Panama pp blog


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Panama pp blog

  1. 1. Panama
  2. 2. The population is 3,322,576 according to a 2010 census. The population below the poverty line is 28.6% Average schooling years is 9yrs Life expectancy is 76yrs old Literacy rate is 91% Basic Panama facts:
  3. 3. Chronological History of Panama Panama Colonization 1502  - Spanish explorer Rodrigo de Bastidas visits Panama, which was home to Cuna, Choco, Guaymi and other indigenous peoples. 1519  - Panama becomes Spanish Vice-royalty of New Andalucia (later New Granada). 1821  - Panama becomes independent of Spain, but joins the confederacy of Gran Colombia, which also comprises Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. 1830  - Panama becomes part of Colombia following the collapse of Gran Colombia. 1846  - Panama signs treaty with US allowing it to build a railway across the isthmus. 1880s  - France attempts to build a canal linking the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, but fails due to financial difficulties and the death of more than 20,000 workers from tropical diseases.
  4. 4. Independence, building the canal 1903  - Panama splits from Colombia and becomes fully independent. US buys rights to build Panama Canal and is given control of the Canal Zone in perpetuity. 1914 - Panama Canal completed. 1939  - Panama ceases to be a US protectorate. 1968-81  - General Omar Torrijos Herrera, the National Guard chief, overthrows the elected president and imposes a dictatorship. 1977  - US agrees to transfer the canal to Panama as from 31 December 1999. 1981  - Torrijos dies in plane crash. 1983  - Former intelligence chief and one-time US Central Intelligence Agency informant Manuel Noriega becomes head of the National Guard, builds up the size of the force, which he renames the Panama Defence Forces, and greatly increases its power over Panama's political and economic life. 1988  - US charges Noriega with drug smuggling; Noriega declares state of emergency in the wake of a failed coup.
  5. 5. Panama Canal a History In 1501 the Spanish arrived in Panama led by Rodrigo Bastides. In 1519 a troop of Spaniards found the Pacific coast nearly 50 miles from the Atlantic side, thus began the movement of shipping trends between the Atlantic and Pacific instead of gruelingly going around all of South America. A road was established to haul literally dismantled ships from Atlantic to Pacific, the roads remnants can still be seen today around the Panama Canal. Panama from 1830 to 1903 was part of Columbia. French companies and the American government had tried to make deals with the Columbians to construct a canal. In fact the French had tried but failed miserably. In 1903 there was a Panamanian separatist movement led by Panamanian bourgeoisie and French companies. The Columbians called in troops to quell the movement. The US saw this as a great opportunity to gain a lease to the canal and they supported the separatists and blocked Columbian troops from entering Panama.
  6. 6. Panama gained independence on November 3rd 1903 and on November 6th the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty was signed. Bunau-Varilla was the architect of the new Panamanian constitution as well as a French man and owner of a French Canal Company. When he signed the treaty he was in New York and had no authorization from the Panamanian revolutionary council. The treaty gave the U.S. the rights to the area in which the canal was built. Thus the canal was only officially owned by the U.S. because the U.S. said it was owned by the U.S. and was more or less a U.S. territory. Obviously this was a cause for future Panamanian-U.S. strife. The Panamanians didn’t forget this. In 1964 there was a riot due to tensions between Panamanians and U.S. canal zone inhabitants. It started with a dispute between Panamanian and U.S. zone high school students over the ripping of a Panamanian flag. The riots lasted multiple days and in the aftermath 4 U.S. soldiers had been killed and 21 Panamanians lay dead. Many believe this incident led to the Torrijos-Carter Treaty in 1977. The treaty was signed by current President Jimmy Carter and General Omar Torrijos (he was the head of government due to a military coup in 1968). It laid out the plan to hand control of Panama Canal to the Panamanians in 1998. In 1998 the canal finally was back in the hands of its rightful owner; Panama.
  7. 7. US invades 1989  - Opposition wins parliamentary elections, but Noriega declares results invalid. Noriega declares "state of war" in the face of increased threats by Washington. US invades Panama, ousts Noriega and replaces him with Guillermo Endara. 1991  - Parliament approves constitutional reforms, including abolition of standing army; privatisation begins. 1992  - US court finds Noriega guilty of drug offences and sentences him to 40 years imprisonment, to be served in a US prison. 1999  - Mireya Moscoso becomes Panama's first woman president. 1999  December - Panama takes full control of the Panama Canal, ending nearly a century of American jurisdiction over one of the world's most strategic waterways. 2000  - Moscoso announces creation of a panel to investigate crimes committed while military governments were in power between 1968 and 1989. 2002  January - President Moscoso sets up a commission to investigate corruption. The move follows large street protests against alleged graft in government circles. 2002  April - Panama removed from international list of uncooperative tax havens after promising to make its tax system more transparent. 2003  September - National strike over management of social security fund paralyses public services. More than 40 hurt in clashes. 2004 May - Martin Torrijos, son of former dictator Omar Torrijos, wins presidential elections. 2004  August-September - President Moscoso pardons four Cuban exiles Havana accuses of plotting to kill Cuban President Castro. Cuba severs ties. Newly-inaugurated President Martin Torrijos pledges to repair relations; both countries agree in November to restore ties. 2004  November - Panama Canal earns record revenues of $1 billion for the financial year. 2005  May-June - Plans to increase pension contributions and raise the retirement age spark weeks of protests and strikes. President Torrijos had promised to reform the cash-strapped social security system. 2006  - At least 50 people die after taking cough medicine tainted with an industrial solvent imported from China.
  8. 8. Canal upgrade 2006  October - Voters in a referendum back a $5.2bn plan to upgrade the Panama Canal. The scheme aims to double the capacity of the waterway. 2006  December - Panama and the US agree on a free trade deal. 2007  September - Work to widen Panama Canal begins. 2008  February - Fatal shooting of union leader triggers violent clashes between police and construction workers in Panama City. 2008  December - A Russian warship sails through the Panama Canal for the first time since World War II. The canal was shut to the Soviet Union during the Cold War. 2009  April - A US federal appeals court says Panama's ex-leader, Manuel Noriega, can be extradited to France. Noriega was released from a Florida prison in September 2008 after serving a 17-year sentence for drug trafficking. 2009  May - Ricardo Martinelli of the conservative opposition Alliance for Change coalition wins presidential election, defeating Balbina Herrera of the ruling centre-left Democratic Revolutionary Party. 2010  June - Noriega goes on trial in Paris.
  9. 9. Panama the Peoples Overview Ethnicity- 70% Mestizo (a mix between native and white). Also the Spaniards during the colonial era allowed African slaves, Natives, and Europeans to mix (have sex) together. Apparently this gracious gift handed down by former oppressors has made the Panamanians a very beautiful and colorful people. In Panama 6% of the population is indigenous. Those native peoples consist of the “Kuna, Embera, Waounan, Ngobe, Bugle, Nassau, and Terribe people.” Due to the strategic trade importance of the Panama Canal there is people from all corners of the world settled in Panama and you can find people from every continent living there.
  10. 10. Panamanian Economic Make-up: Panama is not very different in terms of the rich and poor according to ethnicity. The whites and creoles dominate the upper classes of Panamanian society, while the upper middle class consists of some Panamanians and lots of Taiwanese business people. The middle class are people of all ethnicity. The poorest of course being the indigenous tribes. Religion: The vast majority of Panamanians are Roman Catholic, nearly 85%. This is not surprising as it being a former Spanish colony.
  11. 11. Sources