PRESENTATION ON M.I.S &
DESCRIPTIVE SURVEY, CAUSAL
The MIS is defined as a system which provides
information support for decision-making in the
It is an integrated system of man and machine for
providing information to support the operations, the
management and decision-making function in the
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
In an organizational context, feedback is the
information sent to an entity (individual or a
group) about its prior behavior so that the
entity may adjust its current and future
behavior to achieve the desired result.
Feedback occurs when an environment
reacts to an action or behavior. For example,
'customer feedback' is the buyers' reaction to
a firm's products and policies, and
'operational feedback' is the internally
generated information on a firm's
performance. Response to a stimuli (such as
criticism or praise) is considered a feedback
only if it brings about a change in the
Replanning is a decision, where modified goals and
modified courses of action are alternatives. The prospect of
future replans, beyond the current choice, should influence
Cues are uncovered that can indicate when a replan is
appropriate, or when the current plan should be left
Replanning is then placed in an organizational context.
Organizations circumscribe the alternatives, channel the
information, and shape the preferences used by decision-
makers to replan.
The replanning decision, in turn, can powerfully affect the
organization by propagating change through a means-end
hierarchy of plans.
M/s. XYZ Ltd., a very large multinational promotional organization,
with head office at London,
Huge commercial success of Kitchenette product line all over Europe
Metal Box India Limited(MBIL), one of their major international clients
in India launched Kitchenette products in India in 1978,
Kitchen beautification and storage in tin containers launched,
Offered storage of solid food products as well as enlivened the
kitchen atmosphere(healthy, hygienic , clean-neat),
Targeted mostly at the busy, urban housewives – wife, mother and
MBIL followed up the commercial success of
Kichenette products in the UK and launched them
in India in 1978.
Like MBIL, UK, MBIL India also targeted the
housewives who wore “three hats” that’s of a wife,
a mother and a professional herself.
MBIL, India also considered safety, hygiene,
comfort and effective time-management as criteria
for purchase decisions.
Heavy promotion done to imprint on the buyers’
However, the Kitchenette products, despite
heavy promotion, failed in India.
Throughout the Introduction Phase of its
product life cycle, sales and growth limped in
Western and Northern India. Sales were
downright poor in South, Central and Eastern
India in the urban centres.
According to us ,
Women were employed in peripheral as packing
and labelling rather than in core jobs that carried
relatively higher wages.
Educated housewives not given major decision-
making powers. They just looked after the food to
Most of the educated women were housewives,
who did not venture out much in the market and
hence, had limited knowledge of kitchen products.
Women were not socially active.
WHY KITCHENETTE FAILED IN INDIA?
Unlike women in the UK, Indian women were a lot more
apprehensive about new products. They did not accept anything
Indian women were dependent on decisions taken by their
husbands unlike in the UK.
South, Central and Eastern India were not very going and
developed at the time. Educated women were married off at a
Working womens’ income was not considered valuable and hence,
their suggestions were generally ignored.
So even , if most of the urban women were educated, of which some were
professionals, important decisions like the family budget wrested with the
male head. Indeed, understanding the consumers’ buying behaviour was
necessary on MBIL’s part.
WHY KITCHENETTE FAILED IN INDIA?
It was absolutely necessary to study the
general lifestyles of the urban, Indian women
and to assess their buying behaviour.
The cultural, social and personal factors
affecting their buying behaviour must be
The primary reference group of women in
urban India were the most influential and
Perhaps, it would have been better to first
persuade the males of the urban society
regarding the advantages of the product.
Promotional strategies may be worked out
targetting the male population as well.
MBIL, India must make a clear distinction
between the mindsets of women in India
compared to those of UK , based on their
What is Research?
In the broadest sense of the
word, the definition of research
includes any gathering of data,
information and facts for the
advancement of knowledge.
Research is a process of steps
used to collect and analyze
information to increase our
understanding of a topic or
issue". It consists of three steps:
Pose a question, collect data to
answer the question, and
present an answer to the
Market research involves the capture and analysis of
consumer, competitor and market trend data.
The principal role of market research, is to provide a
business with a comprehensive view of consumers in order to
develop products and services that satisfy their needs better
than the competition.
Decisions need to be informed and market research helps to
support this process, significantly reducing the level of
financial risk attached with investment decisions.
It also influences decisions to target capital investment on
projects that will offer the best return on that investment, such
as opening a new store or entering a new market.
What is Market Research?
Exploratory research is the broadest and least
theoretically-grounded of the three types of research.
Essentially, you have no starting theory or hypothesis
about a problem. In fact, you don't even know if there is
a problem to begin with. In exploratory research, you
simply start collecting information about something. It is
similar to data mining, and it does not always produce
results that can be useful. However, it generally gives
you a better idea about something.
The reason is usually budgetary;
even expensive focus groups pale in
cost next to large scale surveys.
The techniques we classify as
“exploratory” generally provide
information and insight to researchers
as they prepare for larger research
efforts such as surveys and
exploratory research can assist market
researchers in finding possible causes to
the symptoms communicated by decision
exploratory research can uncover possible
avenues for reaching decision makers’
exploratory research answers questions
about actually administering a large and
expensive research project. For
example, They can get a sense of how
best to reach the people (e.g., mail
versus telephone versus Internet).
Focus Group Interviews
focus groups are small groups of six to ten participants plus one
“moderator” brought together to discuss an issue or issues of interest
to the researcher and decision maker. Typically, focus group
interviews last from sixty to ninety minutes.
Benefits of Focus Groups
they can be assembled and
conducted relatively quickly.
even when professionally
moderated, a single focus group
relatively little to conduct.
the group format of a focus
group holds the potential for more
Depth interviews share some similarities with focus
groups. They both produce qualitative data; they both
attempt to uncover the feelings and motives behind the
marketplace actions of consumers; they both help explore
research questions in preparation for larger data
Depth interviews are intended to go more in-depth with
individuals, uncovering deeper feelings and more detailed
life experiences that may be relevant to their behaviors
toward a product or brand.
When using projective techniques, interviewers ask
participants to “project” themselves into a fictitious or
contrived circumstance or ask them to assume the role of
a fictitious person. In this way participants feel they are
speaking in hypothetical terms or feel they are speaking
about someone other than themselves. This makes them
feel less vulnerable and ironically leads to more candid
Interviewers can present participants with a wide variety
of visual or written material and ask the participants to
a) One favorite is sentence completion,
where participants complete sentences about
products, people or consumption situations.
b)Another projective technique favored
by marketers is cartoon interpretation.
Participants receive a carton drawing and are
asked to provide some or all of the dialogue.
Descriptive survey typically seeks to ascertain
respondents' perspectives or experiences on a
specified subject in a predetermined structured
WHAT IS DESCRIPTIVE SURVEY
Involves either identifying the characteristics of an
observed phenomenon or exploring possible
correlations among two or more phenomena.
In every case, descriptive research examines a
situation AS IT IS.
It does not involve changing or modifying the
situation under investigation, nor is it intended to
determine cause-and-effect relationships.
Strategies include sampling, making observations,
interviewing – take on a very different form when
we want them to yield quantitative data.
DESCRIPTIVE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Include observation studies, correlational
research, developmental designs, and survey
All of these approaches yield quantitative
information that can be summarized through
Survey research is the most frequently used in
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH DESIGN
To look beyond the fact;
to go beyond the
To describe things, such
as the market potential
for a product or the
attitudes of consumers
who buy the product.
OBJECTIVES OF DESCRIPTIVE SURVEY