Mapping of the Public Transport System of Metro Manila: Responding to the Needs of the Poor and Vulnerable Sectors
Mapping of the Public Transport System of Metro Manila: Responding to the Needs of the Poor and Vulnerable Sectors Dr. Jun T. Castro with generous support from
Introduction• Effective transportation planning requires a reliable database• Data should be stored in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to facilitate manipulation and checking• Developed GIS database can be used to understand transport conditions and demographic characteristics through thematic maps• Several studies have used GIS for public transport planning, as well as urban poor community planning• However, limited studies on the connection of public transport and poor communities using mapping techniques
Research Goals• Using GIS, identify, map and assess public transportation supply (modes, routes and facilities)• Identify gaps in the data sets or barriers to access these data sets• Assess the mobility of the urban poor and vulnerable sector in relation to transport supply• Identify transport-related improvements in infrastructure and services that will benefit urban poor communities in the case study areas
Research Questions• What is the current status of Metro Manila public transport system?• What are the data needed to physically lay-out the transport system?• How can the database be useful in responding to the needs of the poor?• How extensive are informal transport hubs in Metro Manila?• Which specific features of the existing transport facilities are particularly unfriendly to the poor?• What government policies are necessary to enhance responsiveness of transport facilities and services to the poor?
Objectives• Review available spatial mapping on transport including public transport and pedestrian infrastructure• Conduct secondary and primary data gathering• Identify and formulate alternative mapping strategies for data collection• Document process for generating, encoding, storing, sharing, and displaying user-friendly maps of public transport hubs/terminals• Develop database of public transport hubs• Identify transport hubs (formal and informal) connecting urban poor communities in the study areas• Generate decision maps to meet the needs of poor/vulnerable sectors.
Significance of the Study• Geographic information and analysis used to identify public transport issues particularly those that impacts the poor, and investigate the significance of policies, and consider development options.• GIS mapping capabilities provide decision makers a tool to analyze mobility and accessibility, in both visual and quantifiable terms.• GIS files developed in this study will be useful for future research and urban and transport planning analysis.
Study Areas (Source: OpenStreetMap) North Triangle Matandang Balara Payatas• Three poor communities as case study areas to determine impacts of public transportation to their accessibility
Data Collection:Secondary Data Collection Utilized data from Mega Manila Public Transport Study (2007) and other JICA-assisted studies Additional information requested from Department of Public Order and Safety (DPOS) : • Formal and informal public transport terminal locations and pertinent data (i.e. bus, jeepneys, FX/UV express, tricycles, pedicabs) • Public transport routes covered by each terminal (for bus, jeepneys, FX/UV express), and service areas (for tricycles, pedicabs) • Pedestrian facilities, such as pedestrian walkway network, footbridges/tunnels, etc.)
Data Collection:Primary Data Collection Field Surveys • Inventory of public transport terminals • Ocular survey of public transport routes passing the study area and their characteristics such as route names and directions. • Inventory of pedestrian walkways • Infrastructure improvements in the study area.
Data Collection:Primary Data Collection Conversion of Data to GIS • Collected data from field surveys were located in Google Earth and place-marked to have geo-referenced information (i.e., longitude- latitude coordinates). • These are then saved as a Google Earth file (.kml or .kmz) • The .kml or .kmz files were converted into GIS data format using any GIS conversion software
Database Gaps Gaps in the Database • Road-based public transport data should be given priority for update • Need for a more comprehensive survey which utilize GPS and new technologies Gaps in Spatial Data Sharing • Lack of data model and format standardization • Unwillingness of organizations to share data • Technical incompatibilities that arise from different hardware platforms, operating systems and software • Lack of a supporting data delivery infrastructure, including network bandwidth, organizational protocols, etc. • Lack of coordination between local, provincial and national mapping agencies, resulting in discrepancies about content, encoding standards, etc.
