Students' manual - UNICEF Georgia

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The syllabus called ‘Children’s Rights and Journalism Practice’ was developed by UNICEF Regional Office in Geneva with the support of the Dublin Institute of Technology.

The syllabus consists of students’ manual and teachers’ guide. With UNICEF support the manual was translated into Georgian.

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Students' manual - UNICEF Georgia

  1. 1. bavSvis uflebebi da Jurnalisturi praqtika - uflebebze dafuZnebuli midgoma bavSvis uflebebi uflebebis dacva da Jurnalisturi praqtika - bavSvTa parlamentebi uflebebze dafuZnebuli ras unda moicavdes kodeqsi?presis Tavisufleba midgoma
  2. 2. bavSvis uflebebi da Jurnalisturi praqtika -uflebebze dafuZnebuli midgoma 2011 weli
  3. 3. saswavlo kursi momzadda centraluri da aRmosavleT evropisa da damoukide-bel saxelmwifoTa Tanamegobrobis gaeros bavSvTa fondis (iunisefi) regionu-li ofisis dakveTiT dublinis teqnologiuri institutis media skolis mier.© `iunisefi~ - dublinis teqnologiis instituti, 2007 w.© qarTuli Targmani da gamocema, gaeros bavSvTa fondis saqarTvelos warmomadgenloba, 2011 w.saxelmZRvanelos qarTuli variantis SemuSavebasa da adaptaciaSi monawileobd-nen: daviT paiWaZe, ilias saxelobis universiteti; marine vaSaymaZe, Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti; maia miqaSaviZe, Jurnalistikisa da media menejmen-tis kavkasiuri skola; naTia kalaZe, saqarTvelos universiteti; maia qurcikiZe,gaeros bavSvTa fondi.masalebis mowodebisaTvis madlobas vuxdiT eqspertebs: Tamar korZaias, marinekvaWaZes, Teona kuWavasa da nato zazaSvils.
  4. 4. sarCevibavSvis uflebebi da Jurnalisturi praqtika –uflebebze dafuZnebuli midgoma ............................................................................6 winasityvaoba...........................................................................................................6nawili pirveli: `gaicaniT bavSvis uflebebi~ ......................................................8 1. adamianis uflebaTa cnebis warmodgena ..........................................................8 adamianis uflebebi da bunebiTi uflebebi ........................................................8 adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracia..................................................10 uflebebis dacva................................................................................................... 11 2. bavSvis uflebebi ................................................................................................14 bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia ...............................................................................15 bavSvis uflebaTa komiteti ................................................................................17 saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba da bavSvTa uflebebi .......................................18 gamoxatvis Tavisufleba da bavSvis uflebebis dacva qarTul kanonmdeblobaSi ........................................................................28 3. bavSvis uflebebi da media ...............................................................................30 `oslos gamowveva~ ................................................................................................30 mediis gavlena axalgazrdebze ...........................................................................31 bavSvebis asaxva mediaSi .......................................................................................32 mediis mier bavSvebis eqspluatacia ..................................................................33 bavSvebis monawileoba mediaSi............................................................................34 mediis mxridan bavSvze zemoqmedebis fsiqologiuri aspeqtebi ...................35 4. winaaRmdegobebi bavSvTa uflebebis ganxorcielebis gzaze ...................39 adamianis uflebaTa dacva ..................................................................................39 bavSvis uflebaTa dacva ......................................................................................40 problemebi bavSvTa uflebebis realizebaSi ...................................................42 bavSvTa uflebebTan dakavSirebul problemebze reagireba .........................43 5. mediis mier bavSvebis asaxva, bavSvis uflebebi da profesiuli pasuxismgebloba ..................................................................................................46 bavSvebis warmodgena masobrivi informaciis saSualebebSi ..........................46 stereotipebi mediaSi ..........................................................................................48 bavSvTa uflebebis darRveva ..............................................................................49 bavSvTa dacva ........................................................................................................49 media axali TaobisTvis .......................................................................................51 profesiuli pasuxismgebloba.............................................................................51 Sida regulireba...................................................................................................52 bavSvTa sakiTxebis gaSuqebisas mediis eTikisa da JurnalistTa profesiuli standartebis dacvis Sesaxeb saqarTveloSi .............................55
  5. 5. 6. informaciis gavrcelebis saukeTeso praqtika bavSvebis Sexedulebebis gaTvaliswinebiT.....................................................................57 `msoflio bavSvebisaTvis~ ...................................................................................57 bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli erovnuli samoqmedo gegmebi ...............................58 bavSvebis monawileoba..........................................................................................59 monawileobiT miRebuli sargebloba ................................................................60 perspeqtivebi bavSvebisTvis: magaliTebi ..........................................................61 bavSvTa parlamentebi...........................................................................................62 monawileobisTvis arsebuli barierebi .............................................................64Tavi 2: bavSvis uflebebi da profesiuli Jurnalisturi praqtika ............... 66 1. qcevis kodeqsebi da saredaqcio saxelmZRvanelo principebi.................66 Jurnalistikis kodeqsebis ganviTareba ............................................................66 presis Tavisufleba .............................................................................................68 ras unda moicavdes kodeqsi? .............................................................................70 mediis angariSvaldebulebis sistemebi ............................................................71 saerTaSoriso kodeqsebi .....................................................................................72 bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli qcevis kodeqsi........................................................73 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis saxelmZRvanelo principebi bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gaSuqebisTvis ......................................74 bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio qseli: eTikuri saxelmZRvanelo principebi bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gaSuqebisaTvis ................76 mediis angariSvaldebulebis sistemebi saqarTveloSi ...................................77 danarTebi .................................................................................................................81 `bi-bi-si~-s saredaqcio principebi bavSvebis gaSuqebasTan dakavSirebiT..................................................................................81 Jurnalistebis statusi da Jurnalisturi eTika: JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis principebi ..............................................................84 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis deklaracia Jurnalisturi qcevis principebis Sesaxeb .......................................................88 saqarTvelos Jurnalisturi eTikis qartia ................................................... 89 2. bavSvTa dacvis strategiebi ............................................................................91 bavSvTa dacva ........................................................................................................91 bavSvTa dacva organizaciebSi ............................................................................94 mediis bavSvTa dacvis strategiebi ...................................................................95 3. kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebi ...........................................................97 konkretuli magaliTis ganxilva: TviTneburi dakavebis sakiTxebze momuSave jgufi.....................................................................................................99 sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis asaki ...................................................103 media da kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebi: vinaobis dacva ..................105 konkretuli magaliTi (1): didi britaneTi: meri beli ................................105
