Luther’s “helpmeet” and Knox’s “monstrous regiment”: women
and the Reformation
Portrait of Anne Boleyn, by unknown artist,...
Reformation-era Europe
Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of theWest,Volume 1, 4th edition.
Luther’s “helpmeet” and Knox’s “monstrous regiment”: women
and the Reformation
Engraving of Martin Luther, by Baldung Grie...
Luther’s “helpmeet” and Knox’s “monstrous regiment”: women and the
Reformation
HenryVIII in theWhitehall Mural, by Remigiu...
Luther’s “helpmeet” and Knox’s “monstrous regiment”: women
and the Reformation
Etching of Margaret Fell (standing on left)...
Luther’s “helpmeet” and Knox’s “monstrous regiment”: women
and the Reformation
Portrait of St.Teresa of Avila, by Peter Pa...
Luther’s “helpmeet” and Knox’s “monstrous regiment”: women and the
Reformation
Elizabeth at prayer, from Christian Prayers...
Luther’s “helpmeet” and Knox’s “monstrous regiment”: women
and the Reformation
Still from TheWizard of Oz, 1939, MGM.
• Wi...
Luther’s “helpmeet” and Knox’s “monstrous regiment”: women and the
Reformation
Depiction ofWaldensians, in Martin le Franc...
15th-16th century images of witches,
from Brian Levack, TheWitch Hunt in Early-Modern Europe.
17th century images of witches,
from Brian Levack, TheWitch Hunt in Early-Modern Europe.
Luther’s “helpmeet” and Knox’s “monstrous regiment”: women
and the Reformation
Images from Brian Levack, TheWitch Hunt in ...
• Statistics from Brian Levack,
TheWitch-Hunt in Early Modern
Europe
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Women in Ancient and Medieval Europe Osher Lifelong Learning at UNM Continuing Education

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By Dr. Lizabeth Johnson

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  • Elizabeth at prayer. Note the royal posture, no bowing of the head. From the work Christian Prayers and Meditations in English, French, Italian, Spanish, Greeke and Latine, 1569. Lambeth Palace Library.
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    Flying Waldensians
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    Images from Levack’s The Witch Hunt in Early-Modern Europe. Source of left image, Ulrich Molitor, De Lamiis, 1489. Source of right image, Guazzo, 1610 edition.
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    Images from Levack’s The Witch Hunt in Early-Modern Europe. Source, Guazzo, 1610 edition.
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  • Women in Ancient and Medieval Europe Osher Lifelong Learning at UNM Continuing Education

    1. 1. Luther’s “helpmeet” and Knox’s “monstrous regiment”: women and the Reformation Portrait of Anne Boleyn, by unknown artist, c. 1535, Hever Castle, Kent. • The major reform movements • Martin Luther, 1483-1546 • John Calvin, 1509-1564 • HenryVIII, r. 1509-1547 • Catherine of Aragon, 1485-1536 • Anne Boleyn, 1507-1536
    2. 2. Reformation-era Europe Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of theWest,Volume 1, 4th edition.
    3. 3. Luther’s “helpmeet” and Knox’s “monstrous regiment”: women and the Reformation Engraving of Martin Luther, by Baldung Grien, 1521. • Luther’s reform movement • The justification of faith • “Every man his own priest” • Literacy important to salvation • Celibacy destructive to the soul • Sexuality within marriage healthy • Katherine von Bora, 1499-1550 • Marriage necessary, but not necessarily happy • Not a sacrament, but divorce still discouraged • Eve and Mary • Teaching and preaching
    4. 4. Luther’s “helpmeet” and Knox’s “monstrous regiment”: women and the Reformation HenryVIII in theWhitehall Mural, by Remigius van Leemput, 17th century, Royal Collection, Hampton Court Palace. • Calvin’s Geneva • Adultery a capital crime • Strict control of morality • HenryVIII • Abolished monasticism but didn’t allow clerical marriage (or divorce!) • John Knox, c. 1510-1572 • Presbyterianism • The First Blast of theTrumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment ofWomen, 1558
    5. 5. Luther’s “helpmeet” and Knox’s “monstrous regiment”: women and the Reformation Etching of Margaret Fell (standing on left), by Robert Spence, late 17th century • Minor reform movements • Anabaptists, 1520s-1530s • Equality of direct spiritual inspiration • “Third baptism” • The Society of Friends/Quakers, 1650s • Margaret Fell, 1614-1702 • Women’s SpeakingJustified, Proved and Allowed of by the Scriptures, All Such as Speak by the Spirit and Power of the Lord Jesus • Puritans, 1560s • Anne Hutchinson, 1591-1643
    6. 6. Luther’s “helpmeet” and Knox’s “monstrous regiment”: women and the Reformation Portrait of St.Teresa of Avila, by Peter Paul Rubens, 1615, Kunsthistoriches Museum,Vienna. • Women and the Catholic Reformation • The Council ofTrent, 1545-1563 • St.Teresa of Avila, 1515-1582 • Barefoot Carmelites • St. Angela Merici, 1474-1540 • Order of the Ursulines • MaryWard, 1585-1645 • Institute of the BlessedVirgin • St. Louise de Marillac, 1591-1660 • Sisters of Charity
    7. 7. Luther’s “helpmeet” and Knox’s “monstrous regiment”: women and the Reformation Elizabeth at prayer, from Christian Prayers and Meditations in English, French, Italian, Spanish,Greeke and Latine, 1560, Lambeth Palace Library. • Women and politics during the Reformation • John Knox’s “monstrous regiment” • Mary Queen of Scots, r. 1542-1567 • Mother of JamesVI of Scotland by Henry, Lord Darnley • Executed by Elizabeth I in 1588 • Mary I of England, r. 1553-1558 • Daughter of Catherine of Aragon • Married to Philip II of Spain • Elizabeth I, r. 1558-1603 • Daughter of Anne Boleyn
    8. 8. Luther’s “helpmeet” and Knox’s “monstrous regiment”: women and the Reformation Still from TheWizard of Oz, 1939, MGM. • Witch beliefs among the peasantry • Striga (pl. strigae) • Wisewoman/man • Cunningwoman/man • French devin • Old English wicca (m) and wicce (f) • Maleficia
    9. 9. Luther’s “helpmeet” and Knox’s “monstrous regiment”: women and the Reformation Depiction ofWaldensians, in Martin le France, “Le Champion des Dames,” c. 1440, Bibliotheque Nationale Grenoble. • Witch beliefs within the learned classes • Repression of sexuality = demonization of sexuality • Fears of heretics bringing subversion of order • Waldensians and Cathars as cannibalistic Devil worshippers who fly to night-time sabbaths
    10. 10. 15th-16th century images of witches, from Brian Levack, TheWitch Hunt in Early-Modern Europe.
    11. 11. 17th century images of witches, from Brian Levack, TheWitch Hunt in Early-Modern Europe.
    12. 12. Luther’s “helpmeet” and Knox’s “monstrous regiment”: women and the Reformation Images from Brian Levack, TheWitch Hunt in Early-Modern Europe. • The witch trials of Reformation Europe • Heinrich Kramer, James Sprenger, and the Malleus Maleficarum, 1486 • “Refusal-guilt syndrome”
    13. 13. • Statistics from Brian Levack, TheWitch-Hunt in Early Modern Europe

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