E a r ly c h i l d h o o d d e v e l o p m e n t newsletter—December 2011 T h e b e s t s ta rt i n l i f e f o r e v e ry c h i l d EditorialDear ECD Community,Within UNICEF’s continuous re-focus on equity-based strategies, one of the emerging themes is children withdisabilities. In the ECD context it has been noted that “in settings where services and facilities do not exist, inclusivenessfor children with disabilities is often looked upon as a next step, “an upgrade” to be implemented once the “basic” services arein place. Yet, to implement equity-focused programming, inclusiveness should be thought of as an indispensable feature of theoriginal system to be addressed at the outset” (UNICEF Armenia).Commemorating December 3rd, the International Day of Persons with Disabilities, this issue focuses on the Click on the video above to viewtheme of disability in early childhood. We hope this newsletter and our newly established Intranet page on this activist Aimee Mullins speakingtheme will help draw more attention to addressing the needs of young children with disabilities across all ECD at the TED Medical Conference on the impact of the wordprogrammes. We are very grateful to our country and regional colleagues for enriching the newsletter with “disabled” on a child’s self-imagestories of their work in this area. We noted that most of the case studies in this issue are from the CEE/CISregion. We heartily welcome these contributions, however, this could be reflective of the need to build programmes and/or interventions foryoung children with disabilities in other regions and countries. This issue also contains news and information on other ECD topics from NYHQ.The next issue of the ECD newsletter will focus on ECD Evaluations. In this issue, we are reporting on the first ever external evaluation ofUNICEF’s ECD Programmes as a prelude to the theme of our next newsletter. We invite all COs and ROs to send us information (300-500words long stories) by 15 January, 2012 on any ECD evaluations they have conducted in the last 2-3 years. Warm Regards, ECD Team in NYHQ Disability in Early Childhood Issue December 2011 In this Issue: Special points of interest: Discussion Paper on Disability in Early Childhood 1 Treasure Trove of ECD Tools and Resources 8-9 Cross-cutting Disability Unit in NYHQ 2 The Evidence Series 10 News from NYHQ 3 Call for field stories on ECD Evaluations 11 Stories from the Field on Disability in Early Childhood 4-7 Upcoming ECD Global Events 11 Discussion Paper on Disability and Early Childhood DevelopmentUNICEF and WHO, in early years also hold particular based approach, and touches on humanitarian situations.consultation with numerous risks for children with disabilities issues related to early More commitment will be neededpartners, are developing a and developmental delays, if they inter ven ti on , asse ssmen t / to sustain and support all actors indiscussion paper on disability in do not receive the appropriate detection, role of the family, the process of developingearly childhood. The paper intellectual stimulation, health importance of stimulating inclusive ECD programmes.highlights many of the key care, inclusive quality learning environments, health care and Therefore, UNICEF and WHOconsiderations and lays the environments they need. Without inclusive education. It also are planning to engage withfoundation for policy, advocacy, proper support and access to touches on cross cutting issues experts in 2012 to outline stepsresearch and programming. services they can miss important such as: gender, children in needed to influence nationalEarly childhood is the period developmental milestones. i n d i ge n o u s a nd m i n or i ty policies for the delivery ofduring which disabilities are Intended as an initial review, the communities, children in inclusive ECD programmes. Youcommonly identified and the paper provides an introduction to alternative care settings, violence can access a working draft of theimpact on children’s well-being disability in early childhood (birth and abuse and considerations for discussion paper here underand development recognized. The to 8 years of age) with a rights- children with disabilities during Resources section.