  6. 6. konkretuli magaliTi (2): didi britaneTi: jeims balgeris mkvlelebi ....106 ZiriTadi saerTaSoriso dokumentebi arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis sferoSi.......................................................................... 107 arasruwlovanTa marTlsamjulebis ZiriTadi saerTaSoriso principebi ............................................................................... 108 arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis sistema saqarTveloSi ..................... 1124. siuJetebisa da wyaroebis moZieba ................................................................121 Jurnalistis roli.............................................................................................121 bavSvis uflebaTa dacvis Sesaxeb masalebis momzadebisaTvis saWiro unar-Cvevebi .............................................................123 `iunisefis~ saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebi bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gaSuqebisaTvis .................................................................................124 gaeros konvenciasTan dakavSirebiT kiTxvebis dasma ...................................125 statiebisa da siuJetebis wyaroebi .................................................................126 ZiriTadi terminebi wyaroebTan urTierTobisas ..........................................1305. bavSvebisagan intervius aReba.......................................................................131 fotoebSi bavSvebis gamoyeneba .........................................................................134 `iunisefis~ saxelmZRvanelo principebi bavSvebisagan intervius aRebasTan dakavSirebiT ..................................................................135 intervius Semdeg... ...........................................................................................136 “gadavarCinoT bavSvebi”-s saxelmZRvanelo principebi bavSvebisgan intervius aRebasTan dakavSirebiT ..................................................................1366. bavSvebi SeiaraRebuli konfliqtebis dros ..............................................138 media da bavSvebi SeiaraRebuli konfliqtis dros ......................................1427. sityvis Tavisufleba bavSvebs da bavSvebze orientirebuli media .....146 bavSvebis monawileoba mediaSi..........................................................................148 bavSvebTan erTad da bavSvebisTvis momzadebuli mediaprogramebis dadebiTi mxareebi ..............................................................................................149 globaluri konteqsti.......................................................................................151 mediaSi bavSvebis mizanmimarTuli monawileobis winaSe arsebuli sirTuleebi da winaaRmdegobebi ......................................................................1528. saukeTeso Jurnalisturi praqtika bavSvebTan dakavSirebiT ...............155 saukeTeso praqtikis magaliTebi .....................................................................156
  7. 7. 6bavSvis uflebebi da Jurnalisturi praqtika –uflebebze dafuZnebuli midgomawinasityvaobamivesalmebiT JursnalistebisTvis bavSvis uflebebis Sesaxeb saxelmZRvanelosmkiTxvels.saxelmZRvanelos mizania mogawodoT is ZiriTadi ideebi da informacia,romlebic dagexmarebaT axali ambebis pasuxismgeblobiT, bavSvTa uflebebisdacviTa da maT mimarT pativiscemiT gaSuqebaSi.saxelmZRvaneloSi gamoyenebuli midgomaorganizacia `adamianis uflebaTa ganaTlebis asociacia~ (HREA) gvTavazobssaswavlo piramidas, romelic Sedgeba adamianis uflebaTa sferoSi ganaTlebis samiZiriTadi modelisagan. qveda aris `faseulobebisa da informirebulobis modeli~,Sua - „angariSvaldebulebis modeli~, xolo zeda - `transformaciuli modeli~.modeli 1 - faseulobebi da informirebulobafaseulobebisa da informirebulobis modelSi adamianis uflebaTa sferoSiganaTlebis ZiriTadi amocanaa adamianis uflebebTan dakavSirebulisabaziso codnis gadacema. am modelis mizania, `xeli Seewyos iseTimsoflios mSeneblobas, sadac pativiscemiT ekidebian adamianis uflebebs.es miiRweva im miznebis gaTviTcnobierebiTa da erTgulebiT, romlebicCamoyalibebulia `adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciasa~ da sxvaZiriTad dokumentebSi~ (`adamianis uflebaTa sferoSi ganaTlebis axalimodelebi~, felisa tibitsi, `ganaTlebis saerTaSoriso mimoxilva~ - adamianisuflebaTa sferoSi ganaTlebisadmi miZRvnili specialuri gamocema, 2002).faseulobebisa da informirebulobis modelis magaliTebia sazogadoebaSicodnis gavrcelebis kampaniebi, axalgazrduli programebi da saskolo dasauniversiteto saganmanaTleblo programebi.modeli 2 – angariSvaldebulebamosalodnelia, rom am modelis dawyebisas monawileebs ukve hqondeT warmodgenaadamianis uflebebTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze. isic mosalodnelia, rom isiniuSualod Tu arapirdapiri gziT monawileobdnen adamianis uflebebis dacvaSi.es modeli yuradRebas amaxvilebs adamianis uflebebis dacvisa da lobirebisunarebis ganviTarebasa da adamianis uflebaTa samarTlis ufro Rrmad gagebisxelSewyobaze. angariSvaldebulebis modelis magaliTebia treningebi adamianisuflebebis sferoSi moRvawe aqtivistebis an im adamianebisaTvis, visac evalebaadamianis uflebaTa Selaxvis SemTxvevebis dokumenturi saxiT dafiqsireba.modeli 3 – transformaciulies modeli miznad isaxavs, daexmaros adamianis uflebaTa darRvevis faqtebis
  8. 8. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 7mowmeebs da msxverplebs. adamianis uflebaTa sferoSi ganaTlebis es formaSeiZleba gamodges, rogorc calkeuli adamianebis, ise mTlianad TemebisTvis.transformaciuli modelis mizania, misces monawileebs SesaZlebloba, daicvansakuTari Tavi da sakuTari Temebi adamianis uflebaTa darRvevisagan. am modelismagaliTebia ltolvilTa banakSi ganxorcielebuli programebi da jgufuridaxmarebis programebi ojaxSi Zaladobis msxverplTaTvis.vinaidan modulis amocanaa treningSi monawile JurnalistebisaTvis iseTiinformaciis miwodeba, romelic maT sWirdebaT bavSvTa uflebebTan dakavSirebuliaxali ambebis pasuxismgeblobiT gaSuqebis unaris ganviTarebisTvis, gamoviyenebTfaseulobebisa da informirebulobis models – konkretuli aqcentiTbavSvis uflebebze. modulis mizania ara adamianis uflebebis sferoSi moRvaweaqtivistebis Camoyalibeba, aramed bavSvebTan da maT uflebebTan dakavSirebuliTemebis pasuxismgeblobiT gaSuqebis unaris ganviTareba.am modulis gavlis Semdeg Tqven SeZlebT gaigoT, ras warmoadgens bavSvTauflebebi, gansakuTrebiT gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis konteqstSi.Tqven aseve SeZlebT kritikulad SeafasoT bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli axaliambebis gaSuqeba adamianis uflebebis, anu `uflebebze damyarebuli~,perspeqtividan, gaecnobiT saxelmZRvanelo principebsa da kodeqsebsbavSvebTan dakavSirebuli axali ambebis gaSuqebis Sesaxeb da SeZlebTgamoTqvaT profesiuli mosazreba sakuTari praqtikis Sesaxeb uflebebzedamyarebuli perspeqtividan. rac yvelaze mTavaria, SeZlebT gamoiyenoTis, rac iswavleT, Tqvens samomavlo karieraSi rogorc Jurnalistebma dareportiorebma da samarTlianad, zustad da bavSvebis uflebaTa principebisgaTvaliswinebiT moamzadoT siuJetebi, statiebi da reportaJebi.modulis struqturamodulSi Sedis ori ZiriTadi nawili:nawili pirveli, `gaicaniT bavSvis uflebebi~, iZleva zogad informaciasimasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu ratomaa esoden mniSvnelovani uflebebis gageba dagaTviTcnobiereba. garda amisa, am nawilSi ganxilulia saTanado praqtikismagaliTebi da, agreTve, is problemebi da gamowvevebi, romlebic wamoiWrebabavSvebTan dakavSirebuli axali ambebis gaSuqebisas.nawili meore, `bavSvis uflebebi da profesiuli Jurnalisturi praqtika~,profesiul Jurnalistur praqtikas ganixilavs bavSvis uflebebisperspeqtividan da gvacnobs im strategiebsa da konteqstebs, romlebSic undadavfiqrdeT imaze, Tu rogor gavaumjobesoT Cveni Jurnalisturi saqmianoba.am naSromSi warmodgenil masalasTan erTad unda gaecnoT mravalferovandamxmare literaturas da rekomendaciebs samomavlo sakiTxavebTandakavSirebiT. imedi gvaqvs, rom modulSi naswavli dagexmarebaT axaliambebis yvelanairi formiT gaSuqebaSi, gansakuTrebiT ki im SemTxvevebSi,roca siuJetis centraluri figura bavSvia.
  9. 9. 8nawili pirveli: `gaicaniT bavSvis uflebebi~1. adamianis uflebaTa cnebis warmodgena ZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi  ras warmoadgens adamianis uflebebi?  ra gansxvavebaa bunebriv uflebebsa da adamianis uflebebs Soris?  adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracia  adamianis uflebebis dacvaadamianis uflebebi da bunebiTi uflebebiadamianis uflebebi gulisxmobs adamianis ganuyofel, sayovelTao uflebebs,miuxedavad adgilmdebareobis Tu sxva iseTi faqtorebisa, rogorebicaa eTnikuriwarmomavloba, religia, erovneba Tu sqesi.adamianis uflebebi is ZiriTadi standartebia, romelTa gareSe adamianebi vericxovreben Rirseulad.adamianis uflebebi yvela adamians Tanasworad, sayovelTaod da samudamod ekuTvnis.adamianis uflebebi xelSeuxebelia: adamians ver CamoerTmeva es uflebebi iseve,rogorc is, rom igi yovelTvis adamianad darCeba.adamianis uflebebi ganuyofelia: adamians ver CamoerTmeva ufleba imis gamo,rom is `naklebad mniSvnelovania~ an `ar aris arsebiTi~.adamianis uflebebi urTierTdamokidebulia: adamianis yvela uflebaurTierTSemavsebeli sistemis nawilia. magaliTad, Tqvens SesaZleblobasTan,monawileoba miiRoT Tqveni xelisuflebis muSaobaSi, uSualo kavSirSiaTqveni ufleba, gamoxatoT sakuTari Tavi, miiRoT ganaTleba da upirvelesiaucileblobis sagnebic ki.adamianis uflebebis idea aRmocenda bunebiTi uflebebis filosofiurikoncefciidan; zogi ar aRiarebs gansxvavebebs uflebaTa am or kategoriasSoris da orives erT ramed aRiqvams, xolo sxvebi am or termins sxvadasxvamniSvnelobas aniWeben da is Tvisebebi, rac tradiciulad bunebiT uflebebsukavSirdeba, ar asocirdeba adamianis uflebebTan.
