Circuit Elements

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Introduction to circuit elements used in linear circuit analysis

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  • Circuit Elements

    1. 1. CIRCUIT
ELEMENTSChapter 2
    2. 2. OVERVIEW• Five
ideal
basic
circuit
elements • voltage
sources • current
sources • resistors • inductors • capacitors
    3. 3. VOLTAGE
&
CURRENT
SOURCES• Electrical
Source
is
a
device
capable
of
converFng
nonelectric
energy
into
electric
 energy • baHery
‐
chemical
to
electrical • dynamo*
‐
mechanical
to
electrical
(generator)
or
electrical
to
mechanical
(motor) dynamo http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hjorth_dynamo_1855.JPG Note:
we
want
to
determine
whether
the
sources
are
delivering
or
absorbing
power.
 This
is
most
important
for
analysis.
    4. 4. VOLTAGE
&
CURRENT
SOURCES• Ideal
Voltage
Source
is
a
circuit
element
that
maintains
a
prescribed
voltage
 across
its
terminal
regardless
of
the
current
flowing
in
those
terminals.• Ideal
Current
Source
is
a
circuit
element
that
maintains
a
prescribed
current
 through
its
terminals
regardless
of
the
voltage
across
its
terminals • truly
independent • not
affected
by
environment
or
external
forces • do
not
exist
in
a
pracFcal
sense
    5. 5. VOLTAGE
&
CURRENT
SOURCES• Using
ideal
sources
forces
us
to
make
a
tradeoff
between
analyFcal
simplicity
and
the
 pracFcality
of
relaFng
voltage
and
current
in
our
source. Dependency
adds
a
complexity
to
our
circuit
analysis
but
it
provides
a
more
realis=c
 model
of
behavior.• Ideal
sources
can
be
further
delineated
by
dependency
(i.e.
independent
vs.
 dependent
voltage
or
current
source)
    6. 6. VOLTAGE
&
CURRENT
SOURCES• Circuit
symbols
for
ideal
voltage
source
 showing
magnitude
and
polarity
and
ideal
 current
source
showing
magnitude
and
its
 reference
direcFon• Note
that
the
symbols
are
circular
    7. 7. VOLTAGE
&
CURRENT
SOURCES• Dependent
sources
require
 controlling
voltage
or
current,
 equaFon
to
compute
the
supplied
 voltage
or
current
from
the
 controlling
value,
and
the
 reference
polarity
for
voltage
and
 reference
direcFon
for
current.• Dependent
sources
are
 represented
by
diamonds.
    8. 8. VOLTAGE
&
CURRENT
SOURCES voltage-controlled dependent voltage source
    9. 9. VOLTAGE
&
CURRENT
SOURCES voltage-controlled dependent voltage source voltage-controlled dependent current source
    10. 10. VOLTAGE
&
CURRENT
SOURCES voltage-controlled dependent voltage source voltage-controlled dependent current source current-controlled dependent voltage source
    11. 11. VOLTAGE
&
CURRENT
SOURCES voltage-controlled dependent voltage source voltage-controlled dependent current source current-controlled dependent voltage source current-controlled dependent current source
    12. 12. VOLTAGE
&
CURRENT
SOURCES voltage-controlled dependent voltage source voltage-controlled dependent current source current-controlled dependent voltage source current-controlled dependent current sourceα has the dimension amperes per volt and has the dimension volts per ampere.
    13. 13. ONE
MORE
THING...• Ac5ve
Element
models
a
device
capable
of
genera=ng
electric
energy. • ideal
sources• Passive
Element
models
a
device
capable
of
absorbing

electric
energy. • resistors,
inductors,
capacitors

    ×