Page 3 Early Childhood Development Newsletter - News from NYHQ Side Event on Positive Parenting to prevent violence in early childhood On the occasion of the Universal “Stop violence against children Rolland from International Res- Children’s Day, Permanent Mis- through positive parenting” held cue Committee , and Nancy sion of Chile to the United Na- on 18 November 2011. Panelists Downing from the Covenant tions and World Day of Prayer included Nurper Ulkuer from House. View the webcast here. and Action for Children co- UNICEF, Pia Rebello Britto from Access full story and presenta- organized a panel discussion on Yale University, Eduardo Garcia tions here. UNFPA/UNICEF Meeting on Engaging Boys In Gender Equality Work In an effort to engage boys and Vijaya Singh participated from malize this partnership. The young men in gender equality the ECD Unit and her presenta- agencies will also prepare a re- efforts at an early age when per- tion created tremendous interest port on the discussion. ceptions about gender roles are among the participants. Parenting Click here for the meeting agen- being formulated, UNFPA and programmes were identified as an da, concept note, and UNICEF UNICEF met on 11 November important channel to reach the 0- presentation. 2011 to strengthen related col- 3 years age group. Pictures from the Positive Parenting Side Event laboration between the two agen- As a follow up to this meeting, cies. UNFPA and UNICEF will for- World Bank’s Marito Garcia’s Visit to UNICEF NYHQOn 20 October 2011, Marito Social Protection Section in DPP nancing opportunities for ECD The World Bank’s Human Devel-Garcia, The World Bank’s Lead and the Governance of UN and were also discussed. Mr. Garcia opment Network in order toEconomist in the Human Devel- Multi-lateral Affairs (GMA) Unit. introduced World Bank’s assess- make policy and program choicesopment Department for the Afri- Discussions focused on learning ment framework - “System As- based on better evidence andca Region, visited UNICEF. about The World Bank’s position sessment and Benchmarking for analysis, achieve better educa-The ECD Unit held a planning on ECD after publication of the Education Results” (SABER), tional results, and fill the gap inmeeting with Mr. Garcia and Lancet Series in 2011 and on which was developed to guide the availability of data on criticalarranged meetings with the PD determining a joint World Bank/ implementation of The World factors to improve the quality andDeputy Director, the Education UNICEF strategy for communi- Bank’s Education Strategy 2020. relevance of human developmentand Nutrition sections in PD, cation and advocacy for ECD. The initiative was launched by policies, especially those related Fundraising and innovative fi- to education. TACRO Workshop on Disaster Risk Reduction in Early ChildhoodFrom 5-6 October 2011 UNICEF organizations from the region children during emergencies. spaces can be used in emergencyTACRO together with Plan In- were in attendance. This work- Vijaya Singh from ECD Unit situations. Several commonternational and Child Fund, orga- shop represented a significant NYHQ presented an integrated themes emerged from the discus-nized a three day regional work- step toward prioritizing and ad- approach to ECD in Emergencies sions and debates around theseshop on Disaster Risk Reduction vancing DRR strategies including (ECDiE) at the workshop. ideas and experiences, which are(DRR) and Emergency Response emergency response and prepar- The presentation familiarized summarized in the final report,in Early Childhood. Over 40 edness, the provision of safe and participants with ECDiE materi- available in both English andECD, DRR and Humanitarian protective environments for als from UNICEF, such as the Spanish on the ECDiE IntranetAssistance Experts, including young children, and the reduc- ECD Kit, and gave a better un- page under Workshops andgovernment officials and partner tion of adverse impact on young derstanding of how child-friendly Meetings.
2011 - Disability in Early Childhood Issue—Stories from the Field Serbia: Addressing Health and Social Systems for Children with DisabilitiesWith a goal of increasing the maternity wards and specialized institutional placement of chil-quality of care for all children in hospitals for children. The model dren under 3 years of age andSerbia, UNICEF has been ad- includes the formation of adviso- supports capacity building effortsdressing the role of health and ry teams trained to support par- to provide alternative family Click on the video image abovesocial welfare systems in prevent- ents of newborns and help them solutions when a child cannot to view the full story.ing early institutionalization of comprehend health-related prob- stay with his/her biological fami-children with disabilities. The lems their new-born is facing, ly. been developed in order to re-birth of a child with an impair- understand medical treatment A five-year Master-plan has been cruit, train and provide continu-ment is a stressful time for par- options, as well as obtain advice, endorsed for the transformation ous supervision and support toents and can have emotional con- support and information on addi- of residential care institutions for foster families caring for smallsequences and cause feelings of tional services available in the children. Simultaneously, consid- children with disabilities.disempowerment. community. erable efforts have been invested Read the full story here.To help parents make decisions Furthermore, UNICEF has sup- into expanding and strengthening Click here for a related video.that are in the best interest of ported the development of new the existing foster care system to Please contact Jadranka Milanovictheir child, UNICEF has support- national Child