  10. 10. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 9 ras warmoadgens bunebiTi uflebebi? bunebiTi uflebebi sayovelTao uflebebia, romlebic yvela adamians ekuTvnis da ar aris damokidebuli adamianis qcevasa Tu Sexedulebebze. adamiani sazo- gadoebis wevri xdeba garkveuli ZiriTadi uflebebiT da arc erT mTavrobas ar SeuZlia CamoarTvas mas es uflebebi. bunebiTi uflebebis yvelaze adreuli asaxva moipoveba indur vedebSi, agamebsa da upaniSadebSi – teqstebSi, romlebic sami aTas welze meti xnis win daiwera. mas Semdeg bunebiTi uflebebi mniSvnelovani cnebaa im wignebSi, romlebic safuZv- lad udevs msoflios ZiriTad religiebs. bibliac, Torac da yuranic qadageben yvela adamianis Tanasworobis, Rirsebisa da pasuxismgeblobis mniSvnelobas. bunebiTi uflebebis erT-erTi Teoria Camoyalibda ganmanaTleblobis peri- odis bunebiTi kanonidan mefeTa wminda uflebebis sawinaaRmdegod da iZleo- da liberalizmis moralur dasabuTebas. individualizmis ideis gaZlierebasTan erTad, gansakuTrebiT me-17 sauku- neSi, bunebriTi kanonebidan gamomdinare doqtrinebi Seicvala da xazgasmiT aRiniSna is faqti, rom individebs, vinaidan isini adamianebi arian, aqvT ufle- bebi, romlebic ar unda daarRvios romelime sxva adamianma an sazogadoebam. am doqtrinis, albaT, saukeTeso formulireba jon lokis (1632-1704) naS- romebSia mocemuli. misi azriT, adamiani Tavisi bunebiT aris racionaluri da kargi da rom mas politikur sazogadoebaSi Semoaqvs igive uflebebi, romle- bic cnobili iyo sazogadoebisTvis ufro adreul safexurebze. am uflebaTa- gan gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia aRmsareblobis Tavisufleba, sakuTari qveynis mTavrobaSi xmis ufleba da qonebis ufleba. bunebiTi uflebis Sinaarsi SeiZleba daupirispirdes iuridiul uflebas: bu- nebiTia ufleba, rodesac is arsebobs maSinac ki, roca ar aris miRebuli mTavrobis an mTlianad sazogadoebis mier, xolo iuridiuli ufleba war- moadgens iseT uflebas, romelic dadgenilia mTavrobis an sazogadoebis mier maTi wevrebis sasargeblod. damatebiTi literatura: Peter Jones: Rights, Oxford: Palgrave Macmillan, 1994. Jeremy Waldron, ed: Theories of Rights, (Oxford Readings in Philosophy), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984.adamianis uflebebis arseboba, moqmedeba da Sinaarsi dResac debatebis saganiafilosofiasa da politikur mecnierebaSi. samarTlebrivi TvalsazrisiTadamianis uflebebi saerTaSoriso samarTalsa da SeTanxmebebSi, aseve bevriqveynis Sidasaxelmwifoebriv kanonmdeblobaSia gansazRvruli. magrambevrisaTvis uflebebis doqtrina scdeba kanons da warmoadgens fundamenturmoralur baziss Tanamedrove socialuri wesrigis regulirebisaTvis. aseTiadamianebisaTvis es demokratiuli idealebia.
  11. 11. 10Cven yvelas gvWirdeba uflebebi da gvaqvs kidec isini. es uflebebi uzrunvelyofsCvens arsebobas da ganviTarebas da xels uwyobs Cvens dacvas fizikuri Tufsiqologiuri Seuracxyofisa da Zaladobisagan. uflebebi gulisxmobs imasac,rom gvqondes SesaZlebloba, monawileoba miviRoT im sakiTxebSi, romlebicCven gvexeba. uflebebi uzrunvelyofs, rom yvela adamians Tanasworad dasamarTlianad moeqcnen. adamianis uflebebis damkvidrebis xelSewyoba dapropagandireba niSnavs imis moTxovnas, rom yvela pativiscemiT moeqces dadaicvas yvela adamianis Rirseba. magram uflebebs Tan pasuxismgeblobacaxlavs: yovelma Cvenganma pativi unda sces sxva adamianebis uflebebs da martosxvebisgan ar unda moiTxovos Tavisi uflebebis pativiscema.adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracia1945 wels msofliom Zlivs daaRwia Tavi meore msoflio oms, romelic pirvels30 wliTac ki ar gvaSorebda. am omis dros umciresobaTa jgufebisa da samxedrotyveebis mimarT Cadenilma sazarelma sisastikeebma ubiZga msoflios qveynebisliderebs, CamoeyalibebinaT gaerTianebuli erebis organizacia mSvidobis,keTildReobisa da adamianis uflebebis dasacavad.1948 wlis 10 dekembers gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis generalurmaasambleam miiRo da gamoaqveyna adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracia.deklaraciaSi aRiarebuli iqna `Tandayolili Rirseba~ da `Tanaswori daganuyofeli uflebebi~ adamianTa ojaxis yvela wevrisaTvis. masSi naTqvamia, rom`adamianis uflebaTa ugulebelyofam da abuCad agdebam gamoiwvia barbarosuliaqtebi ... da rom iseTi msoflios Seqmna, romelSic adamianebs eqnebaT sityvisada rwmenis Tavisufleba da romelSic isini icxovreben SiSisa da gaWirvebisgareSe, gamocxadebulia adamianebis maRal miswrafebad~.deklaracia Sedgeba 30 muxlisagan, romlebSic gamoxatulia gaeros Sexedulebayvela adamianisTvis garantirebul uflebebze. adamianis uflebaTa komisiis(romelmac moamzada deklaraciis teqsti) wevrma, elinor ruzveltma, ganacxada:`es ar aris xelSekruleba ... [momavalSi] igi SeiZleba gaxdes saerTaSoriso„didi qartia“ (Magna Carta…) 1995 wlis 5 oqtombers warmoTqmul sityvaSi papmaioane pavle II-m adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracias uwoda `adamianissindisis erT-erTi yvelaze maRali gamoxatuleba TanamedroveobaSi.~Tumca gaeroSi amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis elCma, jin kirkpatrikma,deklaracias `santa-klausisaTvis miwerili werili~ uwoda. misi TqmiT,`arc buneba, arc gamocdileba da arc albaToba ar acocxlebs `uflebebis~am CamonaTvals, im uflebebisa, romlebic ar cnobs SezRudvebs, garda maTiavtorebis gonebiT da madiT dawesebulisa~ (konferenciis dokumenti: `adamianisuflebaTa sicocxlisunariani politikis Camoyalibeba~, 1981).yvelaze mniSvnelovan muxlebs Sorisaa:  muxli 1: `yvela adamiani ibadeba Tavisufali da Tanaswori Tavisi RirsebiTa da uflebebiT.~
  12. 12. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 11  muxli 3: sicocxlis, Tavisuflebisa da piradi xelSeuxeblobis ufleba.  muxli 5: wamebis an sastiki, araadamianuri Tu Rirsebis Semlaxveli mopyrobisa Tu dasjis akrZalva.  muxli 18: azris, sindisisa da religiis Tavisufleba.  muxli 19: azrisa da gamoxatvis Tavisufleba.  muxli 26: ganaTlebis ufleba.adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciis miRebis Semdeg gaeros generalurmaasambleam yvela wevr qveyanas mouwoda, gamoeqveynebinaT deklaraciis teqsti da`ganepirobebinaT misi gavrceleba, wakiTxva da axsna skolebsa da sxva saswavlodawesebulebebSi, ganurCevlad qveynebisa Tu teritoriebis politikuristatusisa~.ginesis `rekordebis wignSi~ adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciaaRwerilia rogorc `dokumenti, romelic msoflioSi yvelaze met enazeiTargmna~. misi Targmani moipoveba 321 enasa da dialeqtze (2004 wlisaTvis).deklaraciis miRebas mohyva rigi mniSvnelovani SeTanxmebebisa, romlebic miznadisaxavda adamianis uflebebis damkvidrebas da dacvas. 1966 wels gaero-m miiRosamoqalaqo da politikur uflebaTa saerTaSoriso paqti da ekonomikur,socialur da kulturul uflebaTa saerTaSoriso paqti. am paqtebma maTixelmomweri yvela saxelmwifosTvis savaldebulod aqcia adamianis uflebaTasayovelTao deklaraciaSi Camoyalibebuli uflebebis dacva. adamianis uflebebisganviTarebaSi sxva mniSvnelovani nabijebi iyo Jenevis konvenciebi omis drosdasacavi wesebis Sesaxeb da konvencia rasobrivi diskriminaciis yvela formisaRmofxvris Sesaxeb.unda gvaxsovdes, rom adamianis uflebebi jer kidev viTardeba. magaliTad,am bolo wlebSi garemos damcvelebi mogviwodebdnen adamianis uflebebisgafarToebas da maT ricxvSi sufTa da usafrTxo wylis misawvdomobaze adamianissayovelTao uflebisa da garemosTan dakavSirebuli sxva uflebebis CarTvas.uflebebis dacvame-20 saukunis ganmavlobaSi mravalma jgufma da moZraobam moaxerxa mniSvnelo-vani socialuri cvlilebebis miRweva adamianis uflebebis gansamtkiceblad.dasavleT evropasa da CrdiloeT amerikaSi profkavSirebma SemoiRes kanonebi,romlebic mSromelebs aZlevs gaficvis, minimaluri samuSao pirobebis dadgenisda bavSvTa Sromis akrZalvis an regulirebis uflebebs. qalTa uflebebismoZraobam mraval qals moupova arCevnebSi monawileobis ufleba. erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebelma moZraobebma bevr qveyanaSi daamxo kolonialuri Zalebi.aqedan yvelaze gavlenian Zalas warmoadgenda mahaTma gandi, romelmac indoeTigaaTavisufla britaneTis batonobisagan. rasobrivi Cagvris qveS myof adamianTada religiur umciresobaTa moZraobebma warmatebas miaRwies msoflios mraval
