollaborative youth employment initiatives. The assessment of existing national youth policies, nor doesNetwork is made up of a joint secretariat, technical- it assess the effectiveness of any coordinatinglevel member organizations and a high-level panel. The mechanism or plan of action. The table below shouldjoint secretariat involves the United Nations, the World therefore be seen in relative, quantitative terms; theBank and ILO, which are organizing a participatory numbers indicate only that some type of policy,and focused process of consultations with Network mechanism or plan has been reported to the Secretariat.members at the technical level.26. Globalization also highlights the importance ofentrepreneurship as a skill set, partly innate and partlyacquired, which young people need. At the ThirdUnited Nations Conference on the Least DevelopedCountries, held in Brussels in May 2001, the parallelWorld Summit of Young Entrepreneurs broughttogether young entrepreneurs from a number of least 5
  6. 6. A/56/180 Table Summary of actions taken by Governments to implement the World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond Category Number Percentage Countries that have formulated a national youth policy (cross- sectoral) 155 82 Countries that have designated a national youth coordinating mechanism (such as a ministry, department, council or committee) 168 89 Countries that have implemented a national youth programme of action (operational, voluntary service) 116 61 Countries that have taken any type of action to implement the World Programme of Action 97 51 2. Selected country experiences coordinating body. Youth policies and programmes are administered in all 19 states and federal capital Africa territories of the country. To implement youth programmes of action, a National Youth Service Corps29. In Botswana, the Department of Culture and has been in place since 1973 to enable young universityYouth of the Ministry of Labour and Home Affairs, graduates to serve the country for one year aftertogether with other youth-serving ministries, graduation as a contribution to the socio-economiccoordinates the national youth policy, drawn up by the development of the country. The National YouthGovernment of Botswana and adopted by parliament in Service Corps promotes youth participation in theAugust 1996. The policy is a guideline to all implementation of the national youth policy throughstakeholders dealing with youth issues, including local and provincial youth projects. Outstandinggovernment agencies, non-governmental organizations, members of the corps who distinguish themselves inthe private sector and the public. During the their service are awarded at the national level. Twoformulation of the national youth policy, a multi- national financial institutions have been established,sectoral National Youth Policy Reference Group the People’s Bank and the Community Bank, tocomprising most of the stakeholders was established to increase local credit-building capacities and the capitaladvise the consultant. The National Action Plan for base for youth and for rural dwellers for self-Youth (2001-2010), scheduled to be presented to employment enterprises. Many youth have benefitedparliament by mid-2001, will be a blueprint for planned from loans obtained through those local initiatives. Themulti-sectoral programmes and activities addressing Government has also established the Nationalyouth needs and problems. The priority areas in the Directorate of Employment, which promotes youthplan are education and training; health; socio-economic employment by helping young people, for example, byempowerment; and employment and poverty. In terms assisting unskilled youth to acquire skills that areof facilities, current provisions are made to construct relevant in the productive sector of the economy.nine multi-purpose youth centres in selected locations, Nigeria also contributes to youth empowermentmainly in the urban and peri-urban areas. The centres through the Technical Aid Corps Programme, anwill provide a diversity of services to youth, including international programme established to help thecounselling, reproductive health services, skills and developing countries in Africa, Asia and the Caribbeancrafts training, and recreation and talent development. to meet their human resource requirements in various30. In Nigeria, the Federal Ministry of Education and fields, by sending Nigerian young experts for service inYouth Development coordinates the national youth those countries for an initial period of two years. Thepolicy of the country in cooperation with other youth- Government is responsible for their transportation toserving ministries and youth organizations, especially and from those countries and pays their allowances forin partnership with the National Youth Council of the two years.Nigeria, the principal non-governmental youth6
  7. 7. A/56/180 Asia and the Pacific separate Department of Youth Affairs and Sports was set up in 1985 and efforts began to formulate a national31. In Australia, the Commonwealth Government has youth policy, which was adopted in 1988. Variousappointed a Cabinet Minister with responsibility for schemes were then introduced to cater to the needs ofyouth affairs and created a Youth Bureau within the youth. In view of the changing socio-economicDepartment of Employment, Education, Training and scenario, it has now been decided to reformulate theYouth Affairs to initiate and coordinate activities in national youth policy in order to make it more need-that field. The Bureau coordinates the national youth based and in tune with current requirements. Afterpolicy of Australia in cooperation with other youth- widespread deliberations with all the stakeholders, theserving ministries and departments and youth new national youth policy is being finalized, with theorganizations, especially the Youth Affairs Council of underlying theme of youth empowerment, withAustralia, the major non-governmental youth emphasis on gender justice, a