Protection poli- provide quality and in-time care (firstname.lastname@example.org) for de-ed the Ministry of Health to es- cies. One such example is the for all newborns. Finally, new tails.tablish standardized practices in new Social Welfare Law that bans programmes and standards have Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Hearing Emanuel’s StoryThe Roma people make up the with satisfaction. It is obvious fully staffed community drop-inlargest minority population in that he is a keen observer. He is center which offers everythingEurope and have faced genera- focused and calm. But he was not from early learning groups,tions of social and institutional always this way explains his homework help, family outreach, Six year old Emanuel drawingdiscrimination. Most Roma peo- mother. When he was younger health education and literacy a portrait of his mother.ple live in settlements which are he often had a look of confusion training. Sumnal prides itself for Read his full story here.not reached by standard health, on his face, had only a few friends getting all the children in the drawn. Now he is playful and haseducation and welfare services. in the neighborhood and tended community ready for school, made many friends with his abilityFamilies often fall below the to lash out in frustration. His primed to fight against the status to make people laugh. He comespoverty line and live on the mar- parents learned that he was quo. Since the centre opened in here almost every day to study.gins of society. Less than one in eighty per cent deaf. 2004 the grade point average of He is ready for success at school.”four Roma children in the region Emanuel and his family live in Roma students attending Sumnal Studies show that in Macedoniaparticipate in any organized early Topaana, a Roma settlement in has increased by 40 per cent and 98% of Roma children, who hadlearning programmes prior to Skopje the capital of former Yu- the number of secondary school attended preschool, graduatedschool entry. Experts agree that goslav Republic of Macedonia. students has jumped from zero to from primary school. In compari-this lack of readiness for school- Many of the small homes do not almost thirty. Over the course of son, less than half of the Romaing is one of the principal reasons have plumbing or electricity. the last two years, Sumnal has students, who did not go to pre-for the lower enrolment and high “Things all started to change once become a daily part of Emanuel’s school, completed primarydropout rates among Roma chil- we met the people at Sumnal and life. He goes there both alone and school. UNICEF is working to-dren, where less than half of the started bringing Emanuel to the with his parents. With the help of gether with local partners like63 per cent of Roma children centre,” explains his mother. Sumnal they were able to file the Sumnal to achieve an inclusivewho enter primary school man- right paperwork and obtain finan- education system through advo- Sumnal (Romani for ‘world’) is aage to complete it. cial assistance for Emanuel’s cating for educational reforms local NGO founded by a group ofEmanuel, a six-year-old Roma hearing aid. “We’ve seen a huge across the region. concerned citizens to improveboy, sits at the table drawing a change in his behavior,” shares Read the full story here. the lives and living standards ofportrait of his mother. He looks Afrodita Rakipovska, Early children in the Roma community Please contact Nora Sabaniup at her every few minutes to Childhood Specialist at Sumnal. through education. Sumnal runs a (email@example.com) for details.check the resemblance and smiles “He used to be so shy and with- Page 4
Page 5 Early Childhood Development Newsletter - Stories from the Field Cambodia: Progress on Inclusive Preschools and ECI Systems due to a critical shortage of properly Plan 2009-2013 aims to improve with disabilities. To learn from the trained teachers. However during the quality of education for chil- experience of another country in the last decade, inclusive education dren with disabilities and to im- establishing inclusive preschools has expanded to 15 out of 24 prov- plement inclusive preschools. In and Early Childhood Intervention inces across the country. In 2009 response to these national policies (ECI) systems and with the sup- the Law on the Protection and the and priorities, 30 existing pre- port of UNESCO, UNICEF Cam- Promotion of the Rights of Persons schools were made inclusive in bodia organized a study tour to with Disabilities was signed and, the October 2011. From 2010-2011, India for MoEYS, Ministry of Early Childhood Care and Develop- the Cambodia Ministry of Educa- Health, and Royal University of 5-year old Sok Chea who re- cently started attending pre- ment (ECCD) Policy was approved tion, Youth and Sports (MoEYS) Phnom Penh officials. Initial results school, since it became inclu- by the Council of Ministers in 2010 developed a training module for of the inclusive preschool initiative sive, and his teacher Say Nuon with the specific strategy to expand inclusive preschool education are promising and the Government who received the inclusive services for young children with with the support of Handicap of Cambodia is now looking into education training developmental delays and disabili- International Belgium (an interna- developing ECI services. The re-Until a few years ago, inclusive ties. Specifically related to educa- tional NGO) and UNICEF, with cently developed ECCD Nationaleducation for marginalized com- tion, the Policy on Education of support from IKEA. Inclusive Action Plan (in draft) proposes tomunities and children with disa- Children with Disabilities was ap- education training was organized establish ECI services for childrenbilities was