  13. 13. 12qveyanaSi. maT Soris iyo moZraoba samoqalaqo uflebebisTvis da, SedarebiTaxlaxan, e.w. `identurobisa da politikis~ moZraobebi, romlebic ibrZodnenqalTa da umciresobaTa uflebebisTvis aSS-Si.adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciis mixedviT adamianis ZiriTadiuflebebi irRveva maSin, rodesac:  rasobrivi, sarwmunoebrivi Tu sxva jgufis wevrebs arTmeven uflebas, aRiarebuli iyos `individad~ (me-2 da me-6 muxlebi);  mamakacebs da qalebs ar epyrobian Tanasworad (me-2 muxli);  gansxvavebuli rasobrivi Tu religiuri jgufis wevrebs ar epyrobian Tanasworad (me-2 muxli);  safrTxe eqmneba adamianis sicocxlis, Tavisuflebisa da piradi xelSeuxeblobis uflebas (me-3 muxli);  adamiani gayidulia monad an imyofeba ymobaSi (me-4 muxli);  uflebebis darRvevis msxverplT uars eubnebian samarTlebrivi dacvis efeqtian saSualebaze (me-8 muxli);  adamianis mimarT sasjelis aRsruleba xdeba TviTneburad, saTanado da samarTliani sasamarTlo procesis Cautareblad (me-11 muxli);  saxelmwifos warmomadgenlebi TviTneburad erevian adamianis pirad da ojaxur cxovrebaSi (me-12 muxli);  moqalaqeebs ekrZalebaT sakuTari qveynis datoveba an Tavis qveyanaSi dabruneba (me-13 muxli);  adamians uars eubnebian sityvis an religiis Tavisuflebaze (me-18 da me-19 muxlebi);  adamians uars eubnebian profkavSirSi gaerTianebis uflebaze (23-e muxli);  adamians uars eubnebian ganaTlebis miRebis uflebaze (26-e muxli).adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracia da mis mier aRwerili msofliosxedva daedo safuZvlad iseTi organizaciebis Camoyalibebas, rogorebicaa“amnesti interneiSenal~ da `hiuman raiTs uoC~, romlebic iRvwian adamianisuflebebis dacvisTvis da atareben farTo kampaniebs maTi darRvevis winaaRmdeg.isini amzadeben yovelwliur angariSebs TiToeul qveyanaSi adamianis `uflebebismxriv arsebuli mdgomareobis Sesaxeb.`amnesti interneiSenalis~ monacemebiT, Zalze cota qveyanaa iseTi, sadac ar xdebaadamianis uflebebis seriozuli darRveva. am organizaciis 2007 wlis `adamianisuflebebis Sesaxeb angariSis~ mixedviT, dokumenturad aris dadasturebuli, rom57 qveyanaSi arseboben politikuri, e.w. `sindisis patimrebi,~ da 102 qveyanaSiaRiniSna policiis, samxedro Tu usafrTxoebis samsaxurebis personalis mxridanwamebisa Tu sastikad mopyrobis SemTxvevebi.
  14. 14. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 13zogs sjera, rom adamianis uflebebis darRveva ufro xSiria diqtatorulsaxelmwifoebSi, vidre demokratiulSi, vinaidan sityvisa da presis TavisuflebiswyalobiT SesaZlebelia saxelmwifos mier Cadenili darRvevebis gamoaSkaraveba.magram adamianis uflebebi demokratiul qveynebSic irRveva. magaliTad,makfersonis angariSSi aRniSnulia, rom britaneTis policia instituciuradrasistul damokidebulebas amJRavnebda Savkaniani axalgazrdis, stiven lorensissikvdilis SemTxvevaSi, xolo `amnesti interneiSenalma~ Tavis angariSebSi aSSs miermarTul guantanamos yuris banaks uwoda `skandaluri, adamianis uflebebis mxriv~.daaxloebiT 90 qveyanaSi daarsda adamianis uflebaTa erovnuli institutebi amqveynebSi adamianis uflebebis dacvis, xelSewyobisa Tu monitoringis mizniT.SefasebaimsjeleT adamianis uflebaTa cnebaze SerCeuli, Tanamedroveobis amsaxveliTemis konteqstSi.damatebiTi literaturaadamianis uflebaTa resurs-centri:http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/edumat/background.shtmadamianis uflebaTa erovnuli institutebis forumi: http://www.nhri.net/`amnesti interneiSenal~: http://www.amnesty.org/`amnesti interneiSenalis~ 2006 wlis qveynebis angariSi:http://web.amnesty.org/report2006/index-eng`hiuman raiTs uoC~: http://www.hrw.org/adamianis uflebaTa umaRlesi komisris ofisi: http://www.ohchr.org
  15. 15. 142. bavSvis uflebebi ZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi  ratom aris aucilebeli bavSvis uflebebis gamoyofa?  gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia  bavSvis uflebaTa komiteti  saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba da bavSvTa uflebebi`bavSvTa uflebebi~ aris adamianis uflebebi bavSvebisa da 18 wlamdeadamianebisaTvis. im faqtis aRiarebis safuZvelze, rom bavSvoba Cveni cxovrebisgansakuTrebuli periodia, bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisaTvis uflebebis calkewyeba Camoyalibda. bavSvoba aris is dro, rodesac Cven aqtiurad vizrdebiTda vswavlobT, rodesac gvWirdeba sxva adamianebi, romlebic mogvivlian dausafrTxoebas mogvcemen, rodesac Cven unda gvqondes SesaZlebloba, udardeladvicxovroT.1989 wels gaeroSi mividnen saerTo SeTanxmebamde, rom bavSvebs sWirdebaTsakuTari konvencia. bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisaTvis CamoyalibebuluflebaTa am calke wyebas gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis bavSvisuflebaTa konvencia hqvia. konvenciaSi naTqvamia, rom 18 wlamde adamianebs aqvTmasSi gaTvaliswinebuli yvela ufleba, miuxedavad maTi rasis, religiis TuSesaZleblobebisa, ganurCevlad imisa, Tu ras fiqroben an amboben isini da ratipis ojaxidan arian.ra saWiroa bavSvTa uflebebis gamoyofa calke konvenciis saxiT?bavSvebi individebi arian: isini arc mSoblebis sakuTrebas warmoadgenen, arcsaxelmwifosi da arc raime Camouyalibebeli arsebebi arian; maT adamianTaojaxis Tanasworuflebiani wevrebis statusi aqvT.bavSvebi iwyeben cxovrebas, rogorc absoluturad damokidebeli arsebebi: isinimTlianad mSoblebis imedze arian kvebisa Tu aRzrdis TvalsazrisiT: es maTsWirdebaT imisaTvis, rom gaizardon da damoukidebelni gaxdnen. saukeTesoSemTxvevaSi aseT zrunvas bavSvi unda iRebdes misi ojaxis ufrosi wevrebisagan,magram, roca uSualo mzrunvelebs ar SeuZliaT bavSvis saWirobebisdakmayofileba, ukve sazogadoebam unda izrunos amis gamosworebaze.bavSvebi gansakuTrebiT daucvelni arian Seuracxyofisa da eqspluataciisgan:bavSvebi fizikurad ufro daucvelebi arian, vidre zrdasruli adamianebi.garda amisa, isini emociuradac gacilebiT mgrZnobiareni arian uaryofiTiSTabeWdilebebis mimarT. fizikurma da fsiqikurma zewolam SeiZleba samudamodaRi daasvas bavSvs. msoflios mraval kuTxeSi bavSvebi ganicdian mZimeeqspluatacias, rogorc muSebi an rogorc jariskacebi.