multi-sectoral approachcoordinating body. All branches of the Government and information and research networks. As most peoplecontribute to shaping the national youth policy: live in villages, particular emphasis is placed on theexecutive (Prime Minister and Cabinet), legislative, needs of rural youth. As part of the empowermentbicameral parliament (composed of a Senate and a exercise, the minimum voting age was reduced from 21House), and judicial (independent judiciary court to 18 in 1989 and a legislative measure was taken insystem). The responsibility of youth affairs in Australia 1992 providing for reservation of one third of the seatsis shared between federal and state governments, but for women in the village administrative units, orincreasing reliance is placed on the non-governmental panchayats, which have enabled young people andor community sector for programme operation. For the young women to influence the decision-making processGovernment, communicating with young people and in the country.enhancing their image are important priorities andaccordingly a programme called “Voices of Youth Europe and North AmericaInitiative” is in place and is believed to increase youngpeople’s capacity to communicate with the 33. In Austria, the Ministry of Social Security andGovernment. The initiative includes the formation of a Generations coordinates the national youth policy ofYouth Roundtable, which meets biannually. The the country in cooperation with youth departments ofprogramme brings together 50 young Australians aged provincial governments and several national youth-15-24 to discuss issues of importance to them and to serving ministries of the Federal Government. Twomeet with members of the Government. The young new bills regarding youth policy came into force on 1people are drawn from a wide range of backgrounds January 2001. The Federal Bill for the Promotion ofand the meetings give the Government an opportunity Out-of-School Youth Education and Youth Workto listen closely to the views and wishes of the (“Federal Youth Promotion Bill”) regulates thecountry’s young people. financial support of measures being taken in the field of out-of-school education and youth work, while the32. The Government of India has set up a Committee Federal Bill for the Representation of the Interests ofon National Youth Programmes (CONYP) to guide the Young Persons is intended to secure the representationnational youth policy, chaired by the Prime Minister. of interests of young persons vis-à-vis politicalThe members of CONYP are ministers in charge of decision makers.various youth-related departments, provincialministers, members of parliament, representatives of 34. In the Russian Federation, governmentalpolitical parties, non-governmental youth organizations institutions for youth issues at the federal and regionaland young people of various socio-economic levels have been in place since 1992. At present therebackgrounds. The Committee advises the Government are about 100 federal and more than 1,000 regionalon measures for implementing the Plan of Action of the non-governmental organizations active in the field ofNational Youth Policy, reviews coordination between youth issues. The Department on Youth Policy, undervarious departments of the central and state the Ministry of Education, coordinates youthgovernments and voluntary organizations and other programmes. The Ministry of Education works in closeagencies involved therein and provides feedback on the cooperation with Parliament in implementing theimplementation of the nation’s youth programmes. A national youth policy. The Department on Youth Policy 7
  8. 8. A/56/180prepares and presents to the Government an annual international youth forum called the Internationalnational report on the situation of youth. The Youth Festival.Government adopted a decree on the country’s 36. In St. Lucia, the Ministry of Education, Humanpreparations for the commemoration of the tenth Resources Development, Youth and Sports is theanniversary of International Youth Year, which governmental body coordinating youth policy. Inprovided for an Interdepartmental Commission and a preparing the national youth policy, the Department ofplan of action aimed at drawing the attention of leaders Youth and Sport within the Ministry and the Nationalat all levels to youth problems and the need for their Youth Council recently undertook extensivesolution. In 1994, the Government of the Russian consultations with youth organizations, churchFederation prepared and adopted a federal programme organizations, service groups, uniformed groups andentitled “Youth of Russia” for the period 1995-2000. unaffiliated young people. The Government believesThe programme was launched by Presidential Decree that youth should be at the centre of and play a role inand has the statute of a Presidential Programme. In development. The growing population of youth is2000, the Interdepartmental Commission was given the expected to benefit through appropriate policystatus of Governmental Commission and is now headed implementation mechanisms and adequate resourceby the Deputy Prime Minister and “Youth of Russia” allocation. The national youth policy, which is in thewas updated and extended for the period 2001-2005. process of being adopted by the Government, took theWithin the framework of the programme, specific following key principles and issues into considerationlegislation has been adopted, law enforcement in the formulation process: youth participation,undertaken and resources allocated for youth responsiveness, gender sensitivity, benefits of thedevelopment. “Youth of Russia” is concerned with the policy, access to services, integrated development andspiritual, moral, material and patriotic life of youth. youth empowerment. The policy is expected toThe subprogramme, “Youth Practice”, has enabled over facilitate the establishment of a framework and15,000 graduates to find jobs. The subcommittee structure that will provide youth with a voice, equal“Adolescent Temporary