Governing London
John Tomaney
Utzon Lecture, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 3 September 2014
London Sydney
• Established: 1788
• Area
– 12,367.7 km2 (4,775.2 sq mi)
• Population (2013)
– 4,757,083 (380/km2 [980/sq
m...
Outline
• Urban governance and urban development
• London in the UK
• London – a global city
• Socioeconomic and spatial c...
Urban governance and urban development
Urban governance and urban development
• Interdependencies and externalities alongside
fragmentation of jurisdictions + mi...
London in the UK
Source: http://blogs.spectator.co.uk/coffeehouse/2013/12/vince-cable-london-is-becoming-a-kind-of-giant-s...
In England administration has remained with
fair constancy at Westminster, near enough
to the centre of the country. Wealt...
-26.0
-21.0
-16.0
-11.0
-6.0
-1.0
4.0
9.0
14.0
19.0
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
...
Source: The Economist, 9.11.13Source: The Economist, 22.3.14
Source: Savills Spotlight Prime Regional Residential Markets Spring 2014
Commuting patterns in the London/
South East England Mega-City-Region
Source: GaWC Research Bulletin 307
London – a global city
Niels Møller Lund, The Heart of the Empire, 1904, Oil on canvas, 137 x 183 cm, Collection: City of ...
London – a global city
The Global Financial Centres Index September 2012
Source: Qatar Financial Centre Authority/Long Fin...
London – a global city
Source: Financial Times, 17.1.14
Source: The Guardian, 23.7.14
London – a global city
Socioeconomic and spatial change in London
• Demographic shifts
• Socio-spatial polarisation
• Austerity
Source:
Mayor of London
Socioeconomic and spatial change in London
Socioeconomic and spatial change in London
Source: Mayor of London
Socioeconomic and spatial change in London
Socioeconomic and spatial change in London
Governing London
Governing London
• The problem
• History
• Who runs London?
• The GLA Group
• Mayoral Strategies
Governing London: the problem
• Choosing the most appropriate governmental
framework of London has always been problematic...
Source: Ford Madox Brown, Work, 1865,
Oil on canva, Manchester City Art Gallery
Sir Joseph William Bazalgette (1819 -
1891...
Governing London: history
London County Council (LCC) (1888 – 1964)
Greater London Council (GLC) (1964 – 1986)
No strategi...
Governing London: LCC
Governing London: the Boroughs
The crowd at County Hall, June 10 1984
Yes: 72%
No: 28%
Turnout: 34%
Governing London: Greater London Authority
referendum, 1998
Are you in favour of
the Governm...
Governing London: Who Runs London?
GLA
• Strategic
Authority
• Elected Mayor
• London
Assembly
• 600+ paid
officers
Mayor
...
Governing London: the GLA Group (2000 –
2010)
Greater
London
Authority
London
Development
Agency
Transport for
London
Lond...
Governing London: Sponsored Bodies (Pre
2010)
London
Climate
Change
Agency
Design
for
London
Think
London
Visit
London
Stu...
Governing London: The GLA Group (Post
2010)
Greater
London
Authority
London Legacy
Development
Agency/Mayoral
Development
...
Governing London: Sponsored Bodies (Post
2010)
London and
Partners
London
Enterprise
Panel
Planning London: a longstanding concern
Planning London: division of responsibilities
Mayor
Boroughs
Assembly
• Sets strategic
planning
framework
(London Plan)
• ...
Planning London: the London Plan
• A long term plan for London?
• Politics and plan-making
– Livingstone, Johnson
• Strate...
Planning London: the London Plan
• Intended to provide a strategic framework for the long
term sustainable growth of Londo...
Planning London: do mayors matter?
Planning London: do mayors matter?
Livingstone Plan
• Central ‘World City’ vision with
London as driver of national
econom...
Planning London: key issues
1. Housing
2. Transport and infrastructure
3. “Regeneration”
4. Economic performance
5. London...
Housing
Source: Financial Times, 28.7.1
Source: The Economist, 11.1.13
Source: The Guardian, 5.7.14
Source: Osborne, H (2014) “Poor doors: the segregation of
London's inner-city flat dwellers”, The Guardian, 25.7.14
http:/...