  16. 16. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 15mTavrobis moqmedeba an umoqmedoba ufro Zlier zemoqmedebas axdens bavSvebze,vidre sazogadoebis romelime sxva jgufze: samTavrobo politikis TiTqmisyvela sfero (magaliTad, ganaTleba Tu janmrTelobis dacva) garkveulzemoqmedebas axdens bavSvebze. windauxedavi politikuri gadawyvetilebebi,romlebic ar iTvaliswinebs bavSvebis problemebs, Zalze avnebs mTelisazogadoebis momavals.bavSvebis azrs iSviaTad aqceven yuradRebas da iSviaTad iTvaliswinebenpolitikur procesebSi: bavSvebi, Cveulebriv, ar iReben monawileobas arCevnebsaTu politikur procesebSi. Tu ar movismenT maT azrebs – rogorc isini maTsaxlSi, skolaSi an TavianT megobrebTan gamoxataven – verasodes gavigebTim mniSvnelovan sakiTxebs, romlebic moqmedebs bavSvebis cxovrebaze axla animoqmedebs momavalSi.mraval cvlilebas sazogadoebaSi bavSvebisTvis araproporciuli da xSiraduaryofiTi Sedegebi moaqvs: ojaxis Semadgenlobis Secvla, globalizacia,samuSao pirobebis cvlileba da socialuri SeRavaTebis Semcireba bevr qveyanaSiseriozul zegavlenas axdens bavSvebis cxovrebaze. amgvari cvlilebebisSedegebi SeiZleba gansakuTrebiT damangreveli aRmoCndes SeiaraRebulikonfliqtebis da sxva sagangebo situaciebis SemTxvevebSi.bavSvis jansaR ganviTarebas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs sazogadoebismomavlisTvis: vinaidan maTi zrdis procesi jer ar dasrulebula, bavSvebigansakuTrebiT daucvelni arian (gacilebiT metad, vidre ufrosebi)cxovrebis iseTi cudi pirobebis mimarT, rogoricaa siRaribe, janmrTelobisaraadekvaturi dacva, cudi kveba, sufTa wylis xelmiuwvdomeloba, cudisacxovrebeli pirobebi da garemos dabinZureba. sxvadasxva avadmyofobis,cudi kvebisa da siRaribis Sedegebi safrTxes uqmnis bavSvebis da, aqedangamomdinare, im sazogadoebis momavals, romelSic isini cxovroben.saxelmwifoebs Zalian Zvirad ujdebaT uyuradReboba bavSvebis mimarT:socialuri kvlevebi gviCvenebs, rom bavSvobaSi miRebuli gamocdilebamoqmedebs adamianis Semdgom ganviTarebaze, bavSvebis ganviTarebis msvlelobaki gansazRvravs im wvlils, romelsac isini Seitanen qveynis momaval cxovrebaSi.bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia1989 wlis 20 noembers gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciam daamtkica bavSvisuflebaTa konvencia. dRes is saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebaa, romelsac qveynebi xelsaweren da rodesac mis ratificirebas moaxdenen, maT iuridiulad moeTxovebaTkonvenciis Sesruleba. es pirveli savalebulod Sesasrulebeli saerTaSorisoinstrumentia, romelSic Sedis adamianis uflebebis mTeli speqtri. misiratificireba msoflios yvela qveyanam moaxdina, garda somalis da amerikisSeerTebuli Statebisa. somalim ratificireba imitom ver moaxerxa, rom mas arhyavs aRiarebuli mTavroba, xolo aSS-m konvenciis xelmoweriT gvaCvena Tavisiganzraxva, moexdina misi ratificreba, magram jer es ar gaukeTebia.
  17. 17. 16konvenciis safuZvelze bavSvebs aqvT ufleba, dakmayofildes maTi ZiriTadisaWiroebebi: arseboba, dacva, janmrTelobis dacva, sakvebisa da wylismisawvdomoba. maT aseve aqvT ufleba, hqondeT sakuTari potencialis sruladganviTarebis SesaZlebloba: es aris ganaTleba, TamaSi, sporti, sakuTariSexedulebebis gamoxatvis Tavisufleba da monawileoba im gadawyvetilebebismiRebaSi, romlebic maT exeba.konvenciaSi sagangebodaa naTqvami, rom yvela bavSvs erTi da igiveuflebebi aqvs da rom yvela ufleba urTierTdakavSirebuli da TanasworimniSvnelobisaa. konvencia exeba aseve bavSvebis pasuxismgeblobas _ pativiscen sxva adamianebis, gansakuTrebiT maTi mSoblebis, uflebebs.gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciaSi 54 muxlia, romelTagan TiToeulSigansazRvrulia gansxvavebuli ufleba. es uflebebi iyofa oTx jgufad: arseboba,dacva, ganviTareba da monawileoba.arsebobasTan dakavSirebuli uflebebi aRiarebs bavSvis sicocxlis uflebas dauflebas, dakmayofilebul iqnes arsebobisTvis aucilebeli saWiroebebi. esaris kveba, sacxovrebeli, cxovrebis adekvaturi done da janmrTelobis dacvismisawvdomoba.ganviTarebasTan dakavSirebuli uflebebi gansazRvravs imas, rac bavSvs sWirdebamisi potencialis srulad ganviTarebisTvis. es aris ganaTleba, dasveneba daTavisufali dro, kulturuli saqmianoba, informaciis misawvdomoba da azris,sindisisa da religiuri rwmenis Tavisufleba.dacvasTan dakavSirebuli uflebebi moiTxovs, rom bavSvebi dacul iqnenyovelgvari formis Seuracxyofis, ugulebelyofisa da eqspluataciisagan. esuflebebi exeba iseT sakiTxebs, rogorebicaa ltolvili bavSvebis sagangebodacva, dacvis saSualebebi momuSave bavSvebisaTvis da im bavSvebis dacva dareabilitacia, romlebmac ganicades raime formis Zaladoba an eqspluatacia.monawileobasTan dakavSirebuli uflebebi aRiarebs, rom yvela bavSvs undamieces SesaZlebloba, aqtiuri roli Seasrulos Tavis Temsa da sazogadoebaSi.es uflebebi moicavs Sexedulebis gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas da uflebas,saTanado yuradReba daeTmos bavSvis Sexedulebebs im sakiTxebSi, romlebicmis cxovrebaze axdens zemoqmedebas. bavSvis unarebis ganviTarebasTan erTadunda gaizardos bavSvisTvis SesaZlebloba, monawileoba miiRos sazogadoebiscxovrebaSi, raTa moemzados pasuxismgeblobiT aRsavse zrdasrulicxovrebisaTvis.konvenciis 41 ZiriTadi muxlidan oTxs gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba,vinaidan isini arsebiTia konvenciaSi gaTvaliswinebuli yvela uflebisxorcSesxmisaTvis. qvemoT CamoTvlilia es muxlebi, romlebic konvenciis`saerTo principebad~ aris cnobili:  me-2 muxli: uzrunvelyofil unda iqnes konvenciaSi gaTvaliswinebuli yvela ufleba TiToeuli bavSvisTvis, nebismieri saxis diskriminaciis gareSe.
  18. 18. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 17  me-3 muxli: bavSvis mimarT nebismier qmedebaTa ganxorcielebisas upirvelesi yuradReba unda daeTmos bavSvis interesebis dacvis ukeT uzrunvelyofas.  me-6 muxli: yovel bavSvs aqvs sicocxlis, gadarCenisa da ganviTarebis ufleba.  me-12 muxli: bavSvis Sexedulebebs saTanado yuradReba unda daeTmos yvela im sakiTxSi, romlebic mis cxovrebaze axdens zemoqmedebas.am bolo wlebSi Seiqmna bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis ori fakultatiuri oqmi:  fakultatiuri oqmi bavSvebiT vaWrobis, bavSvTa prostituciisa da bavSvTa pornografiis Sesaxeb, romelic miRebul iqna 2000 wlis 25 maiss, da  fakultatiuri oqmi SeiaraRebul konfliqtebSi bavSvebis monawileobis Sesaxeb, romelic miRebuli iqna 2000 wlis 25 maiss.konvenciaSi gamoxatulia bavSvisa da bavSvobis cnebis axali xedva. bavSvebiarc TavianTi mSoblebis sakuTreba arian da arc qvelmoqmedebis ususuriobieqtebi. isini adamianebi arian, romlebsac sakuTari uflebebi aqvT.konvencia gvTavazobs xedvas bavSvisa, rogorc Zlieri, kompetenturi adamianis,ojaxisa da sazogadoebis wevrisa, romelsac aqvs misi asakisa da simwifisSesabamisi uflebebi da pasuxismgeblobebi. bavSvTa uflebebis am saxiTaRiarebiT konvencia mTlianad bavSvze axdens koncentrirebas.bavSvis uflebaTa komitetiim saxelmwifoTa mTavrobebma, romlebmac moaxdines konvenciis ratificireba,regularulad unda warudginon angariSi bavSvis uflebaTa komitets –eqspertebisgan Semdgar organos, romelic awarmoebs saxelmwifoTa mierkonvenciis Sesrulebis monitorings. am angariSebSi asaxulia qveyanaSi bavSvTauflebebis mxriv arsebuli mdgomareoba da miTiTebulia is zomebi, romlebsacsaxelmwifo axorcielebs am uflebebis xorcSesasxmelad. saxelmwifoTaangariSebis ganxilvisas bavSvis uflebaTa komiteti mouwodebs qveynebisxelisuflebaTa yvela dones, isargeblon konvenciiT, rogorc saxelmZRvaneloprincipiT politikis SemuSavebasa da mis aRsrulebaSi. vinaidan adamianisuflebebis dacva Tavisi xasiaTiT usasrulo procesia, yovelTvis arsebobsraRac iseTi, rasac gaumjobeseba sWirdeba.bavSvTa uflebebis damcveli organos Seqmna da kiTxva, Tu ras niSnavs realuradbavSvTa uflebebi da rogor SeiZleba maTi saukeTeso gziT xorcSesxma, dRemdediskusiebis sagania. bavSvTa uflebebis ganxorcielebis xelSewyoba nawilobrivemyareba imis aRiarebas, rom bavSvebis daucvelobisa da, Sesabamisad, maTisagangebo dacvis saWiroebis gaTviTcnobiereba ar uSlis xels imas, rom bavSvebiiCagrebodnen maT garSemo ufrosebis samyaroSi miRebuli gadawyvetilebebisSedegad. bavSvebis mZime mdgomareobis mimarT TanagrZnoba xSirad iwvevs imas, rom
  19. 19. 18bavSvebs aRiqvamen koleqtiurad da epyrobian rogorc qvelmoqmedebis obieqtebsda ara rogorc individuumebs, romelTac sakuTari unarebi, SesaZleblobebi,saWiroebebi da uflebebi aqvT.amis Sedegad bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi xSirad arapolitikurad miiCnevada verc gvardeba. bavSvTa uflebebis ZiriTadi principi is aris, rom sazogadoebavaldebulia, daakmayofilos bavSvis ZiriTadi saWiroebebi da uzrunvelyosdaxmareba misi pirovnebis, niWisa da SesaZleblobebis ganviTarebisaTvis.bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis Seqmna asaxavs zogad wess, rom, rac ufromaRalia uflebebis gaTviTcnobierebis done, miT metia maTi garantirebisSesaZlebloba. bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis wyalobiT bavSvebis uflebebimkafiod, Tanmimdevrulad da yovlismomcveli saxiT aris Camoyalibebuli.bavSvTa uflebebis am saxiT gansazRvra maTi pativiscemisa da Sesrulebiswinapirobaa.Sefasebagaeros bavSvis uflebaTa komitetisaTvis Tqveni qveynis mier wardgenil erovnulangariSebze da komitetis mier am angariSebis ganxilvaze dayrdnobiT imsjeleTimaze, Tu ra meqanizmi arsebobs Tqvens qveyanaSi bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciisSesrulebis monitoringisaTvis da ra gavlenas axdens is.damatebiTi literatura da resursebi`iunisefi~: bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia:http://www.unicef.org/crc/index_index.htmlbavSvis uflebaTa komiteti:http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/index.htm`bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio qseli~ (CRIN) - bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia:http://www.crin.com/resources/treaties/CRC.asp?catName=International+Treaties&flag=legal&ID=6`bavSvis uflebaTa aliansi~ _ bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia:http://www.childrensrights.ie/convention.phpsaqarTvelos kanonmdebloba da bavSvTa uflebebibavSvis uflebebi garantirebulia, rogorc saerTaSorisosamarTlebrivi aqtebiT(bavSvis uflebaTa deklaracia, bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia, gaerTianebulierebis organizaciis TavisuflebaaRkveTil arasrulwlovanebTan mopyrobiswesebi (`pekinis wesebi~), gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis arasrulwlovanTaSoris damnaSaveobis profilaqtikis saxelmZRvanelo principebi (er-riadiswesebi); haagis konvencia bavSvis saerTaSoriso gatacebis samoqalaqo aspeqtebisSesaxeb da sxva), aseve erovnuli kanonmdeblobiT. saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebi(konvenciebi, damatebiTi oqmebi, paqtebi da sxva saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebi),romlebic saqarTvelos mier iqna ratificirebuli, saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobisSemadgenel nawils warmoadgenen.