Employment” has enabled over opportunities and autonomy, with a view to developing700,000 adolescents to find jobs. “Youth of Russia” has their full potential and ensuring their role andalso promoted community work for youth and students. participation in all aspects of nation-building. To address the specific problems of youth in the country, Latin America and the Caribbean the policy contains a set of recommendations on youth35. In Costa Rica, the Ministry of Culture, Youth and economic participation; youth education and training;Sports coordinates the national youth policy of Costa crime prevention; curbing substance abuse; religiousRica with other youth-serving ministries and youth values and spiritual development; sports andorganizations. All three branches of government recreation; youth and culture; teenage pregnancy;contribute to that policy. Youth policies in Costa Rica participation in clubs and organizations; and healthare framed by a new approach to young people, which concerns. The relevant government ministries andviews them as individuals with rights and agencies and the private sector are expected toresponsibilities. That approach is meant to overcome collaborate and to facilitate implementation of thethe protective approach of the past. The Youth policy. A policy review and monitoring mechanism isMinistry, through its national youth movement, works also in place and the Department of Youth and Sportsto consolidate a global policy for young people. and the National Youth Council are responsible forPolicies are designed to ensure that youth are active reviewing the national youth policy every five yearsparticipants. Education, employment, health, through consultation with key stakeholders.recreation, participation, voluntary work andcommunication are among priority areas. Health Western Asiapolicies focus on adolescents and address gender equity 37. In Jordan, the Ministry of Youth and Culture wasand promote physical and mental health. Policies are established in 1978 and acts as a coordinator on youthalso in place to promote sex education and to prevent issues, working with different ministries and publicdrug and alcohol abuse. A national plan to promote agencies dealing with youth activities in the areas ofsolidarity between young people and to instil values education, manpower planning, industry andhas also been established. Costa Rica is organizing an8
  9. 9. A/56/180employment and social development. Additionally, it is and social facilities, such as parks, and public librariesresponsible for promoting sports and cultural activities free of charge.for youth. The Ministry institutes policies andprogrammes to mobilize the energies of the country’syouth and to qualify them to shoulder future B. Regional levelresponsibilities. Some of its programmes includeincreasing their awareness on human rights issues and 39. The first session of the African Youth Forum ofconflict resolution through dialogue and teachings of the United Nations System was organized by the Youthnon-violence, listening to youth and addressing their Unit of the Secretariat and the Economic and Socialproblems. To implement youth programmes of action, Policy Division of the Economic Commission forthe Ministry has held summer youth programmes for Africa (ECA) from 10 to 14 April 2000 in Addisparticipants from different countries, including Jordan. Ababa. The theme of the Forum was “EmpoweringSports and recreational facilities such as youth centres African youth for action in the twenty-first century inhave also been set up across the country. The idea is partnership with the United Nations system”.that use of such facilities can play an essential role in Approximately 80 representatives of youth and youth-educating and developing young people both physically related organizations from the five subregions of Africaand mentally. It is also believed that youth can spend attended the meeting, which brought together non-their free time wisely and can be kept away from drug governmental youth organizations and entities of theuse and other harmful practices. The Vocational United Nations system, other intergovernmentalTraining Corporation devotes considerable attention to organizations and bilateral development agencies. Ittraining for new entrants into the labour market, as well adopted an Africa Youth Declaration and an Africaas retraining programmes with a view to meeting Youth Programme of Action, which were to bechanging market demands. It also addresses the presented to the fourth session of the World Youthquestion of legislation, in particular with respect to Forum of the United Nations System in Dakar insafety in the workplace, as well as setting of standards August 2001.and maintaining quality control. 40. The Arab Youth Forum of the United Nations38. In the United Arab Emirates, the Supreme System was held on 26 and 27 June 2001 in Beirut inCouncil of Youth and Sports coordinates the national preparation for the fourth session of the World Youthyouth policy of the country in cooperation with other Forum of the United Nations System. The meetingyouth-serving ministries and youth organizations. It created a forum for Arab youth non-governmentalwas founded in 1971 as the Ministry of Youth and was organizations in the Economic and Social Commissiongiven its present status and name in 1981. It for Western Asia (ESCWA) region to come together tocoordinates the work of 10 associations, the National network and consolidate an ESCWA regional position.Olympic Committee, 26 clubs and 6 youth The meeting brought together youth representativesorganizations. The United Arab Emirates has accorded from 13 Arab countries in the region and aimed ata high priority to formulating its national youth policy strengthening the capacities of Arab regional andas well as its development policies, which take into national youth non-governmental organizations in theaccount the question of youth through the promulgation ESCWA region. The immediate objective of the forumof legislation and