Transport
Source: Transport for London
Source: The Economist, 19.10.12
Passenger journeys on local bus services since 1985/86
Source: Department for Transport data in IPPR (2014) Greasing The W...
Sources: TfL; Crossrail
Source: Financial Times, 28.10.13
The impact of the arrival on Crossrail on
central London commercial property prices
Average Price per Square
Foot
%
uplift...
TFL Crossrail levy receipts 2013/14
Source: Planning, 14.2.14
Crossrail 2 opportunities for development
Source: TfL
Economy
Source: LSE Cities
Randstad
London
Amsterdam
Hague
Rotterdam
Utrecht
Source: Centre for Cities/McKinsey (2014) Industrial
revolutions: capturing the growth potential.
(http://www.centreforcit...
Source: Centre for
Cities/McKinsey (2014) Industrial
revolutions: capturing the growth
potential.
(http://www.centreforcit...
Regeneration
Source: The Economist, 17.2.14
Source: Financial Times, 6.5.13
Source: Financial Times, 24.7.13
Source: https://www.london.gov.uk/priorities/business-economy/vision-and-strategy/infrastructure-plan-2050
London Infrastr...
Projected capital
expenditure requirement
by sector (including
enhancements and
renewals), 2016-2050
(£ billion). 2014 pri...
Urban governance and urban development
• Global cities as national champions?
– An imbalanced national political economy?
...
Global cities as national champions?
Politicians often lament the divide between the rich south and the
poor north of England. They are being sloppy. What is r...
Source: Pickford, J (2014) “Recovery likely to widen wealth gap between London and regions”, Financial Times, 19th January
London poverty was
already becoming more
suburban and more
diffuse even as income
inequality in the city rose
[during the ...
http://www.theguardian.com/politics/video/2012/aug/01/boris-johnson-stuck-zip-wire-video
It was the best of times, it was ...
2014 Utzon Lecture Series - Governing London: Progress and Prospects by Professor John Tomaney
2014 Utzon Lecture Series - Governing London: Progress and Prospects by Professor John Tomaney
2014 Utzon Lecture Series - Governing London: Progress and Prospects by Professor John Tomaney
2014 Utzon Lecture Series - Governing London: Progress and Prospects by Professor John Tomaney
2014 Utzon Lecture Series - Governing London: Progress and Prospects by Professor John Tomaney
2014 Utzon Lecture Series - Governing London: Progress and Prospects by Professor John Tomaney
2014 Utzon Lecture Series - Governing London: Progress and Prospects by Professor John Tomaney
2014 Utzon Lecture Series - Governing London: Progress and Prospects by Professor John Tomaney
2014 Utzon Lecture Series - Governing London: Progress and Prospects by Professor John Tomaney
2014 Utzon Lecture Series - Governing London: Progress and Prospects by Professor John Tomaney
2014 Utzon Lecture Series - Governing London: Progress and Prospects by Professor John Tomaney
2014 Utzon Lecture Series - Governing London: Progress and Prospects by Professor John Tomaney
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2014 Utzon Lecture Series - Governing London: Progress and Prospects by Professor John Tomaney

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The Utzon Lecture Series focuses on the presentation of ideas from leading contributors of international significance in the design, delivery and management of the built environment.

In 1998 London voted in favour of the creation of a directly elected mayor with jurisdiction over the metropolitan area. This lecture will describe and analyse the origins of this governance innovation.

John Tomaney is Professor of Urban and Regional Planning at University College London.