  20. 20. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 19saqarTvelo bavSvis uflebaTa konvencias SeuerTda 1994 wels. konvenciismoTxovnaTa Tanaxmad saqarTvelo axorcielebs bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciiTgaTvaliswinebul debulebebs erovnul kanonmdeblobaSi. bavSvis uflebaTakonvencia warmoadgens saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebas da saqarTvelossakanonmdeblo sistemis Semadgenel nawilad iTvleba. konvencia gamoiyenebasaqarTveloSi, rogorc uSualod moqmedi kanoni da saqarTvelos normatiulaqts warmoadgens. ufro metic, saqarTvelos konstituciis Tanaxmad,saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebas an SeTanxmebas, Tu igi arewinaaRmdegeba saqarTvelos konstitucias da konstituciur SeTanxmebas,aqvs upiratesi iuridiuli Zala Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi normatiuli aqtebismimarT. es ki imas niSnavs, rom bavSvis uflebaTa konvencias upiratesi Zalaaqvs saqarTvelos sxva kanonebis mimarT da is SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnesuSualod.bavSvs (arasrulwlovans) iseTive uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi aqvs,rogorc srulwlovan adamians, zogierTi gamonaklisis garda (magaliTad.saarCevno ufleba). adamianis uflebebi, maT Soris bavSvis uflebaTa dacva,garantirebulia saqarTvelos konstituciis II TaviT. yvela ufleba, romelTadacvac garantirebulia konstituciis meore TaviT, Seexeba bavSvis uflebaTadacvas. konstituciiT daculia bavSvis sicocxlis ufleba, piradi cxovrebisxelSeuxeblobis ufleba, sityvis Tavisufleba, Sekrebebis ufleba, sityvis,azris, sindisis, aRmsareblobisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba, ganviTarebis ufleba,samarTliani sasamarTlos ufleba udanaSaulobis prezumfcia, ukanonodakavebisagan, wamebisagan dacvis ufleba da sxva.saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT arasrulwlovania piri, romelsac ar miuRwevia18 wlis asakisaTvis. samoqalaqo kodeqsis Tanaxmad (1997) arasrulwlovani piriaris uflebaunariani da 7 wlis asakidan CaiTvleba SezRudul qmedunarianad.saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT srul qmedunarianad adamiani iTvleba 18 wlisasakidan, anu piri, romelic Tavisi nebiTa da moqmedebiT srulad axorcielebsTavis sakuTar uflebebsa da movaleobebs.uflebaunarianoba pirs eniWeba dabadebis momentidan gardacvalebis momentamde.gamonakliss warmoadgens memkvidreobis ufleba, romelic pirs warmoeSobaCasaxvis momentidan da am uflebis realizacia damokidebulia bavSvis dabadebaze.saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT srul qmedunarianad adamiani iTvleba 18 wlisasakidan. uflebaunarianoba - fizikuri piris unari, hqondes samoqalaqo uflebebi da movaleobebi, warmoiSoba dabadebis momentidan. qmedunarianoba - fizikuri piris unari, Tavisi nebiTa da moqmedebiT sruli moculobiT SeiZinos da ganaxorcielos samoqalaqo uflebebi da movaleobebi (qmedunarianoba), warmoiSoba srulwlovanebis miRwevisTanave.
  21. 21. 207 wlidan bavSvi SezRudul qmedunarianad aris aRiarebuli, rac imas niSnavs,rom mas ar SeuZlia sruli moculobiT SeiZinos da ganaxorcielos samoqalaqouflebebi da movaleobebi. magaliTad, dados garigeba. 7 wlamde asakisbavSvi mcirewlovania da qmeduunaro. mis uflebebs axorcielebs meurve anmzrunveli. meurveoba - meurveoba wesdeba bavSvze, romelsac ar miuRwevia Svidi wlis asakisaTvis an pirze, romelic sasamarTlos mier aRiarebulia qmeduunarod suliT avadmyofobis an Wkuasustobis gamo. mzrunveloba - mzrunveloba wesdeba arasrulwlovanze Svidi wlis asakidan Tvramet wlamde. mzrunveloba wesdeba agreTve srulwlovan qmedunarian pirze misi TxovniT, Tu mas Tavisi janmrTelobis mdgomareobis gamo ar SeuZlia damoukideblad ganaxorcielos Tavisi uflebebi da Seasrulos Tavisi movaleobani. saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organos warmoadgens saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis saministro an/da mis sistemaSi Semavali uflebamosili dawesebuleba (organizacia), agreTve maTi teritoriuli organoebi.saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsi (1997) iTvaliswinebs or garemoebas, romlisdrosac, gansazRvruli pirobebis arsebobisas, piri CaiTvleba emansipirebuladda utoldeba srulwlovan, srul qmedunarian pirs: 1. 16 wlis asaks miRweulipiris qorwineba; 2. kanonieri warmomadgenlis mier 16 wlis asaks miRweulipirisaTvis sawarmos damoukideblad gaZRolis uflebis miniWeba. saqarTveloskanonmdeblobiT saqorwino asakad gansazRvrulia Tvrameti weli. saqarTveloskanonmdebloba qorwinebisas uSvebs gamonakliss. gamonaklis SemTxvevebSiTeqvsmeti wlis asakidan daqorwineba daiSveba mSoblebis an sxva kanonieriwarmomadgenlebis winaswari werilobiTi TanxmobiT. Tanxmobaze mSoblebisan sxva kanonieri warmomadgenlebis uaris SemTxvevaSi pativsadebi mizezebisarsebobisas dasaqorwinebel pirTa gancxadebis safuZvelze daqorwinebisnebarTva SeuZlia gasces sasamarTlom.samoqalaqo samarTlis kodeqsisa da `moqalaqeobis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonisTanaxmad bavSvi dabadebisTanave iZens gvars, saxels da moqalaqeobas.saqarTvelos kanoni `moqalaqeobis Sesaxeb~ (1993) gansazRvravs bavSvismoqalaqeobis sakiTxs. bavSvi, romlis orive mSobeli misi dabadebismomentisaTvis saqarTvelos moqalaqea, saqarTvelos moqalaqed iTvlebadabadebis adgilis miuxedavad. 14-dan 18 wlamde bavSvis moqalaqeobis SecvlaSeiZleba mxolod misi TanxmobiT.bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis me-9 muxlis Tanaxmad yvela bavSvi undaizrdebodes ojaxSi da ar daSordes Tavis mSoblebs maTi survilissawinaaRmdegod. es moTxovna Tavis asaxvas povebs saqarTvelos samoqalaqokodeqsSi, romlis Tanaxmad `bavSvs aqvs ufleba, cxovrobdes da izrdebodes
  22. 22. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 21ojaxSi~. Svilebis aRzrdis yvela sakiTxs mSoblebi urTierTSeTanxmebiTwyveten. mSobelTa SeuTanxmeblobis SemTxvevaSi sadavo sakiTxs wyvetssasamarTlo mSoblebis da arasrulwlovnis monawileobiT.bavSvis uflebebi daculia mSoblebis ganqorwinebis SemTxvevaSic. Tuganqorwinebis gamo an sxva mizeziT bavSvis mSoblebi cal-calke cxovroben,maT SeTanxmebazea damokidebuli, Tu visTan icxovrebs arasrulwlovaniSvili. meuRleTa Soris davis SemTxvevaSi am sakiTxs wyvets sasamarTlobavSvis interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT. sasamarTloSi bavSvis uflebebs icavsmeurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organos mier daniSnuli bavSvis warmomadgeneli,romelic saqmis sasamarTloSi ganxilvis dros bavSvis interesebs warmoadgens.kanonmdeblobiT daculia bavSvis qonebrivi uflebebic. saWiroebisSemTxvevaSi, bavSvis qonebriv uflebebis dacvas axorcielebs qonebis meurve.im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac mSobels, romelic sistematurad aridebs Tavs mSoblismovaleobis