the provision of basic services such was to obtain the perspectives and experiences ofas the best possible educational curricula and health leading youth organizations in the region in the multi-and social programmes, free of charge, in line with its sectoral formulation and implementation of nationalnational policies and regional and international youth policies and projects. It was also intended topolicies. In the United Arab Emirates, the Ministry of create a forum for discussion by Arab youthYouth and Sports serves as the secretariat for the Arab representatives and develop a joint statement (theFederation of Youth Organizations recently established Beirut Declaration) for presentation to the fourthby the League of Arab States to promote youth session of the World Youth Forum in Dakar.exchanges and services. As indicated above, youth 41. The Asia-Pacific Youth Forum of the Unitedlegislation has recently been developed addressing the Nations System and the Third Asia-Pacificeducational curricula and provision of health services Intergovernmental Meeting on Human Resource Development for Youth were held in Bangkok from 30 9
  10. 10. A/56/180May to 1 June and from 4 to 8 June 2001, respectively. intergovernmental cooperation included, for example,The meetings promoted dialogue between youth hearings held for the evaluation of the youth policies inrepresentatives, Governments and the United Nations Estonia and Romania and a consultative meeting on thesystem on issues of concern to young people in the evaluation of youth policies in Luxembourg.Asia and Pacific region and provided an opportunity to Cooperation between the Directorate of Youth andpromote the mainstreaming of youth health issues, Sports of the Council of Europe and the Directorate-focusing on sexual and reproductive health, substance General for Education and Culture of the Europeanabuse and HIV/AIDS prevention-into national policies Union (EU) has now become fundamental in theand programmes. The immediate objective of the framework of youth workers’ training at the Europeanmeetings was to obtain the views of young people in level.the Asia and Pacific region on health needs and to 44. The European Commission has initiated a broadfacilitate a dialogue between youth representatives, consultation process that will lead to the drafting of aGovernments and the United Nations system at the white paper. The European Youth Forum reported aregional level as a basis for promoting youth number of activities that had been undertaken in itsparticipation in the formulation and implementation of constituencies and made a number of recommendationsintegrated youth health policies and programmes. to be integrated into the white paper. In its report, the42. The second session of the Latin American and Forum highlighted the commitments that had beenCaribbean Youth Forum of the United Nations System made by heads of State and Government and the EUwas held in Panama City from 17 to 19 July 2000. The institutions to improve the position of young people inForum brought together 80 representatives of the major Europe and to promote their ability to participateregional youth and student organizations of the Latin actively in European society. Those commitments wereAmerica and the Caribbean region and adopted a Latin reflected in the resolutions on youth policy for EuropeAmerican and Caribbean Youth Declaration on regional adopted by the European Parliament and the resolutionyouth policy and programme of action on regional of the Council of Ministers for Youth meeting withinyouth projects to be undertaken by youth non- the Council. The consultation process concluded withgovernmental organizations in partnership with United the identification of a common set of priorities by all ofNations agencies and organizations in the region. the actors involved. Young people from all over Europe were awaiting the results of the consultations43. The Directorate of Youth and Sport of the concerning the white paper and the implementation of aCouncil of Europe undertook a number of activities youth policy in EU. In view of the Commission’sduring 1999 and 2000. The Committee of Ministers intention to issue the white paper on youth policy at theadopted a new structure for the youth field, under end of the year, the contribution by the European Youthwhich the Youth Directorate was merged with the Forum outlined a strategic approach to developing anDivision of Sport and put under a new Directorate- integrated and cross-sectoral youth policy in EU. ThatGeneral. The Directorate of Youth and Sport launched policy was expected to improve the lives of youngits three-year priority youth programme on human people and their opportunities to participate actively inrights and the Human Rights Education Forum was society at both the national and the European level. Theheld at the European Youth Centre in Budapest. European Commission’s support has also beenActivities included study sessions with emphasis on provided through the Youth for Europe and Europeancreating “multipliers” to become actors in their own Voluntary Service programmes in 1998-1999 and fromorganizations. In the area of intergovernmental 2000 onwards through the “Youth” programme. Duringcooperation, work was carried out to encourage youth that period, the EU youth programmes had supportedparticipation of young girls and young women and about 18,000 projects involving more than 260,000active democratic citizenship. Youth policies of Spain young people and persons active in the field of youthand Sweden were reviewed in 1999 by two work or youth policy. Youth exchanges and relatedinternational teams of experts nominated by the support measures had involved as many as 80 per centCouncil of Europe. Coordination of the two studies was of the total number of participants, followed by youththe responsibility of the Directorate of Youth and initiatives and European youth voluntary service.Sport. In continuing its work of reviewing national Particular attention had been given to gender issues inyouth policies, activities undertaken under EU youth programmes. EU did not restrict the support10