largely ignored in proved in 2008 with the main goal for community and state pre- with disabilities in 2013. ContactCambodian society. Many chil- to ensure access to equitable and school teachers, after which pre- Natalia Mufel (nmufel@dren with disabilities did not quality inclusive education for all. school teachers returned to their unicef.org for details.receive proper education, mainly The Cambodia Education Strategic communities to identify children Turkey: Developmental DPUs: a pediatrician and a child dents. Thus, AUDPU also devel- development specialist. Addition- oped the “Early Childhood Devel- Pediatrics Units (DPUs) al staff with background in nurs- opment Training Programme” toSince 1995, UNICEF Turkey has DPU model was developed over a ing may also receive training. increase knowledge and compe-worked in close collaboration ten year period of research (1995- Each DPU has a minimum of one tence on inclusive ECD. It is esti-with the Ankara University 2005) by the Ankara University’s spacious room where caregiver- mated that through the existingSchool of Medicine Develop- Prof. Ilgi Ertem, and disseminated child interactions and play oppor- DPUs there is a potential to trainmental Pediatrics Unit with UNICEF support to 12 largest tunities can be observed and sup- approximately 2000 medical stu-(AUDPU), a center for research referral hospitals in the country ported, interviews can be con- dents (primarily pediatricians) inand training on child develop- during the last two years. The mod- ducted with families and early the Developmental Pediatrics cur-ment and developmental difficul- el aims to provide tools to health intervention can be delivered, riculum on a yearly basis across theties, to create culturally appro- care providers and community plus an additional office room for country. This is because the DPUspriate and innovative child devel- workers to enhance monitoring of staff. Equipment for the DPUs are placed in large hospitals, whichopment programmes for the developmental delays; enhance include: developmental evaluation serve as pre-service training cen-Ministry of Health. cooperation between health care materials, mats for infant evalua- tres for future pediatricians/Although exact rates of child- providers and caregivers; counsel tions, toys and educational mate- general practitioners.hood developmental delays and caregivers on how to enhance their rials. An innovative component of For more details, please contactdisability in Turkey are un- child’s development; advance child the DPUs is that parents can stay Lilia Jelamschi (ljelamschi@known, the overall gross disabil- development interventions within with their children when admitted unicef.org).ity rate determined by the na- the health care system; and increase for in-patient treatment. At cur- In April, Turkey held the Firsttional disability study is 12.3%. the use and training of inclusive rent capacity each DPU is able to National Developmental-One approach to support chil- Growth Monitoring Child Develop- provide comprehensive services Behavioural Pediatrics Congress,dren and families with disabilities ment (GMCD) support cards. DPUs yearly, for at least 2000 children supported by UNICEF and part-is through “Developmental Pedi- are currently located in major chil- with developmental risks. Apart ners, and Developmental Pediat-atrics Units” (DPUs), which are dren’s hospitals across the country. from direct service provision to rics became an officially recognizedpediatric training centers special- Hospitals provide a minimum of children and families, the DPU subspecialty.ized in addressing early child- two people to receive the training model offers pre-service training to pediatricians and medical stu- Read 1st Congress details here.hood development issues. The and to work in the designated
2011 - Disability in Early Childhood Issue—Stories from the Field Nicaragua: Combining upstream work with civil society partnerships to support children with disabilitiesIn Nicaragua, advances have been In its recent upstream work, gagement is UNICEF Nicaragua’smade over the past 25 years to UNICEF has been supporting inter continued financial and technicalestablish joint government, NGO -sectoral (Education, Health and support to the work of Los Pipitos,and family actions to address the Family) ministry level ECD policy a national association of parents of Holvin Antonio, 8 years old, withinequity faced by children with development and service initia- children with disabilities. Los Pip- cerebral palsy received years ofdisabilities and to create support- tives focused on early detection itos was founded in 1987 and fo- supportive therapy from Los Pip-ive environments that provide and family-based interventions cuses on early intervention and itos and now attends school.these children with an opportuni- emphasizing the important role of education initiatives for youngty to reach their potential. parents. In its disability related children with disabilities and their velopment, and (5) InstitutionalUNICEF applies a multi-pronged work with civil society organiza- families. It currently has a base of Strengthening.approach to influence policy, tions over the past two decades, 15,000 associated families and Click here to read a story from Lospromote sustainability and UNICEF has worked to focus on offers programmes that include: (1) Pipitos on a young boy Holvin An-strengthen civil society partner- early intervention and education Awareness Raising, Advocacy and tonio, who participated in the pro-ships that build on public sector initiatives for young children with Promotion of Human Rights, (2) gramme. Contact Anyoli Sanabriaservices, while increasing the disabilities and their families, and Family and Community