Sesrulebas da arajerovnad iyenebs mSoblis uflebebs – bavSvsuxeSad eqceva, masze uaryofiT gavlenas axdens Tavisi amoraluri saqcieliT, anqronikuli alkoholiki an narkomania, sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT SeiZlebaCamoerTvas mSoblis yvela ufleba da movaleoba. es SeiZleba moxdes, rogorcmeurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organos iniciativiT, ise 14 wlis asaks miRweulibavSvis moTxovniT.arasrulwlovans aqvs dacvis ufleba mSobelTa (sxva kanonier warmomadgenelTa)mxridan uflebamosilebis borotad gamoyenebis winaaRmdeg. arasrulwlovnisuflebebisa da kanonieri interesebis darRvevisas, maT Soris, mSobelTa(erT-erTi mSoblis) mier bavSvis aRzrdasTan, ganaTlebasTan dakavSirebulimovaleobebis Seusruleblobis an arasaTanadod Sesrulebisas, an mSoblisuflebis borotad gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi, arasrulwlovans ufleba aqvs,damoukideblad mimarTos meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organoebs, 14 wlisasakidan ki – sasamarTlos.samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsiT, samoqalaqo saqmeebze davebisganxilvisas daculia arasrulwlovanTa uflebebi. 7-dan 18 wlamdearasrulwlovanTa uflebebsa da kanoniT dacul interesebs sasamarTloSiicaven maTi mSoblebi, mSvileblebi an mzrunvelebi. amasTanave, sasamarTlovaldebulia, aseT saqmeebSi Caabas TviT arasrulwlovnebic. Tuarasrulwlovans kanoniT miniWebuli aqvs ufleba, TviTon, damoukidebladgankargos Tavisi qoneba, dados wvrilmani sayofacxovrebo garigebebi daa. S., mas ufleba aqvs sasamarTloSi piradad daicvas Tavisi uflebebi dakanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli interesebi, iyos mosarCele, mopasuxe an mesamepiri. sasamarTlos SeuZlia, arasrulwlovanis SuamdgomlobiT an TavisiiniciativiT, saqmeSi Caabas misi kanonieri warmomadgenelic.saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevaSi arasrulwlovans14 wlis asakidan ufleba aqvs, mimarTos sasamarTlos Tavisi uflebebisa dakanonieri interesebis dasacavad. am SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo niSnavs saproceso
  23. 23. 22warmomadgenels da ganixilavs saqmes. arasrulwlovan mosarCeles uflebaaqvs, ar daeTanxmos Tavis saproceso warmomadgenels da TviTon daicvassakuTari Tavi. sasamarTlo valdebulia aseT saqmeebze Caabas meurveobisa damzrunvelobis organoebi. samoqalaqo davebis ganxilvisas, 14 wlis asakamdemowmis dakiTxvisas, xolo sasamarTlos SexedulebiT 14-dan 18 wlis asakamdemowmis dakiTxvis drosac, SeiZleba mowveul iqnes pedagogi, aucileblobisSemTxvevaSi SeiZleba moiwvion agreTve mSoblebi, mSvileblebi, meurveebi anmzrunvelebi. mosarCele - samoqalaqo procesSi fizikuri an iuridiuli piri, romelic mimarTavs sasamarTlos, arbitraJs an samediatoro sasamarTlos mopasuxis mier darRveuli Tu sadavod qceuli uflebis an kanonieri interesebis dasacavad. mopasuxe - samoqalaqo procesis an sameurneo davis erT-erTi mxare. mopasuxes pasuxs sTxovs sasamarTlo an arbitraJi mosarCelis im gancxadebis mixedviT, rom mopasuxem daarRvia an sadavo gaxada mosarCelis ufleba.bavSvis konvenciis me-20 muxlis Tanaxmad, im SemTxvevebSic ki, rodesacbavSvs ar hyavs mSoblebi, is saxelmwifos dacvis qveS imyofeba. amavedebulebas iziarebs saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba. kerZod, Tu napovniabavSvi, romlis vinaoba, mSoblebis vinaoba da maTi adgilsamyofeli ucnobia,saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT, meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organovaldebulia ganaxorcielos yvela qmedeba bavSvisa da misi mSoblebisvinaobis dadgenisaTvis. Tu bavSvis da misi mSoblebis vinaoba saqarTveloskanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad ver dgindeba, meurveobisa da mzrunvelobisorgano valdebulia, miiRos zomebi bavSvis mosavlelad da mimarTossasamarTlos bavSvis mitovebulad aRiarebisaTvis.saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba icavs bavSvis interesebs gaSvilebisas. 10 welsmiRweuli bavSvis gaSvileba misi Tanxmobi gareSe ar daiSveba. kanoni mkacradicavs Svilad ayvanis konfidencialobis dacvis uflebas. sisxlis samarTliskodeqsis Tanaxmad, dasjadia Svilad ayvanis saidumloebis gamJRavneba; piradian ojaxuri saidumlos xelyofa.saqarTvelos kanoni `Svilad ayvanis da mindobis Sesaxeb~ (2010) erTmaneTisaganganasxvavebs mindobasa da gaSvilebas.mindobiT aRzrda (Svilobilad ayvana) – Svilobilad mindoba gulisxmobssaxelmwifosa da mimReb ojaxs Soris ormxrivi xelSekrulebis safuZvelzebavSvis aRsazrdelad ganTavsebas winaswar Seswavlil da SerCeul ojaxSi. amperiodis manZilze biologiur ojaxs aqvs SesaZlebloba, iqonios mudmivikontaqti bavSvTan, maTi ararsebobisas ki bavSvi 18 wlis asakidan Tavisufaliada ar aris damokidebuli mimReb ojaxze
  24. 24. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 23Svilad ayvana – termini _ bavSvis Svilad ayvana niSnavs sasamarTlosgadawyvetilebiT bavSvis samudamod gadacemas ojaxisaTvis. Svilad ayvanasamudamod cvlis bavSvis statuss. igi xdeba mSvilebeli mSoblebis gvarismatarebeli da maTi qonebis memkvidre. aseT SemTxvevaSi, biologiur ojaxTanyvela saxis kavSiri wydeba. gasaSvilebeli bavSvi – 18 wlamde asakis piri,romelic am kanoniT dadgenili wesiT aRricxulia gasaSvilebel bavSvTa damSvilebelTa erTian reestrSi da akmayofilebs kanoniT dadgenil moTxovnebs(18 wlamde piri; romlis mSoblebi sasamarTlom aRiara ugzo-ukvloddakargulad an gardacvlilad; mitovebuli bavSvi; oboli bavSvi; mSoblebisTanxmobiT gaSvilebuli piri; bavSvi, romlis mSoblebsac CamoerTva mSoblisufleba) g) napovni bavSvi – 18 wlamde asakis piri, romlis aRmoCenis momentSida am momentidan 6 kviris vadaSi ver dadginda misi an/da mSoblis (mSoblebis)vinaoba, mis mitovebul bavSvad aRiarebamde; d) mitovebuli bavSvi – 18 wlamdeasakis piri, romlis aRmoCenis momentSi da am momentidan 6 kviris vadaSi verdadginda misi an/da mSoblis (mSoblebis) vinaoba da romelic saqarTveloskanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT aRiarebul iqna mitovebulad. mindobiTaRsazrdelad gadacemuli bavSvi - mSoblebs CamoerTvaT an SeuCerdaT mSoblisuflebebi da movaleobebi da bavSvi unda ganTavsdes Tavisi ojaxis gareT. TumSoblis ufleba, gadawyvitos, visTan icxovros misma Svilma, SezRudulia dabavSvi unda ganTavsdes Tavisi ojaxis gareT; Tu bavSvis datoveba meurvesTanan mzrunvelTan misgan damoukidebeli mizezebiT bavSvisTvis sazianoa; TuSvilis CamorTmeva xdeba mSoblis uflebebisa da movaleobebis CamorTmevisan SezRudvis gareSe.amave kanoniT, bavSvi, Tu man miaRwia 10 wels an 10 welze meti asakisaa, areTanxmeba Svilad ayvanas (gaSvilebaze) an mindobiT aRzrdas, ar SeiZleba iqnesgaSvilebuli, aseve akrZalulia 10 wlis an 10 welze meti asakis bavSvis gaSvilebamisi Tanxmobis gareSe. dauSvebelia da-Zmis, debis an/da Zmebis daSoreba, garda