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# Circuit Elements

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Introduction to circuit elements used in linear circuit analysis

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• ### Circuit Elements

1. 1. CIRCUIT ELEMENTSChapter 2
2. 2. OVERVIEW• Five ideal basic circuit elements • voltage sources • current sources • resistors • inductors • capacitors
3. 3. VOLTAGE & CURRENT SOURCES• Electrical Source is a device capable of converFng nonelectric energy into electric  energy • baHery ‐ chemical to electrical • dynamo* ‐ mechanical to electrical (generator) or electrical to mechanical (motor) dynamo http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hjorth_dynamo_1855.JPG Note: we want to determine whether the sources are delivering or absorbing power.  This is most important for analysis.
4. 4. VOLTAGE & CURRENT SOURCES• Ideal Voltage Source is a circuit element that maintains a prescribed voltage  across its terminal regardless of the current ﬂowing in those terminals.• Ideal Current Source is a circuit element that maintains a prescribed current  through its terminals regardless of the voltage across its terminals • truly independent • not aﬀected by environment or external forces • do not exist in a pracFcal sense
5. 5. VOLTAGE & CURRENT SOURCES• Using ideal sources forces us to make a tradeoﬀ between analyFcal simplicity and the  pracFcality of relaFng voltage and current in our source. Dependency adds a complexity to our circuit analysis but it provides a more realis=c  model of behavior.• Ideal sources can be further delineated by dependency (i.e. independent vs.  dependent voltage or current source)
6. 6. VOLTAGE & CURRENT SOURCES• Circuit symbols for ideal voltage source  showing magnitude and polarity and ideal  current source showing magnitude and its  reference direcFon• Note that the symbols are circular
7. 7. VOLTAGE & CURRENT SOURCES• Dependent sources require  controlling voltage or current,  equaFon to compute the supplied  voltage or current from the  controlling value, and the  reference polarity for voltage and  reference direcFon for current.• Dependent sources are  represented by diamonds.
8. 8. VOLTAGE & CURRENT SOURCES voltage-controlled dependent voltage source
9. 9. VOLTAGE & CURRENT SOURCES voltage-controlled dependent voltage source voltage-controlled dependent current source
10. 10. VOLTAGE & CURRENT SOURCES voltage-controlled dependent voltage source voltage-controlled dependent current source current-controlled dependent voltage source
11. 11. VOLTAGE & CURRENT SOURCES voltage-controlled dependent voltage source voltage-controlled dependent current source current-controlled dependent voltage source current-controlled dependent current source
12. 12. VOLTAGE & CURRENT SOURCES voltage-controlled dependent voltage source voltage-controlled dependent current source current-controlled dependent voltage source current-controlled dependent current sourceα has the dimension amperes per volt and has the dimension volts per ampere.
13. 13. ONE MORE THING...• Ac5ve Element models a device capable of genera=ng electric energy. • ideal sources• Passive Element models a device capable of absorbing  electric energy. • resistors, inductors, capacitors