Learning, (firstname.lastname@example.org) for moreparticipation and leadership of to raise public awareness on this (3) Social Integration and Commu- details.families and local communities. issue. The most noteworthy en- nity Initiative, (4) Associative De- Armenia: Addressing inclusion in ECD programmes through teacher trainingThere are close to 8,000 children 22 communities financed by a outreach and classroom inclusion.with disabilities in Armenia, of World Bank loan. In 2010 this It will include themes likewhich over 1,300 are of pre- pilot initiative was scaled up to 41 “Creating Child-centered Class-school age. Families of children preschools in two regions and 84 rooms”, “Interactive Teaching An inclusive preschool in Armeniawith disabilities are often caught additional preschools are being Methods”, “Parents Involvement”,in poverty traps with higher ex- currently established in 4 regions “Gender Issues” and “Diversity”. In ing partner in this initiative.penditure and reduced opportu- across the country. Focusing pri- rural communities where the pro- In the future, UNICEF Armenianities to earn income. This has marily on availability and financial ject is taking place, the preschool will use the results of its ongoingled to a 54% child poverty rate sustainability of these preschools, teachers usually know if there are Survey on the Access of Childrenamong children with disabilities the government programme ad- children with disabilities that are with Disabilities to have a betterand their siblings, compared to a dresses inequity in terms of urban- not enrolled. Their task at that insight of the problems they face in41% average child poverty rate in rural disparities, but does not have stage is to reach out to the family, terms of their access to preschoolArmenia (National Statistics Ser- the provision for inclusion of chil- sensitize parents and other family services. The Community Databasevice 2011). In addition to eco- dren with disabilities. members about the importance of Survey (implemented with UNDP)nomic hardship, children with With an aim to address inclusion, ECD and convince them to bring which gathers data on the existencedisabilities also face negative UNICEF Armenia is supporting the child to preschool. Once the of preschools and their enrolmentsocietal attitudes and segregation the government programme children are in the preschool, the rate now includes children withpractices that hinder their devel- through capacity development of next step is creating safe spaces and disabilities and will be used to in-opment. teachers and incorporating a mod- suitable environments for their fluence community selection toIn Armenia, around 40% of the ule on “Inclusive Education”. The education and development, for give a clear priority for setting upcommunities do not have pre- module is being rolled out in the example, adjusting teaching meth- preschools in communities withschool services, with rural com- 84 preschools in the current phase odologies as needed. In addition to problems of access.munities being the most disad- to be launched in the Spring of the training, teachers are also pro- Contact Meri Poghosyanvantaged. The government set up 2012. The module will address vided hands-on consultation and (email@example.com) forpilot rural preschools in 2009 in two main components – parent mentoring by the Step by Step more details. Foundation, UNICEF’s implement- Page 6
Page 7 Early Childhood Development Newsletter - Stories from the Field Kazakhstan: Pilot Child Development Rooms in Kindergartens To support the parents, regular with disabilities play very well the development rooms said that roundtable meetings were held to with the other school children. prior to UNICEF starting this pro- give parents of children with disa- We all live in the same world and gramme, she had never worked bilities an opportunity to ask ques- have to live together. This is with children with disabilities. She tions and receive the latest infor- thanks to the UNICEF supported said, “I have now learned how to Five year old Ainagul attending mation to help guide their child’s pilot programme on inclusion. stimulate these children, how to the pilot Kindergarten Child development, such as training on Due to the joint efforts of Akimats play with them, as well as learned Development Room in Semey . speech therapy techniques and (local governments) of Astana city, a lot about myself and different physiotherapy. While the pro- Semey city and East Kazakhstan disabilities.”UNICEF is at the forefront of pro- gramme only began a year ago, Region several lekoteks (child de- UNICEF is changing the lives ofmoting the inclusion of children there are many positive results. velopment rooms) were devel- children with disabilities. Throughwith disabilities into Kazakhstan’s In Semey, five year old Ainagul who oped. The inclusion of children these inclusive child developmentpre-schooling system to support has vision and speech impairments, with disabilities into regular pre- rooms, UNICEF illustrates thethe Government’s signing of the participated in UNICEF’s pilot schooling systems is now not only positive impact these small stepsConvention on the Rights of Per- programme. Her mother describes a possibility. It is a reality for some can bring. The next steps are tosons with Disabilities in December the positive impact of the pro- of us.” evaluate and scale up the pro-2008. UNICEF Kazakhstan’s ECDprogramme focuses on health, gramme, “We were lucky to be The director of a kindergarten in gramme for national implementa-development and addresses a range admitted in the UNICEF pilot. Semey indicated that prior to tion. However, several issuesof issues for children with disabili- The project has changed our lives. UNICEF’s involvement and the would need