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2014 Utzon Lecture Series - Governing London: Progress and Prospects by Professor John Tomaney

  1. 1. Governing London John Tomaney Utzon Lecture, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 3 September 2014
  2. 2. London Sydney • Established: 1788 • Area – 12,367.7 km2 (4,775.2 sq mi) • Population (2013) – 4,757,083 (380/km2 [980/sq mi]) • Government – (State government agencies) – 38 LGA(s) • Established: c. 43 AD • Area – 606.95 sq mi (1,572.00 km2) • Population (2013) – 8,416,535 (13,870/sq mi [5,354/km2]) • Government – Mayor (Boris Johnson) – London Assembly (25 Members) – 32 London Boroughs
  3. 3. Outline • Urban governance and urban development • London in the UK • London – a global city • Socioeconomic and spatial change in London • Governing London • Planning London • Urban governance and urban development
  4. 4. Urban governance and urban development
  5. 5. Urban governance and urban development • Interdependencies and externalities alongside fragmentation of jurisdictions + mismatch in scale of need and scale of governance = “ungovernable metropolis” (e.g. Storper) • Financial and fiscal strains (e.g. Streeck, Blyth) • “Democratic distemper” (e.g. The Economist, Crouch) • What difference does a metro mayor make? See: Michael Storper (2013) “Governing the large metropolis”, Working Papers du Programme Cities are back on town, 2013/7. Paris: Sciences Po; W Streeck and A Schafer (2013) Politics in the Age of Austerity. Cambridge: Polity; M Blyth (2013) Austerity. Oxford: OUP; The Economist, “What’s gone wrong with democracy?”, 21 March 2013; Colin Crouch (2004) Post-democracy, Cambridge: Polity.
  6. 6. London in the UK Source: http://blogs.spectator.co.uk/coffeehouse/2013/12/vince-cable-london-is-becoming-a-kind-of-giant-suction-machine/
  7. 7. In England administration has remained with fair constancy at Westminster, near enough to the centre of the country. Wealth has always come into England by the Thames at London. At any rate in later centuries, the tendency has been for the Administration to settle near the centres of wealth and the combined attractions have made the tract of marsh and flat ground in the lower basin of the river the centre of the Arts, of the Industries, of the Recreations and of the moral ‘tone’, not for England alone but for wider regions of the earth - Ford Madox Ford (1905) The Soul of London. JM Dent London in the UK
  8. 8. -26.0 -21.0 -16.0 -11.0 -6.0 -1.0 4.0 9.0 14.0 19.0 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 %deviationfromUKrealGVAp.h. WAL NE NI YH NW WM EM SW SCOT GSE GSE 20.7% SCOT -4.5% SW -5.5% EM -6.8% WM -10.5% NW -12.4% YH -12.6% NI -19.4% NE -20.9% WAL -22.0% UK=0 Relative (headline) GVA per head, 1968-2005, UK regions Source: Author’s elaboration of ONS data
  9. 9. Source: The Economist, 9.11.13Source: The Economist, 22.3.14
  10. 10. Source: Savills Spotlight Prime Regional Residential Markets Spring 2014
  11. 11. Commuting patterns in the London/ South East England Mega-City-Region Source: GaWC Research Bulletin 307
  12. 12. London – a global city Niels Møller Lund, The Heart of the Empire, 1904, Oil on canvas, 137 x 183 cm, Collection: City of London Corporation
  13. 13. London – a global city The Global Financial Centres Index September 2012 Source: Qatar Financial Centre Authority/Long Finance (http://www.longfinance.net/Publications/GFCI%2012.pdf)
  14. 14. London – a global city Source: Financial Times, 17.1.14
  15. 15. Source: The Guardian, 23.7.14 London – a global city
  16. 16. Socioeconomic and spatial change in London • Demographic shifts • Socio-spatial polarisation • Austerity
  17. 17. Source: Mayor of London Socioeconomic and spatial change in London
  18. 18. Socioeconomic and spatial change in London
  19. 19. Source: Mayor of London Socioeconomic and spatial change in London
  20. 20. Socioeconomic and spatial change in London
  21. 21. Governing London
  22. 22. Governing London • The problem • History • Who runs London? • The GLA Group • Mayoral Strategies
  23. 23. Governing London: the problem • Choosing the most appropriate governmental framework of London has always been problematic “Governing London is a complex business. The city's vast population, its geography and history conspire to make the British capital an unusually difficult place to govern… The regularity with which London's government is reorganised suggests there is something unusual about the pressures that affect successive systems” (Travers 2004). • Reforms often reflect power plays between different economic and political actors as the search for solutions to agreed problems
