In 2009-2010, at UNM, faculty members of color represented approximately 24% of the faculty.74% White8% Asian/Pacific Islander2% African American12% Hispanic3% Native American
Hurtado, Sylvia (2001), Linking Diversity and Educational Purpose: How Diversity Affects the Classroom Environment and Student Development. In: Orfield, G and Kurlaender, M (eds.), Diversity Challenged: Evidence on the Impact of Affirmative Action, Harvard Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 187-203.Umbach, Paul D. The Contribution of Faculty of Color to Undergraduate Education. Research in Higher Education, Vol. 47, No. 3, May 2006, p.317-345.
Additional Speaking Points:Aguirre (2000) identified several workplace stressors that serve as barriers to promotion and tenure of faculty of color:1.) Time pressures2.) Lack of personal time3.) Teaching load4.) Review and promotion process (lack of transparency and consistency of process)5.) Research and publication demands (lack of transparency and consistency of process)6.) Childcare7.) Subtle Discrimination“Cultural Taxation” Stanley (2006) refers to this as the expectation that faculty of color will perform service initiatives through mentoring students of color and participating as “diversity representatives”.Collegiality and “Isolation” - Stanley (2006) defines collegiality as the “nature of the relationship between colleagues in the college and university setting.” - Subtle discrimination and a difference in culture between FOC and traditional academia results in the isolation of FOC from information and support networks both informal and formal (Stanley 2006). Mentorship from Senior Faculty - Example, acculturation as to how junior faculty or tenured-track faculty balance the demands of research, scholarship and teaching.Informal Processes - Lack of opportunities for mentorship or collegiality, creates barriers for junior faculty and tenured-track in understanding the “informal processes” in achieving tenure (Thompson 2008).Lack of Transparency and Consistency - Policies and procedures for tenure process. Notes on Aguirre:Aguirre writes, “Minority faculty spend more time in work-place activities such as teaching and service that do not necessarily promote their professional socialization in the academic work-place, especially the professional socialization that increases their chances for attaining tenure and promotion”.• Thompson, Chastity Q. “Recruitment, Retention, and Mentoring Faculty of Color: The Chronicle Continues”. New Directions for Higher Education, no. 143, Fall 2008. Wiley Periodical Inc. Published online in Wiley InterSciencewww.interscience.wiley.comAdditional Notes on StanleyFaculty of color find themselves overburdened with committee assignments and larger advisory loads, especially advising students of color.2.) In their review of failed minority recruitment and retention efforts, Turner and Meyers (2000) identified one of the major causes or attributed to the collapsed efforts as a lack of committed leadership from all levels.
Hispanics: Of the 27 hired, 23 have tenure (17) or are progressing to tenure (6). Three left before tenureThere were a near equal number of Hispanic females hired as there were males hired.This was the same for the number of Hispanics who got tenure or are on their way to tenureOf the 4 Hispanics who left before tenure or were transitioned off the tenure-track 3 were women and one was male.Asian American: Of the 17 hired, 11 have tenure, 1 is progressing to tenure, and 5 left before tenure.In terms of gender, there were more males hired, 11-6,of which 9 got tenure or are on track, and ½ of the Asian Female faculty left before tenure, while the other half got tenureNative American: There were few (4) Native Americans hired of which 3 got tenure and 1 was transitioned off the tenure-trackThere were two females and two males. The two females got tenure, one of the males got tenure, and one was moved off the tenure track.African American: Here, too, there were few African American faculty hired (5), of which only 1 got tenure and 4 left before tenure.Four African American Female faculty were hired of which only one got tenure and three left. The one African American male faculty hired left before tenure.Interestingly, there was high turnover among White faculty.When faculty get tenure at UNM, they tend to stay, though white faculty are the most likely to leave post-tenure.
When we look at faculty who came in to UNM as non-tenure-track faculty, we see that there are avenues for recruiting URM to the tenure track. For example nearly as many Native Americans were converted (3) as came in on the traditional tenure-track (4). URM faculty accounted for almost half (11 of 26) of the faculty converted from the tenure track (Whites accounted for 15 of 26). Hiring Faculty ABD did not seem to be a barrier to getting tenure
Hispanic, African American, and Native American faculty are underepresented, while Whites and Asian/Pacific Islander over overrepresented among new tenure-track track.
