Diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens in relation to different forest types in the  Knuckles  Mountain range - S...
Lichens: <ul><li>Mini – ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Mycobiont  ( fungi)  with an obligate association with photobiont   (...
Lichens in Sri Lanka: <ul><li>Dearth of knowledge-   lichen Diversity, Biology & Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>1 st  collectio...
Interactions… Archilochus colubris (Hummingbird) Uroplatus fimbriatus (Leaf-tailed Gecko) Triturus marmoratus (Marbled new...
This  study :  <ul><li>Diversity & distribution of epiphytic   lichens in different forest types </li></ul><ul><li>Lichens...
Methodology : <ul><li>Quantitative sampling  –  11 x100 m 2   plots randomly   </li></ul><ul><li>Different forests  viz.  ...
<ul><li>Microhabitat variables -  canopy cover, bark pH  nature of the bark, DBH </li></ul><ul><li>Shannon-Wiener index (H...
Results :  <ul><li>69   lichen species  </li></ul><ul><li>24   families   </li></ul><ul><li>29   genera </li></ul><ul><li>...
Some of the lichen species found in sampled areas Usnea  sp. Cladonia sp. Parmeliella nigrosinta Coenogonium linkii Megala...
<ul><li>Highest diversity value recorded in montane forests  </li></ul><ul><li>Significant difference in lichen diversity ...
Putative parameters controlling the diversity and distribution of lichen communities Principal Component Analysis Componen...
Distribution of epiphytic lichen communities in different forest types Principal Component Analysis
<ul><li>The bark pH plays an important role in the lichen distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Many species were found on trees ...
<ul><li>There is a unimodal pattern of species diversity with reference to altitude </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological condition...
<ul><li>Species richness substantially increased in close canopy conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Certain lichen communities s...
<ul><li>Species richness was negatively related to DBH  </li></ul><ul><li>More lichen species occurred on barks  5- 40 cm ...
Summary:  <ul><li>Number of species is based on sub-sampling of corticolous lichens, so actual number could be far greater...
<ul><li>Bark pH plays an important role in the lichen distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Many species preferred slightly acidi...
<ul><li>Conclusions: </li></ul><ul><li>Lichen diversity is remarkably rich and diverse in four forest types with a unimoda...
Thank You <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
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Diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens in relation to different forest types in Knuckles Mountain range, Sri Lanka.

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Diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens in relation to different forest types in the Knuckles Mountain range - Sri Lanka.
Gothamie Weerakoon* 1 ,
S. Somaratne 2 &
S.C. Wijeyaratne 1
1 Department of Botany, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka,
2 Department of Botany, The Open University, Sri Lanka.
Presented at International Forestry and Environment Symposium 2009 at Department of Forestry and Environment Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka from 18 – 19 December 2009 (Session 7 – Ecology)

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Diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens in relation to different forest types in Knuckles Mountain range, Sri Lanka.