  24. 24. Source: Ford Madox Brown, Work, 1865, Oil on canva, Manchester City Art Gallery Sir Joseph William Bazalgette (1819 - 1891), standing top right, views the Northern Outfall sewer being built below the Abbey Mills pumping station. Photo: Otto Herschan, 1869
  25. 25. Governing London: history London County Council (LCC) (1888 – 1964) Greater London Council (GLC) (1964 – 1986) No strategic regional governance Greater London Authority (GLA) (2000 – )
  26. 26. Governing London: LCC
  27. 27. Governing London: the Boroughs
  28. 28. The crowd at County Hall, June 10 1984
  29. 29. Yes: 72% No: 28% Turnout: 34% Governing London: Greater London Authority referendum, 1998 Are you in favour of the Government's proposals for a Greater London Authority, made up of an elected mayor and a separately elected assembly? Results by Borough
  30. 30. Governing London: Who Runs London? GLA • Strategic Authority • Elected Mayor • London Assembly • 600+ paid officers Mayor • Promotes economic, social & environmental development • Prepares plans & policies for sustainable development Assembly • 25 elected members (11 city wide & 14 constituencies) • Overview & scrutiny function Boroughs • 32 boroughs & City of London • Responsible for running local public services • Local planning authorities Central Government • Provides funding to Mayor, TfL and boroughs • Sets legislative & regulatory framework
  31. 31. Governing London: the GLA Group (2000 – 2010) Greater London Authority London Development Agency Transport for London London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority Metropolitan Police Authority Olympic Delivery Authority
  32. 32. Governing London: Sponsored Bodies (Pre 2010) London Climate Change Agency Design for London Think London Visit London Study London LESB
  33. 33. Governing London: The GLA Group (Post 2010) Greater London Authority London Legacy Development Agency/Mayoral Development Agency Transport for London London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority Mayor’s Office for Policing and Crime
  34. 34. Governing London: Sponsored Bodies (Post 2010) London and Partners London Enterprise Panel
  35. 35. Planning London: a longstanding concern
  36. 36. Planning London: division of responsibilities Mayor Boroughs Assembly • Sets strategic planning framework (London Plan) • Determines compliance with London Plan • Right to direct refusal or determine strategic applications • Boroughs are Local Planning Authorities • Prepare Local Development Frameworks for area • Required to consult Mayor on strategic applications and LDF documents • Scrutiny function • Standing Planning and Housing committee • Undertakes targeted reviews and investigations • Publishes advice and recommendations
  37. 37. Planning London: the London Plan • A long term plan for London? • Politics and plan-making – Livingstone, Johnson • Strategy and delivery • Innovation and success?
  38. 38. Planning London: the London Plan • Intended to provide a strategic framework for the long term sustainable growth of London • However, 3 versions in 12 years and numerous draft and replacement policies • “All strategy and no action”? • Heavily influenced by political leadership and national policy environment • ‘Personalised planning’
  39. 39. Planning London: do mayors matter?
  40. 40. Planning London: do mayors matter? Livingstone Plan • Central ‘World City’ vision with London as driver of national economy • Makes case for additional national investment • Strong focus on sustainable development • Polycentric development with identified ‘opportunity areas’ • Looks east – particularly to the Thames Gateway as growth area • Prescriptive policies and guidance to boroughs Johnson Plan • ‘World City’ narrative less central and vision more dispersed and less strategic • Recognises importance of sustainability but gentler language • More focus on less defined notions of ‘quality of life’ and the experience of London • Less prescriptive, more collaborative approach giving boroughs flexibility to interpret • Concerns that flexibility on targets and sustainability make it a ‘charter for money-hungry developers’ See: Holman (2010): The Changing Nature of the London Plan Source: Holman, N (2010) The changing nature of the London Plan In: Scanlon, Kath and Kochan, Ben, (eds.) London: coping with austerity. LSE London, London School of Economics
  41. 41. Planning London: key issues 1. Housing 2. Transport and infrastructure 3. “Regeneration” 4. Economic performance 5. London Infrastructure Plan
  42. 42. Housing
  43. 43. Source: Financial Times, 28.7.1
  44. 44. Source: The Economist, 11.1.13
  45. 45. Source: The Guardian, 5.7.14