DEI NMHEAR Presentation
Bringing Them and Keeping Them:The Critical Role of Diverse Faculty in Retention Dr. Josephine “Jozi” De Leon & Dr. Chalane E. Lechuga Division for Equity & Inclusion University of New Mexico
Shifting Racial and Ethnic Demographics“ The racial and ethnic demographics of the student populationin U.S. higher education has changed in recent years and evenmore dramatic shifts are projected over the coming decade.Thus, it is imperative for higher education administrations toconsider ways to recruit, retain, and support a moredemographically representative professoriate.” Association of Public and Land Grant Universities Issue Brief: Commission on Access, Diversity and Excellence “A New Hope: Recruiting and Retaining the Next Generation of Faculty of Color” March 2011
Shifting Racial and Ethnic Demographics Between 1998 – 2008 student enrollment in colleges and universities increased by 32% from 14.5 million to 19.1 million. Approximately 33% of these incoming students were from underrepresented racial and ethnic group. In 2009 – 2010, faculty members of color represented approximately 18% of all full-time faculty members in degree-granting institutions. > 82% White > 8% Asian Pacific Islander > 5% African American > 4% Latino > Less than 1% Native AmericanPonjuan, Luis, Marybeth Gasman, Elliot Hirshman, and Lorenzo L. Esters. “A New Hope: Recruiting and Retaining The Next Generation of Faculty of Color”.Association of Public and Land Grant Universities, Issue Brief: Commission on Access, Diversity, and Excellence. Washington D.C. March 2011.
The Impact of a Diverse Faculty on Student SuccessThe Contribution of Faculty of Color to Undergraduate Education (Umbach 2006) Provides empirical evidence that suggests that faculty of color can offer a significant contribution to undergraduate student learning and involvement. Faculty Interactions with students, i.e. African American and Native American faculty more frequently interact with students Faculty of color use active and collaborative learning techniques Faculty of color emphasize higher order cognitive experiences Faculty of color use diversity related activitiesLinking Diversity and Educational Purpose: How Diversity Affects the Classroom Environment and StudentDevelopment (Hurtado 2001) Interaction across racial/ethnic groups, particularly of an academic nature, is associated with important outcomes that will prepare students for living in a complex and diverse society. The three “important outcomes” were: 1. Civic Outcomes 2. Job-Related Outcomes 3. Learning Outcomes
Recruitment and Retention General Issues Institutions place a larger emphasis on faculty recruitment rather than retention efforts. Underrepresented faculty retention requires as much attention as recruitment. Lack of committed leadership from all levels at degree serving institutions. Retention Issues > Barriers to Tenure Process and Promotion • Work Place Stressors • Cultural Taxation • Lack of Collegiality and Mentorship • Lack of Transparency and Consistency Moreno, Jose F., Daryl G. Smith, Alma R. Clayton-Pederson, Sharon Parker, and David Hiroyuki Teraguchi. “The Revolving Door for Underrepresented Minority Faculty in Higher Education”. The James Irvine Foundation, A Research Brief. April 2006 Thompson, Chastity Q. “Recruitment, Retention, and Mentoring Faculty of Color: The Chronicle Continues”. New Directions for Higher Education, no. 143, Fall 2008. Wiley Periodical Inc. Published online in Wiley InterScience www.interscience.wiley.com.
Recommendations for Recruitment and Retention of Underrepresented Faculty Strong leadership statement from the President, Provost, in addition to the provision of new positions and funding for start-up packages. - An institution-wide focus on URM faculty hiring is likely to generate more motivation and momentum for success than any one school or college alone can generate. Data Collection - Collect and review faculty hiring data annually. This can reveal the extent to which efforts to increase faculty diversity is succeeding. - The regular collection and analysis of disaggregated data and the establishment of meaningful benchmarks. - Collect qualitative data about URM faculty who leave and who stay.
10-Year Analysis of Tenure-Track Faculty Analyze all faculty at UNM from 2000-2010 > Analyze new tenure-track faculty cohorts from 2000-2010. > Also, analyze UNM faculty who did not come in on the tenure- track, but were later converted. > This analysis includes new faculty hired from 2000-2006, both those who were hired directly on to the tenure-track and those who converted to the tenure-track during this period.