to be addressed first,ties and their parents. This work I have participated in all the introduction of the child develop- such as how to reach all the chil-has been instrumental in changing roundtables organized and I have ment room, there had been previ- dren who need this service, andthe way that health practitioners met with other parents whose ous attempts to include children not just the few who are referred.and communities approach ECD. children have disabilities. Ainagul with disabilities into kindergar- Please contact Tatiana Aderkhina has progressed so much, she helps tens, but it was challenging as (firstname.lastname@example.org) or AigulUNICEF, together with its local at home now and she also plays “there was no system, no pro- Nurgabilova (anurgabilova@partners, has piloted inclusive with toys. I am so happy for her. I gramme,” unicef.org) for details.ch ild deve lo pmen t r oo ms was surprised by the difference the One of the teachers responsible for(referred to as lekoteks) in kinder- Read the full story here. lekotek (child development room) observing, teaching and interactinggartens in Semey, Kamenogorsk and led in her personality. All children with children with disabilities inAstana cities. Regional Initiatives “States Parties shall take all necessary measures to ensure the full enjoyment by children with disabilities of all human rights and fundamental freedoms on an equal basis with other children.” CEE/CIS INCLUSIVE ARNEC CONFERENCE ON EDUCATION CONFERENCE EARLY EXPERIENCES Article 7 of the Convention Twenty countries participated in this Over 300 participants renewed commitment on the Rights of Persons conference, held in Moscow from 27-29 to step up advocacy for 0-3 year olds at ARNEC conference in Singapore from 8-10 with Disabilities and September, 2011. Click here for conference details and here for the background note. November, 2011. Click here for details. Optional Protocol
Page 8 Early Childhood Development Newsletter Treasure Trove of ECD Tools & Resources KEY DOCUMENTS ON DISABILITYConvention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Optional Protocol. (Click here to read)The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) and its Optional Protocol was adopted on 13 December 2006 at theUnited Nations Headquarters in New York, and was opened for signature on 30 March 2007. There were 82 signatories to the Convention,44 signatories to the Optional Protocol, and one ratification of the Convention. This is the highest number of signatories in history to a UNConvention on its opening day. It is the first comprehensive human rights treaty of the 21st century and is the first human rights conventionto be open for signature by regional integration organizations. The Convention entered into force on 3May 2008. Today 108 countries haveratified and 153 have signed the CRPD.The World Report on Disability (WHO/WB)In 2011 the World Bank (WB) and World Health Organization (WHO) collaborated to develop the first ever global report on disabilities.The report provides the best available evidence about what works to overcome barriers to health care, rehabilitation, education,employment, and support services, and to create the environments which will enable people with disabilities to flourish. The report endswith a concrete set of recommended actions for governments and their partners. Developmental Screening and Assessment Instrumentswith an Emphasis on Social and Emotional Development for Young Children Ages Birth through Five.UNICEF Executive Directive on Disability (CF/EXD/2011-005)This document was issued in 2011 to underline UNICEF’s commitment to providing an inclusive working environment that offers all staff,including those with disabilities, full and equal access to employment opportunities. The document lays out key principles of non-discrimination, reasonable accommodation for employment, confidentiality, awareness raising, and protection of rights of people withdisabilities.UNICEF 2011 Mid-year Report of the Disability Unit at UNICEF (Find it under Resources)This brief report summarizes efforts made in the last year on integrating disability issues into the work of UNICEF, including towardsachieving the MDGs with equity. KEY DOCUMENTS ON DISABILITY IN EARLY CHILDHOOD (INTERNAL UNICEF DOCUMENTS)Discussion Paper on Disability in Early ChildhoodAs mentioned in the article on page 3 of the newsletter, the latest draft of the discussion paper is available via the ECD and DisabilityIntranet page under ‘Resources’. The final version will be available in the first quarter of 2012.Programme Guidance Note on Children with Disabilities (Find it under Resources)In 2007 UNICEF developed a programme guidance note specifically on children with disabilities. Developed by a cross-sectoral team, thisprogramme guidance provides recommendations to COs on how to increase attention on childhood disability in programming and advocacywithin all MTSP areas. It consists of a core document providing information on guiding frameworks and commitments, general guidance onprogramming and programme strategies, and recommendations by MTSP Focus Area and three annexes containing: a matrix illustrating thedifferent ways in which disability can be mainstreamed across MTSP Focus Areas; information on organisations working in the disabilityfield and a resource list.Promoting the Rights of Children with Disabilities—Innocenti Digest No. 13 (Find it under Resources)In 2007 UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre produced a thorough report that reviews concrete initiatives and strategies for advancing thesocial inclusion of children with disabilities. The Digest is intended to help raise the profile of childhood disability and to give impetus to thechallenge of ensuring that children with disabilities are fully included in efforts to promote the human rights of all children. Morespecifically it explains definitions, international standards and mechanisms and foundations for inclusion.Early Childhood Intervention, Special Education and Inclusion—Focus on Belarus (Find it under Resources)In 2009, UNICEF Belarus CO published a thorough study that reviews early childhood intervention (ECI), special education and inclusiveeducation programmes in Belarus. It presents key programme concepts and information, identifies lessons learned, offersrecommendations, and presents general Guidelines for ECI and Special Education Systems for the consideration of other countries in theregion and the world.