  46. 46. Source: Osborne, H (2014) “Poor doors: the segregation of London's inner-city flat dwellers”, The Guardian, 25.7.14 http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/jul/25/poor-doors- segregation-london-flats Section 106 and Affordable Housing “Poor Doors” Source: Savills using DCLG data and HSSA data
  47. 47. Transport
  48. 48. Source: Transport for London
  49. 49. Source: The Economist, 19.10.12
  50. 50. Passenger journeys on local bus services since 1985/86 Source: Department for Transport data in IPPR (2014) Greasing The Wheels Getting Our Bus And Rail Markets On The Move (http://www.ippr.org/assets/media/publications/pdf/greasing-the-wheels_Aug2014.pdf)
  51. 51. Sources: TfL; Crossrail
  52. 52. Source: Financial Times, 28.10.13
  53. 53. The impact of the arrival on Crossrail on central London commercial property prices Average Price per Square Foot % uplift Average Price per Square Foot % uplift Before Crossrail Bill 2005 After Crossrail Bill 2005 Before Crossrail Construction 2009 After Crossrail Construction 2009 Within half mile £471.96 £725.69 54% £594.92 £741.33 25% Outside half mile £447.95 £621.57 39% £533.09 £626.92 18% Difference £24.01 £104.12 15% £61.83 £114.40 7% Source: R Thompson (2014) The Crossrail Effect. The Impact of the Arrival on Crossrail on Central London Commercial Property Prices (http://londonfirst.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/LF_CROSSRAIL2_REPORT_2014_Single_Pages.pdf)
  54. 54. TFL Crossrail levy receipts 2013/14 Source: Planning, 14.2.14
  55. 55. Crossrail 2 opportunities for development Source: TfL
  56. 56. Economy
  57. 57. Source: LSE Cities Randstad London Amsterdam Hague Rotterdam Utrecht
  58. 58. Source: Centre for Cities/McKinsey (2014) Industrial revolutions: capturing the growth potential. (http://www.centreforcities.org/assets/files/2014/14- 06-26-Final-web-Industrial-Revolutions.pdf)
  59. 59. Source: Centre for Cities/McKinsey (2014) Industrial revolutions: capturing the growth potential. (http://www.centreforcities.org/as sets/files/2014/14-06-26-Final- web-Industrial-Revolutions.pdf)
  60. 60. Regeneration
  61. 61. Source: The Economist, 17.2.14
  62. 62. Source: Financial Times, 6.5.13
  63. 63. Source: Financial Times, 24.7.13
  64. 64. Source: https://www.london.gov.uk/priorities/business-economy/vision-and-strategy/infrastructure-plan-2050 London Infrastructure Plan
  65. 65. Projected capital expenditure requirement by sector (including enhancements and renewals), 2016-2050 (£ billion). 2014 prices Source: Arup/GLA The cost of London's long-term infrastructure. July 2014. (https://www.london.gov.uk/sites/defa ult/files/The%20cost%20of%20Londo n%27s%20long- term%20infrastructure%20by%20Aru p.pdf)
  66. 66. Urban governance and urban development • Global cities as national champions? – An imbalanced national political economy? • Mismatched planning institutions? – London versus the mega-region • Public investment and private returns? – What price inequality and liveability? • Do Mayors make a difference? – Thin narrow conception of democracy?
  67. 67. Global cities as national champions?
  68. 68. Politicians often lament the divide between the rich south and the poor north of England. They are being sloppy. What is really happening is that a few cities are pulling ahead of the rest of the country. They are indeed like vacuum cleaners, sucking in talented people, highly paid jobs, government investment and, lately, power. London has achieved all this without being especially well run. This is no slight to Boris Johnson, the city’s ambitious mayor; he simply does not have much power. London’s 33 boroughs collectively have greater heft, but even they do not have much. The most important decisions about London are made by the national government in Westminster. Scarce resources should go where they will generate the greatest returns. Trying to resist the agglomeration effects of big cities is not just a waste: it is actively harmful to Britain’s economy. Source: The Economist , 9.11.13
  69. 69. Source: Pickford, J (2014) “Recovery likely to widen wealth gap between London and regions”, Financial Times, 19th January
  70. 70. London poverty was already becoming more suburban and more diffuse even as income inequality in the city rose [during the 2000s] - Centre for Analysis for Social Exclusion (2012) ( Source: http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/politicsan dpolicy/poverty-housing- london-fenton/
  71. 71. http://www.theguardian.com/politics/video/2012/aug/01/boris-johnson-stuck-zip-wire-video It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way - Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities (1859)

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