  11. 11. A/56/180of young people to those living within its borders. The programme establishes alliances with the public andEuro-Mediterranean Youth Action programme, an private sectors, non-governmental organizations andexternal relations programme that links EU with its youth themselves in order to make a place for theneighbours in the north of Africa and around the voices and actions of young people in the developmentMediterranean Sea, provided support for youth process.organizations in all those countries. The programme 47. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) haswas currently under review and a second phase would been promoting the cause and welfare of African youthbe launched in 2002. in cooperation with the Pan African Youth Movement.45. The Inter-American Development Bank OAU coordinated the African position in order to takeundertook an information technology initiative for a common stand during major world youth meetings.youth in Latin America. The Democratization of Similar initiatives were also taken by OAU by sendingInformation Technology Americas (CDI Americas) is a a high-level delegation during the African Youthpartnership formed by a number of organizations Forum meeting held in Addis Ababa, preparatory to thecreating a strategic partnership of public, private fourth World Youth Forum of the United Nationssectors and philanthropic organizations to empower system. During the twenty-fourth session of the OAUmillions of young people living in poverty. The Labour and Social Affairs Commission, held in Côteinitiative is intended to better the future of millions of d’Ivoire, recommendations were made to instituteunderprivileged youth in Latin America and the national youth councils and to enhance youthCaribbean through training in information technology participation. In its effort to support youthskills, counselling and job placement. CDI Americas is development, OAU continues to work closely andalready active in Brazil and Uruguay and is initiating collaborate with ECA, the Youth Unit of theoperations in Colombia and Mexico. Its immediate goal Secretariat, the Pan African Youth Movement andis to create at least 100 new information technology youth organizations. OAU is currently working on theand citizenship schools in the four countries during African Youth Charter and the second Pan African2001, to reach more than 30,000 young people per year. Conference on Youth; it will send a high-levelThe initiative, which operates on donations to establish representation to the World Youth Forum in Dakar.the schools at a relatively low cost, is building newstrategic partnerships to extend the model to all ofLatin America, where more than half of the 220 million C. Global levelyoung people under the age of 20 live in poverty. TheCDI curriculum includes common computer programs 48. Many Member States have included youthand Internet training. In addition, students are taught representatives in their official delegations to thecivic education, which includes human rights advocacy, General Assembly, thereby encouraging youthtraining in non-violence and health and environmental participation in the decision-making process. Eightresponsibility. Under the CDI Americas initiative, the countries sent youth delegates to the fifty-fifth sessionInter-American Development Bank is committed to of the General Assembly, who brought the problemsestablishing partnerships with international, national facing youth to the attention of Governments. Six ofand local public and private organizations according to those youth representatives addressed the Thirdthe specific needs of the countries. Committee on agenda item 103.46. Recognizing the special role young people should 49. The importance of encouraging the activeplay in building a region of stable democracies, participation of young people in drug preventionsustainable economies and societies based on equity, activities was reiterated by the General Assembly in itsthe Bank created the Youth Development and Outreach resolution 53/115 of 9 December 1998. In 1999 andProgramme in 1995 to respond more effectively to the 2000, the Office for Drug Control and Crimeneeds of young people in the region and to promote Prevention of the Secretariat submitted reports to thetheir participation and leadership in the development Commission on Narcotic Drugs addressing the issue ofprocess. The Bank initiative emphasizes youth drug abuse in youth. Through its “Listening to Youngparticipation and leadership, entrepreneurial People” initiative, the Office consulted a selecteddevelopment, technology and community service. The group of young people on their ideas and strategies to prevent drug abuse in their peers. The “For Youth, by 11
  12. 12. A/56/180Youth” Global Forum on Drug Abuse Prevention, held The UNEP Global Youth Forum (Youth for Sustainablein Banff, Alberta, Canada, brought together young Development Process) helped to initiate a youthpeople from 24 countries. The Global Youth Network preparatory process for the World Summit onis continuing the work started in Banff. The United Sustainable Development to be held in Johannesburg,Nations International Drug Control Programme sees South Africa, in 2002, and a youth statement will bethe involvement of young people in the development of delivered at the Summit. Other activities includedrug abuse prevention activities as crucial. The idea is Pachamama (Our World Our Future), a publicationto allow young people to influence decision-making funded by the United Nations Foundation, that gaveprocesses with their unique ability to formulate novel young people an opportunity to review the UNEPapproaches to tackling common problems and to build Global Environment Outlook (GEO) and provided anbridges connecting young people across the globe. appraisal of the state of the environment from theirOngoing and proposed activities of the Global Youth perspective. The