Page 9 Early Childhood Development Newsletter Treasure Trove of ECD Tools & Resources KEY DOCUMENTS ON DISABILITY IN EARLY CHILDHOOD (EXTERNAL DOCUMENTS)Consultative Group’s Coordinators Notebook on Disability (Find it under Resources)The Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development released their Coordinator’s Notebook that contained an article on theConvention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) and a reflection piece from UNICEF colleague Garren Lumpkin with initialthoughts on implications for ECCD. It provides an overview of the CRPD and implications for ECD. The article starts on page 38.Plan International’s Fact Sheet on Disability Inclusion in ECCD (Find it under Resources)Plan International Australia and the CBM-Nossal Institute Partnership in Disability and Development developed a fact sheet on disabilityinclusion in Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD). It briefly covers the situation for children with disabilities in the early yearsand provide some suggestions for promoting disability inclusion in ECCD programming for all children aged 0-8.Developmental Difficulties in Early Childhood: Prevention, early identification, assessment and intervention in low-and middle-income countries (Find it under Resources)This review by the World Health Organization (WHO) is the fourth in a series of papers on disability. The principle focus is on theconceptualization, epidemiology, prevention, detection, assessment and early management of the broad spectrum of developmental riskfactors and developmental difficulties in children aged three years and under in low-and-middle income (LAMI) countries. The report alsoseeks to help health care providers and systems to build local capacity in order to develop a systemic approach to improve services and carefor young disabled children and to create an environment that fosters social inclusion in LAMI.Developmental Screening and Assessment Instruments with an Emphasis on Social and Emotional Development forYoung Children Ages Birth through Five (Access the report here, or under Resources on the ECD and Disability Intranet page)The US Centre for Disease Control (CDC) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHSS) developed a fact sheet that gives abrief explanation of child development, developmental delays, and the importance of developmental screening. The overall aim of this toolis to help caregivers identify developmental delays in young children and to assist them in providing their children with the necessaryservices and attention to address disabilities at an early age.Research Synthesis Points on Quality Inclusive Practices (US Office of Special Education Programs and UNC FPG ChildDevelopment Institute) (Find it under Resources)In April, 2009, two national organizations in the United States working on behalf of young children—the Division for Early Childhood ofthe Council for Exceptional Children (DEC) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC)—completed twoyears of historic and collaborative work with the release of a joint position statement on inclusion1. This document provides briefdescriptions and supporting references for the evidence-based and promising practices that support early childhood inclusion. Thesepractices are organized into three major sections corresponding to the defining features of high quality early childhood inclusion as describedin the joint position statement: access, participation and supports.Research Synthesis Points on Early Childhood Inclusion (US Office of Special Education Programs and UNC FPG ChildDevelopment Institute) (Find it under Resources)The National Professional Development Center on Inclusion (NPDCI) based in the US and part of the FPG Child Development Institute atthe University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, provides a summary of key conclusions or “synthesis points” drawn from a review ofliterature or research on early childhood inclusion.Early Warning Signs of Developmental Disability. (Click here)The Utah (US) Department of Health, supported by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, has a web resource that helps parentslearn about healthy development for their newborns and young children. It offers useful resources and tools to track developmentalmilestones and begin to identify potential developmental delays. GENERAL ECD RESOURCESECDiE Training Materials in French: UNICEF WCARO finalized the French translation of the ECD in Emergencies training materials,which include the ECD Kit Facilitators Guide and the Coordinators Guide. This is available on the ECDiE Intranet page.UNICEF Primera Infancia - Paquete de Recursos (website): UNICEF TACRO, with CINDE’s support, translated the ECD ResourcePack into Spanish, and adapted and complemented it with research from the region. Online materials include documentation and casestudies from national experiences from within Latin America and the Caribbean for frontline practitioners, civil society groups, as well asgovernment officials and academia.
