Pricing and Promotions, IMC,
Personnel selling, and sales
management, theories of
selling, sales force automation
“A price is not merely a
function of costs and
margins...it is an
expression of value.”
• Product Features
• Channel decisions
Develop marketing strategy.
Make market-mix decisions.
Estimate the demand curve.
Understand environmental factors.
Set pricing objectives.
Personal selling- Is direct communication
between seller and buyer.
Mass selling- Is non-personal selling.
Advertising- Is a form of mass-selling.
Publicity- Is an information that concerns a
person, group, event, or product and that is
disseminated through various media to
attract public notice.
Sales promotion- Is one of the seven aspects
of the promotional mix.
According to American Marketing Association IMC or
Integrated Marketing Communication is “A planning
process designed to assure that all brand contacts
received by a customer or prospect for a
product, service, or organization are relevant to that
person and consistent over time.”
Five major shifts in the worlds of advertising, marketing and
media have caused an increased interest in (and need for) IMC.
Shift From... To…
Traditional Advertising Digital/Interactive Media
Mass Media Specialized Media
Low Agency Accountability High Agency Accountability
Traditional Compensation Performance-Based Compensation
Limited Internet Access Widespread Internet Availability
‘Personal selling’ is the most widely used means by
which organizations communicate with their
It involves oral conversations, either by telephone or
face-to-face, between salespersons and prospective
Between prospective buyer and the seller. So, it
involves in developing relationships between the
buyer and seller.
Direct human contacts.
Matching products to needs.
Results in discovering and communicating customer
needs and thus able to understand and solve buyer’s
Establish rapport - Use of verbal and non verbal
Make a good impression.
Problem solver for prospective buyers - Tell the product story.
Use of appropriate sales aids
(computers, videos, brochures, etc).
Know when to close after narrowing the alternatives.
‘Sales Management’ is the marketing management
activity dealing with planning, organizing, directing,
and controlling the personal selling effort. This
includes recruiting, training, supervision, motivation,
evaluation, and compensation of sales personnel.
Planning Setting sales objectives.
1. Organizing sales activities.
2. Recruiting and selection.
1. Training and development.
2. Motivation & compensation.
Control Evaluating and controlling.
Kick-backs, bribes and
Cheating on expense
“Right set of circumstances”
Theory can be summarized as “Every thing
This theory is also known as “Situation-
A sales person needs to be well skilled to
handle the set of circumstances.
The name “buying formula” has been
given by the late E.K. Strong.
It is a step-by-step explanation of the
Reduced to its simplest form, the mental
processes involved in a purchase are
need solution purchase
need product and/or service and trade
need product and/or service and trade
Using a stimulus response model and
incorporating findings from behavioral
research, J.A. Howard explains buying
behavior in terms of the purchasing
decision process, viewed as phases of the
Four essential elements of the learning
process included in the stimulus-response
a) INNATE DRIVES
b) LEARNED DRIVES
a) PRODUCT CUES
b) INFORMATIONAL CUES
Sales Force Automation is an important customer
relationship management function that enhances
the operations of the sales team. It focus on
cultivating customer relationships and Improving
◦ Customized to the company’s specific sales policies
and procedures, known as sales process management
◦ Include a sequence of sales activities that can guide
reps through each discrete step in the sales process
◦ Sales process tools are not sophisticated
◦ Offer calendars to assist in planning of key
◦ Automates both individual and organizational to-
◦ Provides valuable post factor analysis of a sales
cycle; which allows the team to examine the
duration and procedures involved in critical tasks
◦ Sales process and activity management are only
as good as their ability to be tailored to intervals
Sales managers oversee tens or hundreds of sales
teams and cannot stay abreast of every active sales
Sales management tools can enable them to
manage this large task
◦ Offering data and reporting options to provide
on-demand access to sales activities
◦ Teams can be linked to headquarters specialists
◦ Sales managers can track territory assignments
and monitor pipelines and leads for individual
◦ Limits on territories
◦ Subset of sales force automation that deals with
organizing and managing data across and within
a company’s client and prospect organization
◦ Software can contain various modules for
maintaining local client databases, displaying
updated organization charts, and allowing
salespeople to maintain notes on specific clients
Can answer specific questions quickly
Enable salespeople to communicate their schedules to the
organization at large
◦ Real value of CM is in its capability to track where
customers are and who they are in terms of their
influence with sales management functions
Also known as “opportunity management” and
◦ Aims to provide foolproof sales strategies so no sales task,
document, or communication falls through the cracks
Sales people follow a defined approach to turning
opportunities into deals
◦ can provide qualified leads through
marketing campaigns or lead referrals
◦ can also track other prospect attributes
◦ These capabilities can result in answers to
questions that previously demanded
◦ Allow a salesperson to input client and prospect
information into an easy-to-use tool
◦ CRM products have evolved to leverage this
information by providing product-specific
configuration support to companies who must build
products for their customers
◦ Often use graphical sales process (Figure 4-2) Page
◦ Order stage is reached, the tool can calculate a
product configuration and price quote automatically
◦ Can then provide forms that facilitate electronic
communication of the information to other areas of
The more information the better
◦ Surplus of information
◦ To effectively use this information salespeople need
easy access to it
Intranets are a solution
◦ KM are systems that can locate and store this
information and provide users with a single
◦ Geographical boundaries are now non-existent
10th Floor, Plot G1,
Block EP & GP,
Sector V, Salt-Lake,
Kolkata – 700091.
Centre Linkway Estate,
Next to Chincholi Fire
Brigade, Malad (West),
Mumbai – 400 064.