youth version of GEO was developedNetwork include an email list that provides a forum for in a consultative process involving a large number ofdiscussion on youth-related activities of the United youth groups around the world in 1998 and 1999.Nations system; publication of the quarterly newsletter Similar regional initiatives are also in place to create aConnekt; preparation of a handbook for youth which regional youth version of the GEO. To encourage youthserves as the basis for a series of regional training participation on environmental issues, UNEP hasworkshops; and creation of an interactive web site initiated a programme called the Global 500 Youthwhere members of the network will be able to interact Awards that recognizes the outstanding environmentalwith each other and exchange messages. In addition, a achievements of young people. Awards are given eachnumber of conventions and protocols and other work year during the main World Environment Daydone to address drug-related problems were reported celebrations.by the Office, including the finalization of the United 51. The United Nations Educational, Scientific andNations Convention against Transnational Organized Cultural Organization (UNESCO) revised its approachCrime and the protocols supplementing it: the Protocol to youth issues by defining a new strategy aimed at theto Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, empowerment of young people. The strategy forespecially Women and Children, the Protocol against UNESCO action with and for youth sets three majorthe Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air; and objectives: the presence of young men and women inthe Protocol against Illicit Manufacturing of and UNESCO bodies as well as at events organized by theTrafficking in Firearms (resolutions 55/25, annexes I- Organization or its partners, the incorporation of youthIII, and 55/255, annex, respectively). views and priorities and the collaboration with young50. The United Nations Environment Programme people in projects and programmes, and the(UNEP) organized a number of activities and held establishment of youth policies in UNESCO’s areas ofconsultations with youth to enhance their capacity- competence. The Organization’s efforts to make itsbuilding. The UNEP Global Youth Retreat gave secretariat staff younger by the recruitment of youngparticipants an opportunity to review youth people, especially through the “Young Professionalsinvolvement in UNEP work and to advise UNEP on Scheme” and the Associate Expert Scheme, resulted ineffective ways of improving its work with youth 59 per cent of all staff recruited since 2000 being undergroups. The Programme helped young people increase 40 years of age. To activate youth participation and totheir involvement in environmental issues. The UNEP mainstream youth issues within its programme,Youth Advisory Council has the mandate to advise UNESCO organized a Youth Forum, published a youth-UNEP and its regional offices on ways of involving friendly publication and encouraged youth voluntaryyoung people in its activities and to represent youth in services. UNESCO organized a Youth Forum ininternational environmental meetings organized by connection with all major conferences, such as theUNEP. There is also an exchange programme in place World Conference on Higher Education and the Worldfor youth that provides opportunities to share ideas. Conference on Science, and during the 30th session ofThe Regional Youth Forum held in different regions the UNESCO General Conference. In undertaking itsgives youth leaders an opportunity to discuss activities, the Organization sought close cooperation inenvironmental problems and priorities, to develop the framework of the United Nations system, assubregional networks and to establish an action plan. illustrated by its involvement in the preparation of the12
  13. 13. A/56/180fourth World Youth Forum of the United Nations 52. The special session of the General Assembly onSystem as well as the earlier forums. With UNEP, the children was expected to produce a global agenda withOrganization worked on young consumers’ a set of goals and a plan of action devoted to ensuringenvironmental and social concerns, with the Joint three essential outcomes: the best start in life for allUnited Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) children, good-quality basic education for all childrenon HIV/AIDS and human rights issues, with the United and opportunities for all children, especiallyNations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) on promoting the adolescents (who fall into the age cohort of youth), forparticipation of adolescents and with the United meaningful participation in their communities.Nations Volunteers on the promotion of youth 53. Youth participation in the World Conferencevolunteering in the framework of the International Year against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobiaof Volunteers. UNESCO also collaborated with many and Related Intolerance, to be held in Durban, Southother organizations in the four-year project entitled Africa, in August 2001, organized by the Office of the“The Global Meeting of Generations: Vision and United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights,Action for Equitable Development in the Twenty-first will be made possible through an NGO Forum and aCentury”, supporting inter-generational dialogue Youth Summit. One of the issues of concern at thethrough the Common Futures Forum, a group of young Conference will be that young people, in particularsocial entrepreneurs. UNESCO’s membership in the young indigenous people, suffer discrimination and areInter-American Working Group on Youth Development marginalized in the decision-making processes, whichenhances its cooperation and consultation with results in limiting their full and active political,intergovernmental organizations. UNESCO was economic, and cultural participation.instrumental in the organization of the following globalconferences and meetings pertaining