2011 - Disability in Early Childhood Issue The Evidence Series NEGATIVE PARENTING IN INFANCY LEADS TO CHILD CONDUCT PROBLEMS LATER ON “Before the study, we thought it was likely the combination of difficult infant temperament and negative parenting that put parent-child pairs most at risk for conflict in the toddler period. However, our findings suggest that it was negative parenting in early infancy that mattered most. If you want to prevent conduct problems before they start, you would want to do something in infancy.” - Study researcher Michael LorberIntroduction: Among the more prevalent hypotheses are that parenting exerts an influence on a child’s conduct problems (CPs) by shaping the child’s emerging emotion regulatory capacities, modeling behavior, communicating and enforcing rules and standards of behavior, and creating an emotional environment that affects the child’s internal representations of how relationships work and their motivation to comply (Cummings, E. M., Davies, P. T., & Campbell, S. B. (2000), Developmental psychopathology and family process: Theory, research, and clinical implica- tions. New York: Guilford.) A research study titled “Parenting and Infant Difficulty: Testing a Mutual Exacerbation Hypothesis to Predict Early Onset Conduct Problems” by Michael F. Lorber and Byron Egeland of University of Minnesota, recently published in the Child Development journal, re-tests the above hypothesis and provides evidence that aggression and anger are learned during infancy. (Child Development, November/December 2011, Volume 82, Number 6, Pages 2006–2020).Definitions: Researchers defined “negative parenting” as parents expressing negative emotions toward their children or handling them roughly. For the purposes of this study, “infant difficulty” was defined in terms of four elements: peak of excitement, rapidity of buildup, irritability, and frequency of transition between different states (e.g., crying to alert) during an exam. “Conduct Problems” (CPs) in a child were defined in terms of aggression and oppositionality (i.e. persistently aggressive, defiant, explosive)Methodology: The methodology comprised of a 30-year longitudinal study of mothers (ages 12–34) and their firstborn children (54.7% male) from a sample of 267 high-risk urban families based in the United States. Mothers received prenatal care from a public health clinic between 1975–1977. Approx. 35.6% of them had a high school education or less, and 60.3% were single. Extensive observational and questionnaire data from mul- tiple informants were analyzed from assessments at neonatal Days 7 and 10; at 3, 6, 24, and 42 months; and at kindergarten and first grade.Findings: The findings suggest that the origins of the parent–child relationship process that supports the development of CPs in a child, are found both in the mother’s manner of relating to her infant and, more strongly, in a reciprocal discordant relationship process that begins in the toddler period. The researcher called this a “mutually exacerbating” model of interaction between a parent and an infant, where the negative parenting of a mother exacerbates the difficult behavior of an infant and vice versa. Researchers believe a mother’s negative attitude and rough handling of an infant in his/her first few months of life seems to start this negative cycle, which results in highly angry toddlers, thus spurring more hostility from mothers (only mothers were studied). Contrary to predictions, infant difficulty was found to be not predictive of CPs later on in life. This means that even if an infant expressed difficult behavior (as defined above), if he/she received positive parenting, infant difficulty did not result in CPs later on. The findings most strongly highlight the role of negative mothering in early infancy, and of changes in mother–toddler interaction, in early onset of CPs. The researchers also found that it was escalating or progressive conflict between mothers and their toddlers that predicted later conduct problems –that is, conflict that worsened over time. Researchers believe the study’s findings can help in the development of appropriate interventions to target negative parenting — beginning as early as 3 months — to help prevent later conduct problems in children. Sources: You can access the full scientific published study here and read related media articles here and here. Page 10