  1. 1. Diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens in relation to different forest types in the Knuckles Mountain range - Sri Lanka. Gothamie Weerakoon* 1 , S. Somaratne 2 & S.C. Wijeyaratne 1 1 Department of Botany, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka, 2 Department of Botany, The Open University, Sri Lanka.
  2. 2. Lichens: <ul><li>Mini – ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Mycobiont ( fungi) with an obligate association with photobiont (green alga or cyanobacteria) </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution: Extreme environments </li></ul><ul><li>Arctic to Antarctic, deserts to tropics, littoral zones to Mountain peaks, </li></ul><ul><li>toxic spoil heaps </li></ul><ul><li>One of the widely used biomonitors </li></ul><ul><li>Used as food, dyes & for perfumes & medicines </li></ul>
  3. 3. Lichens in Sri Lanka: <ul><li>Dearth of knowledge- lichen Diversity, Biology & Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>1 st collection – G.H.K.Thwaites (1849-1880) </li></ul><ul><li>696 Species are recorded </li></ul><ul><li>Why Conserve ? </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneers in habitat colonization </li></ul><ul><li>No notice - loss of species, changes in distribution pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Unexplored locations will reveal many new species </li></ul>
  4. 4. Interactions… Archilochus colubris (Hummingbird) Uroplatus fimbriatus (Leaf-tailed Gecko) Triturus marmoratus (Marbled newt) To protect from predators Hyla versicolor winter pastures
  5. 5. This study : <ul><li>Diversity & distribution of epiphytic lichens in different forest types </li></ul><ul><li>Lichens haven't been systematically inventorized & documented in Knuckles </li></ul><ul><li>Lichen data correlated with microhabitat conditions to asses the diversity and distribution in relation to multiple gradients </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling sites: Nitricave </li></ul><ul><li>Corbets gap </li></ul><ul><li>Dothalugala </li></ul>
  6. 6. Methodology : <ul><li>Quantitative sampling – 11 x100 m 2 plots randomly </li></ul><ul><li>Different forests viz. </li></ul><ul><li>Montane (above 1300m asl) </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-montane (600 - 1300 m asl) </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-evergreen (below 700 m asl) </li></ul><ul><li>Riverine forest (IUCN 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Different altitudes : 418 – 1413 m </li></ul><ul><li>10 randomly selected tress in each plot </li></ul><ul><li>*Corticolous lichens -10 x 25 cm </li></ul><ul><li>quadrats </li></ul><ul><li>*(lichens on bark) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Microhabitat variables - canopy cover, bark pH nature of the bark, DBH </li></ul><ul><li>Shannon-Wiener index (H’)- for each forest type </li></ul><ul><li>Post Hoc test - diversity difference among forests </li></ul><ul><li>Lichen data were correlated with microhabitat conditions by PCA - the compositional differences among sites </li></ul><ul><li>Specimens identified- lichen keys </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical analyses - SPSS (version 13) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Results : <ul><li>69 lichen species </li></ul><ul><li>24 families </li></ul><ul><li>29 genera </li></ul><ul><li>Species indicated - restricted distribution </li></ul><ul><li>01 sterile crustose - Montane, semi-evergreen & </li></ul>riverine forests
  9. 9. Some of the lichen species found in sampled areas Usnea sp. Cladonia sp. Parmeliella nigrosinta Coenogonium linkii Megalaspora sp. Phaeographis sp. Parmelina sp. Parmotrema sp.
  10. 10. <ul><li>Highest diversity value recorded in montane forests </li></ul><ul><li>Significant difference in lichen diversity among forest types except semi evergreen & riverine </li></ul>Forest type Post Hoc Test * mean difference is significant at 0.05 level <ul><li>* The mean difference is significant at the .05 level. </li></ul>ean difference is significant at the .05 level. (I) Forest type (J) Forest type Mean Difference (I-J) 1 Montane 2 .00056(*) 3 .00043(*) 4 .00040(*) 2 Sub montane 1 .00056(*) 3 .00013(*) 4 .00016(*) 3 Semi evergreen 1 .00043(*) 2 .00013(*) 4 .00003 4 Riverine 1 .00040(*) 2 .00016(*) 3 .00003
  11. 11. Putative parameters controlling the diversity and distribution of lichen communities Principal Component Analysis Component matrix components 1 2 altitude(m) -0.949 0.076 forest type 0.934 -0.137 DBH 0.687 -0.274 canopy 0.612 0.387 bpH 0.168 0.903 Total Variance Explained % of Variance Cumulative % PCA 1 50.701 50.701 PCA 2 23.518 74.219
  12. 12. Distribution of epiphytic lichen communities in different forest types Principal Component Analysis
  13. 13. <ul><li>The bark pH plays an important role in the lichen distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Many species were found on trees with bark pH between 4.8 and 6.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Species richness decrease in high acidic and neutral pH conditions </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>There is a unimodal pattern of species diversity with reference to altitude </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological conditions in mid altitudes are favorable for lichens </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Species richness substantially increased in close canopy conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Certain lichen communities seem to be photophilic </li></ul>50 40 30 20 10 60 70 80 90 100
  16. 16. <ul><li>Species richness was negatively related to DBH </li></ul><ul><li>More lichen species occurred on barks 5- 40 cm DBH & smooth </li></ul>20 40 60 80 100 0
  17. 17. Summary: <ul><li>Number of species is based on sub-sampling of corticolous lichens, so actual number could be far greater </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological factors play an important role in diversity and distribution of the lichen species </li></ul><ul><li>PCA ordination illustrated the occurrence of distinct lichen communities at different forests </li></ul><ul><li>Lichen distribution was significantly related to altitude </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Bark pH plays an important role in the lichen distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Many species preferred slightly acidic barks </li></ul><ul><li>Species richness increased in close canopy conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Species richness was negatively related to DBH </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Conclusions: </li></ul><ul><li>Lichen diversity is remarkably rich and diverse in four forest types with a unimodal pattern of species distribution with reference to altitude </li></ul><ul><li>These findings provide a better understanding of the community structure of lichens in different forest types in Knuckles range, which would assist in forest management and conservation of biodiversity </li></ul>
  20. 20. Thank You <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

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