to education, 54. The United Nations Volunteers (UNV) continuedculture and environment: the World Education Forum, to promote youth volunteering. The programme hasheld in Dakar in April 2000, and the Youth Forum of become a vehicle for youth to acquire both technicalthe World Conference on Higher Education, held in and life skills. The year 2001 has been proclaimed theParis in October 1998. In cooperation with the non- International Year of Volunteers and worldwidegovernmental organization Environment sans celebrations have been organized. A call was made toFrontières, in 1998 the Organization launched a Youth Governments to promote volunteering among youngCharter for a Twenty-first Century Free of Drugs. In people within the education and youth services tothe area of culture, it has established a network of over develop specific programmes to encourage youth100 UNESCO associated schools in Africa, the volunteering and to develop systems to recognize andCaribbean and Europe to develop innovative accredit volunteering by working with the media andeducational approaches while promoting intercultural other stakeholders to present a more attractive, up-to-dialogue between young people. In 1999, UNESCO date image of volunteering. In response to a requestand the Federal Ministry of Education and Cultural from the Government of Azerbaijan and in partnershipAffairs of Austria organized an international with UNDP, in April 2000 UNV launched a Youthconference on the theme “Education for the Media and Volunteer Scheme in Azerbaijan. The project initiallyDigital Age” in Vienna. UNESCO’s INFOYOUTH is involved about 120 youth and by December 2000 thean ongoing project that serves as a clearinghouse for project had mobilized over 200 youth volunteers. Ininformation and data on youth. In 2000, with UNEP Nicaragua, another UNV project was launched in 2000and other partners, the Organization launched the to involve young students in a rural developmentresearch project “Youth and Consumption: Is the project. With the financial support of the GovernmentFuture Yours?” to draw up recommendations on a of Italy, UNV launched an internship scheme early incommunication policy and actions to be taken to raise 2001, which is expected to provide recent universityyoung people’s awareness of more environmentally and graduates with opportunities for a year’s professionalethically sound consumption practices. In the experience in different countries under programmesOrganization’s 2002-2007 draft medium-term strategy, supported by entities of the United Nations system.youth is clearly identified as a group that needs to be 55. Although the World Food Programme (WFP)fully taken into account in all UNESCO programmes. does not specifically target youth as a separate group within the hungry poor, statistics for 1999 and 2000 13
  14. 14. A/56/180demonstrate the wide impact of WFP food assistance 58. The youth organizations that are currentlyon the lives of young people as well as on those of involved in the work of the United Nations thus presentchildren. WFP programmes that address the needs of a mix of those organizations, all with specificyouth are primarily in the areas of school meals and ideological and/or developmental objectives. Theirsupport to training and nutritional support to young commonality appears to be their ability to havewomen. With the provision to children of breakfast, adjusted their objectives to the political climate andmid-morning snacks, lunches and/or take-home rations, changing needs of youth.school enrolment, attendance and performance 59. Within the present grouping of youthincrease, while short-term hunger and dropout rates organizations, there is a further distinction betweendecrease. WFP targets the hungry poor in food deficit regional organizations with a large resource base, inor food insecure areas, where meals or take-home particular from developed countries, and more looselyrations are adequate incentive for poor parents to send organized entities in need of substantial institutionaltheir children to school and to keep them there. WFP and financial strengthening, often regional youth andtargets girls in particular, as in most countries girls’ student bodies from developing countries. In Northenrolment and attendance is substantially lower than America, in the absence of a strong national youthboys’ and because there is greater benefit to society platform, youth organizations that take an interest infrom girls’ education. the work of the United Nations are mostly issue- focused (on issues such as reproductive health, HIV/IV. Youth participation at the AIDS or drug abuse). United Nations 60. It could be argued that, despite the fact that many youth organizations have obtained the consultative56. Civil society organizations, youth organizations status required for participation in United Nationsincluded, are asking for greater participation in the meetings, very few actually make use of that right. Asdecision-making processes of the United Nations. The leaders of youth organizations normally serve theircurrent involvement of youth organizations in organizations for only short periods, not many are ableconferences and special sessions of the General to allocate sufficient time and resources to becomeAssembly taking place in 2001 has, however, been sufficiently familiar with the United Nations systemuneven. Whereas some conferences had facilitated and its workings and thus miss many opportunities foryouth-specific or youth-only caucuses or forums, other participation in events at the United Nations.events were marked by the absence of participation by 61. The prime channel of communication betweenyoung people, either as a result of a lack of awareness youth organizations and the United Nations system hasamong youth or because of a limited perceived benefit been the World Youth Forum of the United Nationsto youth from the respective organizing body within the system. The fourth session of the Forum will be held inUnited Nations system. Dakar in