Symbols of Viking gods: left—a figurine of Odin with two ravens abovehis head and a sword and spears in hand, from Uppland, Sweden; right—a hammer amulet representing Thor, from Bornholm, Denmark.Images from Vikings: the North American Saga, edited by Fitzhughand Ward.
Symbols of Viking gods: left—a figurine of Freyr, god of fertility, witherect penis, from Södermanland, Sweden; right—amulets representingValkyries, the furthest right carrying a horn of drink to welcome theheroes to Valhalla, from various sites in Sweden. Images from Vikings:the North American Saga, edited by Fitzhugh and Ward.
Viking religious beliefs: a depiction of Yggrasil, the World Tree, in theÖverhogdal Tapestry. The threat dates from the Viking Age. Ondisplay at Jämtlands Läns Museum, Östersund, Sweden. Image fromVikings: the North American Saga, edited by Fitzhugh and Ward.
Viking religious beliefs: left—a stone depicting a Viking ship (below)and an image of the afterlife (above) with Odin riding Sleipnir, fromTjängvide, Gotland, Sweden, 9thcentury; right—Thorvald’s cross slab,depicting Odin (right bottom side) with ravens on his shoulders andbeing devoured by Fenrir, Isle of Man, 10thcentury. Images fromVikings: the North American Saga, edited by Fitzhugh and Ward.
Left—the Viking lands in relation to Europe circa 813.Right—growth of power of Danish kings circa 800. Mapsfrom Robert Ferguson, The Vikings: a History.
Contact between Scandinavia and Western Europe:left—Ranvaig’s casket, Irish in origin but owned by a Scandinavian womannamed Ranvaig who carved her name into the casket; center—replica of a 9thcentury Irish penannular brooch from a Viking cemetery in Kilmainham, Ireland;right—the Helgö Crosier, also Irish in origin, but found in Helgö, Sweden.Images from Vikings: the North American Saga, edited by Fitzhugh and Ward.
Contact between Scandinavia, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East:left—8thcentury bronze Buddha statue found in Helgö, Sweden; topright—late 8thcentury quartz beads from the Caucasus found in Birka, Sweden;bottom right—an Abbasid dirham of 786 found in Staraja Ladoga, northernRussia. Images from Vikings: the North American Saga, edited by Fitzhughand Ward.
The Oseberg Ship, built c. 820, buried c. 825,excavated 1904.The Viking Ship Museum, Oslo, Norway• 72 ft long• 16 ½ ft broad• Crew of 30 men• Used to bury twowomen, one possiblya queen, the otherher slave.• Buried with a horse-drawn cart, buckets,barrels, and atapestry depicting thefuneral procession.
Viking ships: left—a close up of the Oseberg ship prow, with oar hole(used in preference to oar locks); right—a modern replica ship, SagaSiglar. Images from Vikings: the North American Saga, edited byFitzhugh and Ward.
The Gokstad ship, built c. 870-890, buried c. 900,excavated 1880.The Viking Ship Museum, Oslo, Norway• 76 ½ ft long• 17 ft broad• Crew of 32-35 men• Used to bury one man,over 6 ft tall and bearingmultiple injuries, includinga stab wound close to thefemoral artery.• Buried with shields, dogs,horses, and a peacock,among other objects.
11thcentury Viking-style ships depicted in the BayeuxTapestry, on display in Bayeux, Normandy, France. Thetapestry records the events leading up to the Normanconquest of England in 1066 at the battle of Hastings.
Illustration of a Viking bearing-dial, based on a bearing dialrecovered in Iceland. Illustration from Gwyn Jones, AHistory of the Vikings.