New Tenure-Track Hires 2000-2006 3% 2% 2% 9% 14% 70% African American American Indian Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic White No Respose
10-Year Analysis of Tenure-Track FacultyPossible tenure outcomes1. No tenure or tenure-track2. Came to UNM with tenure3. Came in on Tenure-track and achieved tenure4. Came in on Tenure-track and progressing to tenure5. Came in on Tenure-track and left before tenure6. Did not come in on tenure-track, converted to tenure-track, and received tenure7. Did not come in on tenure-track, converted to tenure-track, and progressing to tenure8. Did not come in on tenure-track, converted to tenure-track, and left before tenure9. Came in on Tenure-track and converted to non-tenure track
10-Year Analysis of Tenure-Track Faculty Findings When examining the experiences of underrepresented faculty with recruitment and retention, we need to look at each racial group separately. Each group has a different experience.
UNM Faculty Recruitment & Retention Efforts Recruitment > Leadership at the administrative level > Targeted Hires > Conversions of non-tenure track to tenure track lines > Post Doctoral Fellowship Retention > Women of Color Faculty Initiative > Funding for faculty activities > Working with departments/deans > Faculty Recruitment and Retention Steering Committee
UNM Faculty Recruitment & Retention EffortsFaculty Ethnicity/Gender College2008-2009Retention, non-tenure track African American/female Arts and SciencesRetention, non-tenure track African American/female Arts and SciencesTargeted recruitment (Unsuccessful) Native American/male Arts and Sciences2009-2010New Hire African American/male EngineeringRetention, tenure/tenure-track Native American/female EducationMove to tenure-track Native American/male Arts and SciencesMove to tenure-track Native American/male Arts and Sciences American Indian Studies2010-2011Move to tenure-track White/Female EngineeringMove to tenure-track Hispanic/female Arts and SciencesNew Hire Hispanic/Male Arts and SciencesNew Hire Hispanic/male BusinessNew Hire Hispanic/female Arts and SciencesNew Hire Native American/female Arts and SciencesNew Hire African American/Female Architecture and PlanningRetention, tenure/tenure-track Hispanic/male Architecture and PlanningDiversity Post Doc Hispanic/female Arts and SciencesDiversity Post Doc African American/male Dual Appointment in Arts and Sciences and EducationDiversity Post Doc Native American/female Arts and SciencesNMHED Minority Loan for Service Hispanic/female TBD2011-2012Move to tenure-track Hispanic/male Arts and Sciences
New % New All % All Tenured/Ten Tenured/Ten Tenured/Ten Tenured/Ten Total % Total ure Track ure Track ure Track ure Track 2009-2010 Student Students Faculty Faculty Faculty FacultyAfrican American/Black 842 3.1% 1 0.8% 18 1.1%American Indian 1685 6.2% 3 2.3% 29 1.8%Asian/Pacific Islander 1042 3.8% 12 9.2% 92 5.7%Hispanic 8914 32.6% 23 17.6% 252 15.7%White/Non-Hispanic 12446 45.6% 91 69.5% 1134 70.5%International 969 3.5% 0.0% 0.0%No Response 1406 5.1% 1 0.8% 84 5.2%Total 27304 131 1609 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% % New Tenured/Tenure Track Faculty 0% % Total Students
Additional Areas of Inquiry Examine the relationship between a diverse faculty and student success at UNM. Survey faculty of color Survey students of color Tenure-track study Why are African American Faculty leaving UNM? Why are there so few African American and Native American faculty? Hispanic, Asian American, and the few Native American faculty are getting tenure, we cannot assume they do not face challenges. What are they? For those faculty who were converted to the tenure-track what was the process? Can this be replicated? Analysis of Senior Faculty (Associate and Full Professors)
For additional information, references, and a copy of this powerpoint presentation please visit: http://diverse.unm.edu/nmhear-presentation Dr. Josephine “Jozi” De Leon & Dr. Chalane E. Lechuga Division for Equity & Inclusion University of New Mexico