August 2001. The mandate for the World57. The picture of the representation of youth Youth Forum can be found in paragraph 125 of theorganizations at the United Nations shows a diverse World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000palette of political, religious and service groups of and Beyond, which states that effective channels ofyouth and students. Whereas traditionally youth- communication between non-governmental youthservice organizations had a long and established organizations and the United Nations system arepresence at United Nations meetings, those essential for dialogue and consultation on the situationorganizations have become increasingly less youth- of youth and implications for its implementation. Thedriven and youth-led as compared with some newer Forum has contributed to the implementation of theorganizations, set up in the 1960s and 1970s, of a more Programme of Action through the identification andactivist and political nature. The end of the cold war promotion of joint initiatives to further its objectives soalso resulted in considerable erosion of the number of that they better reflect the interests of youth.such organizations and their membership in the early 62. A participatory approach had been taken in the1990s. Since then, a new grouping of regional clusters preparations for the fourth session of the Forum. Anof national youth and student organizations has International Preparatory Committee of youthemerged in almost all parts of the world.14
  15. 15. A/56/180organizations and representatives of United Nationsentities took the lead in all preparations for the event.The Committee also decided that the special theme forthe fourth session would be “Empowering youth to takeaction”. The outcome of the fourth session will be adocument to include concrete recommendations,strategies and tools to empower young people toparticipate in decision-making and in evaluation ofpolicies and programmes on key youth issues, in orderto ensure action at the local, national, regional andinternational levels. The conclusions of the WorldYouth Forum will be brought to the attention of theGeneral Assembly through a letter from theGovernment of Senegal to the Secretary-General.Notes 1 United Nations, World Population Prospects, 1998 Revision, vol. 1, table A1. 2 World Development Indicators 2001, Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2001, table 2.14. 15
  16. 16. A/56/180Annexa Status of implementation of national youth policies, coordination mechanisms and programmes of action, as at May 2001Afghanistanb c Czech Republicb c d Kenyab c dAlbaniab c Democratic People’s Republic KiribaticAlgeriab c d of Koreab c d Kuwaitc dAndorrab c d Democratic Republic of the KyrgyzstaneAngolab c d Congob c Lao People’s DemocraticAntigua and Barbudab c Denmarkb c d Republicb c dArgentinab c d Djiboutib c LatviacArmeniac Dominican Republicb d Lebanonb c dAustraliab c d Ecuadorb c Lesothob c dAustriab c d Egyptb c d Liberiab cAzerbaijanb c d El Salvadorc Libyan Arab JamahiriyacBahamasb c d Equatorial Guineae Liechtensteinb c dBahrainb c Eritreae Lithuaniab cBangladeshb c d Estoniac d Luxembourgb c dBarbadosb c d Ethiopiab c Madagascarb cBelarusb c Fijib c d Malawib c dBelgiumb c d Finlandb c d Malaysiab c dBelizeb c Franceb c d Maldivesb cBeninb Gabonb c Malib c dBhutanc Gambiab c Maltab c dBoliviab c d Georgiac Marshall Islandsb c dBosnia and Herzegovinae Germanyb c d Mauritaniab cBotswanab c d Ghanab c d Mauritiusb c dBrazilc Greeceb c d MexicocBrunei Darussalamb c Grenadac Micronesia (Federated StatesBulgariab c Guatemalab c d of)b c dBurkina Fasob c d Guineab c d Monacob c dBurundib c Guinea-Bissauc Mongoliab c dCambodiae Guyanab c Moroccob c dCameroonb c Haitib c Mozambiqueb c dCanadab c d Hondurasb c MyanmardCape Verdeb c Hungaryb c d Namibiab c dCentral African Republicb c d Icelandb c d NaurueChadb c Indiab c d Nepalb cChileb c d Indonesiab c d Netherlandsb c dChinab c d Iran (Islamic Republic of)b c d New Zealandb c dColombiab c Iraqc d Nicaraguab c dComorosb c Irelandb c d Nigerb c dCongob c Israelb c d Nigeriab c dCosta Ricab c d Italyb c d Norwayb c dCôte d’Ivoireb c Jamaicab c d Omanb cCroatiab c d Japanb c d Pakistanb c dCubab c d Jordanb c d PalaueCyprusb c d Kazakhstane Panamab c16
  17. 17. A/56/180Papua New Guineab c d Seychellesb c d Trinidad and Tobagob c dParaguayb c d Sierra Leoneb c d Tunisiab c dPerub c d Singaporeb c Turkeyb c dPhilippinesb c d Slovakiab c d TurkmenistanePolandb c d Sloveniab c d TuvaluePortugalb c d Solomon Islandsb c d Ugandab c dQatare Somaliae Ukraineb c dRepublic of Koreab c d South Africab c d United Arab Emiratesb c dRepublic of Moldovab c Spainb c d United Kingdom of GreatRomaniab c d Sri Lankab c d Britain and NorthernRussian Federationb c d Sudanb c Irelandb c dRwandab c d Surinameb c d United Republic of Tanzaniab c dSaint Kitts and Nevisb c Swazilandb c d United States of Americac dSaint Luciab c Swedenb c d Uruguayb cSaint Vincent and the Syrian Arab Republicb c d Uzbekistane Grenadinesb c d Tajikistane Vanuatub cSamoab c d Thailandb c d Venezuelab c dSan Marinoc The former Yugoslav Republic Viet Namb c dSao Tome and Principec of Macedonia b d Yemenb cSaudi Arabiab c Togob c Yugoslaviab cSenegalb c d Tongac Zambiab c Zimbabweb c d_______________ a The data in the present annex have been taken from statements made by government delegates at the World Conference of Ministers Responsible for Youth, held in Lisbon from 8 to 12 August 1998, and updated where possible. Since the compilation of the previous survey (see A/54/59, annex), Kiribati, Nauru, Tonga and Tuvalu became Member States of the United Nations, thus bringing the total to 189. b Formulation of national youth policy (cross-sectoral). c Designation of a national youth coordinating mechanism (ministry, department, council or committee). d Implementation of a national youth programme of action (operational, voluntary service). e No data received on national youth policies, coordination mechanisms or programmes of action. 17