GIS Mapping: Public Transport Terminals Public Transport Terminals: any facility where passengers are assembled or dispersed Transport hub: general term referring to a central location in a transport system with inbound and outbound connections Informal terminals: areas used as terminals that have no legal provision and local government ordinance that support its existence Field survey crucial to identify and locate informal terminals (not included in DPOS database)Distribution of public transport terminals
GIS Mapping: Public Transport Terminals Informal Public Transport Terminals are concentrated in the vicinity of North Triangle (i.e., Barangays Bagong Pag- Asa, Sto. Cristo, Ramon Magsaysay, and Pinyahan), and along Commonwealth Avenue (i.e., Barangays Matandang Balara, Batasan Hills, and Commonwealth).Informal Public Transport Terminals
GIS Mapping:Public Transport Routes Jeepney Routes Bus Routes
GIS Mapping:Land Use Map Predominantly for residential use Has one of the biggest informal settlements in the metropolis Informal settlements concentrated in Barangays Pinyahan near the North Triangle area, Barangays Matandang Balara, Batasan Hills, and Commonwealth along Commonwealth Avenue, and Barangays Payatas and Bagong Silangan Land Use of Quezon City
Spatial Analysis: Proximity Analysis Proximity analysis (buffering) used to measure public transit accessibility Buffering involves the creation of areas around a geographical entity based on a measurement of distance to determine the impacts of the particular feature250m Buffers of Public Transport Terminals
Spatial Analysis: Kernel Density Estimation Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) also used to identify the location of the most accessible areas on the map in terms of public transport terminals. KDE is a spatial analysis of the density of the magnitude of terminals over the area Darkest areas represent places with the highest concentration of public transport terminals Most accessible areas are North Triangle, Centris, Cubao, Munoz Market, Commonwealth Market, Tandang Sora, Philcoa, Katipunan, etc.KDE Map for Public Transport Modes
Spatial Analysis:Kernel Density Estimation Map
Spatial Analysis:Kernel Density Estimation Map
Spatial Analysis:Kernel Density Estimation Map KDE used to determine the concentration of informal terminals Clustered in Barangays Pinyahan, Bagong Pag-asa, Sto. Cristo, and Ramon Magsaysay near North EDSA, in Matandang Balara, Batasan Hills, and Commonwealth along Commonwealth Avenue, and in San Vicente and Pansol. KDE Map for Informal Terminals
Overlay Analysis Overlay of PT Terminals and Informal Settlements Combining the thematic layers of buffered public transport terminals and informal settlements, it can be deduced that public transport terminals are oriented to serve people near informal settlements
Overlay Analysis Overlay of PT Routes and Informal Settlements Combining the thematic layers of buffered public transport routes and informal settlements, it can be deduced that public transport terminals are oriented to serve people near informal settlements It can be said that public transport facilities and services are reasonably friendly to the poor, manifested by high accessibility of PT terminals and availability of diverse public transport modes
Overlay Analysis Overlay of informal terminals and informal settlements Overlaying the KDE map with the informal settlements theme, one can speculate that there might be a connection between the existence of informal public transport terminals and informal settlements
Data Sharing Created two types of data files: 1. feature data files consisting of vector shape files 2. image data files consisting of geo- referenced maps
Thematic andAnalytical Map Analytical maps can be produced through overlay analysis or the combination of several thematic maps serving as input maps Thematic and analytical maps produced can be shared through open-source map applications Public transit maps as guide to public transport information can be produced and uploaded to open-sourced maps
Conclusions1. On the current status of public transport system, transport hubs and mobility services: • Transport accessibility was evaluated with the help of spatial analysis in GIS. Decision maps produced show the relative accessibility of public transport terminals. • Public transport terminals are clearly oriented to serve people at established transport hubs2. On the data needed to physically lay-out the transport system in Metro Manila: • Basic structure of GIS database currently being used by planning agencies has been developed from past studies • Validating and updating the database is an urgent matter for transportation planning3. On how database of public transport infrastructure be useful in responding to the needs of the poor: • GIS can be used to assess quality of PT services and identify possible improvements. Maps become the basis for both spatial and non-spatial decision-making.
Conclusions4. On how extensive are informal transport hubs in Metro Manila and how their features are relevant to transport and mobility of the poor: • Informal transport hubs are quite extensive in places where there is high demand for public transport, particularly at areas close to informal settlements and transport hubs. • Main feature of informal terminals is their high accessibility to public transport users and short-walking distances.5. On which specific features of transport facilities are unfriendly to the poor: • Public transport facilities and services are quite “friendly” to the poor and vulnerable sectors, as manifested by high accessibility to PT terminals and availability of a wide-range of public transport modes. • However, a more efficient PT system is needed to connect poor communities seamlessly, taking into account environmental issues as well.6. On what government policies are necessary to enhance the responsiveness of transport facilities to the poor: • Improvement in PT facilities, pedestrian facilities, information dissemination (i.e., traffic signs and maps) to improve trip connectivity and mobility.