imSemTxvevisa, rodesac es Seesabameba maT interesebs. mSvileblisa da gasaSvilebelibavSvis (Tu igi 10 wlisaa an 10 welze metisaa) moTxovniT sasamarTlo sxdomaSeiZleba iyos Ria, xolo informacia - sajaro. Tu naSvilebi 10 wlisaa an 10welze metisaa, Svilad ayvanis Sesaxeb sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis gauqmebadasaSvebia mxolod naSvilebis TanxmobiT.gaSvilebisas an mindobisas SesaZleblobis farglebSi uzrunvelyofili undaiqnes bavSvis axlo eTnikur, religiur da kulturul garemoSi aRzrdisSesaZlebloba.bavSvis janmrTelobis dacvis ufleba da am sferoSi misi nebis pativiscema aisaxasaqarTvelos sxvadasxva sakanonmdeblo aqtebSi: saqarTvelos kanoni janmrTelobisdacvis Sesaxeb; pacientis uflebaTa Sesaxeb; organoTa gadanergvis Sesaxeb da sxva.arasrulwlovan pacientTa uflebebi yvelaze kargad vlindeba saqarTveloskanonSi `pacientTa uflebebis Sesaxeb~ (2000), romelic arasrulwlovanpacientebs iseTsave uflebebs aniWebs, rogorc srulwlovans, garda imspecifikuri SemTxvevebisa, rodesac Tavisi asakis gamo, pacienti mometebul
  25. 25. 24yuradRebas saWiroebs. magaliTad, informirebuli Tanxmobis micema raimesamedicino manipulaciisas.kanonmdebeli did yuradRebas uTmobs arasrulwlovnis janmrTelobis Sesaxebinformaciis dacvas. mSoblebs an kanonier warmomadgenlebs arasrulwlovanisjanmrTelobis Sesaxeb informacia ar miewodeba, Tu informaciis miwodebiswinaaRmdegia TviT qmedunariani arasrulwlovani pacienti, aseve 14-dan 18wlamde asakis arasrulwlovani pacienti, romelic samedicino momsaxurebisgamwevis SexedulebiT sworad afasebs sakuTari janmrTelobis mdgomareobasda romelmac eqims mimarTa sqesobrivad gadamdebi daavadebis an narkomaniismkurnalobis, kontracefciis araqirurgiuli meTodebis Sesaxeb konsultaciismiRebis an orsulobis xelovnurad Sewyvetis mizniT. 14-dan 18 wlamdeasakis arasrulwlovan pacients, romelic samedicino momsaxurebis gamwevisSexedulebiT sworad afasebs sakuTari janmrTelobis mdgomareobas, uflebaaqvs ganacxados informirebuli Tanxmoba samedicino momsaxurebaze, Tu mansamedicino momsaxurebis gamwevs mimarTa sqesobrivad gadamdebi daavadebis annarkomaniis mkurnalobis, kontracefciis araqirurgiuli meTodebis Sesaxebkonsultaciis miRebis an orsulobis xelovnurad Sewyvetis mizniT.saqarTvelos kanoni `fsiqiatriuli daxmarebis Sesaxeb~ (2006) gansazRvravsiseT SemTxvevebs, rodesac arasrulwlovani uars ambobs mkurnalobaze.arasrulwlovans gaaCnia mkurnalobaze uaris Tqmis ufleba, Tu aqvs unari,miiRos gacnobierebuli gadawyvetileba.bavSvis uflebebis dacva garantirebulia saqarTvelos kanoniT `zogadiganaTlebis Sesaxeb~ (2005). kanonis Tanaxmad, moswavles aqvs ufleba: TanabarpirobebSi, diskriminaciis gareSe, dadgenili wesiT, saskolo dros an skolisteritoriaze isargeblos am TaviT daculi da skolis mier aRiarebuli yvelauflebiTa da TavisuflebiT, agreTve skolis yvela resursiT; saxelmwifo icavsmoswavlis da mSoblis saganmanaTleblo arCevanis Tavisuflebas. moswavledaculi unda iyos arasaTanado mopyrobis, uyuradRebobisa da Seuracxyofisagan;sakuTari uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis Sesaxeb codnis ufleba.moswavleebs aqvT ufleba, flobdnen informacias TavianTi uflebebisada Tavisuflebebis, agreTve maTi SezRudvis safuZvlebis Sesaxeb. skolavaldebulia, yovel axal moswavles gaacnos misi uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi;uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis SezRudvisas moswavles gonivrul vadaSiganumartos SezRudvis safuZveli, moswavles ki aqvs ufleba, piradad anarCeuli warmomadgenlis meSveobiT monawileoba miiRos skolis marTvaSi,miiRos skolaSi arsebuli nebismieri informacia, garda piradi saidumloebisSemcveli informaciisa; moiTxovos da miiRos skolis mier masTan dakavSirebulisakiTxis gadawyvetileba, moiTxovos misi azris mosmena da monawileoba miiRosganxilvaSi uSualod an warmomadgenlis meSveobiT.`bavSvTa da axalgazrduli kavSirebis saxelmwifoebrivi mxardaWeris Sesaxeb“(1999) saqarTvelos kanoniT daculia bavSvebis mier Seqmnil sxvadasxva saxis
  26. 26. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 25organizaciebi _ bavSvTa kavSirebi. bavSvTa kavSiri aris saqarTvelos samoqalaqokodeqsiT gansazRvruli wesiT Seqmnili arasamewarmeo (arakomerciuli)iuridiuli piri, romlis sadamfuZneblo dokumentaciiT gansazRvrulisaqmianobis mizania bavSvTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvis, maTi niWisada unaris ganviTarebisa da sazogadoebaSi damkvidrebisaTvis xelis Sewyoba.bavSvTa kavSirSi gawevrianebisa da sadamfuZneblo dokumentaciiT gansazRvrulsaqmianobaSi monawileobis ufleba aqvs nebismier pirs 7 wlis asakidan, Tavisikanonieri warmomadgenlis TanxmobiT.saqarTvelos kanoniT `reklamis Sesaxeb~ (1998) daculia arasrulwlovnisuflebebi. kerZod, reklamis warmoebis, ganTavsebisa da gavrcelebisdros arasrulwlovanTa gulubryvilobisa da gamoucdelobis borotadgamoyenebisagan maTi dacvis mizniT akrZalulia: a) arasrulwlovanTaSTagoneba _ daarwmunon mSoblebi an sxva pirebi reklamirebuli saqonlisSeZenaSi; b) arasrulwlovanTa yuradRebis mipyroba imaze, rom reklamirebulisaqonlis floba upiratesobas aniWebs maT sxva arasrulwlovanTa mimarT,xolo misi uqonloba iwvevs sawinaaRmdego efeqts; g) reklamaSi iseTi teqstis,audio- da videoinformaciis moTavseba, romlebic aCvenebs arasrulwlovnebssaSiS adgilas da saSiS viTarebaSi; d) arasrulwlovanTaTvis saqonlisgamosayeneblad saWiro Cvevebis aucilebeli donis gauTvaliswinebloba.amasTan, Tu saqonlis gamoyenebis Sedegebi naCvenebi an aRwerilia,reklama unda iZleodes informacias imis Sesaxeb, risi miRwevac realuradSesaZlebelia im asakobrivi jgufis arasrulwlovanTaTvis, romlisTvisacgankuTvnilia es saqoneli; e) arasrulwlovanTaTvis saqonlis Rirebulebaze(fasze) ararealuri (damaxinjebuli) warmodgenis Seqmna, kerZod, sityvebis`mxolod~, `sul raRac~ da maT msgavsTa gamoyenebiT, agreTve pirdapiri aniribi miTiTebiT imaze, rom reklamirebuli saqoneli xelmisawvdomia yvelaojaxis biujetisaTvis.saqarTvelos kanoni `mavne zegavlenisagan arasrulwlovanTa dacvis Sesaxeb~(2001) gulisxmobs dacvas im mavne zegavlenisagan, romelic dakavSirebuliaalkoholuri sasmelebis da Tambaqos momxmareba-gasaRebasTan, azartulTamaSobebSi monawileobasTan, iseT filmebis CvenebasTan, nabeWdi produqciismoxmareba-gasaRebasTan, romelmac SeiZleba ziani miayenos arasrulwlovnisfsiqikur an/da fizikur janmrTelobas, mis moralur da socialur ganviTarebas.analogiur akrZalvas Seicavs saqarTvelos kanoni `mauwyeblobis Sesaxeb~(2004), romlis mixediTac ikrZaleba bavSvTa da mozardTa fizikur, gonebrivda zneobriv ganviTarebaze mavne zegavlenis momxdeni programebis im drosganTavseba, roca maT mier am programebis naxvis an mosmenis didi albaTobaarsebobs.arasrulwlovanTa SromiTi uflebebis dacvis garantiebi CamoyalibebuliasaqarTvelos Sromis kodeqsSi (2006). saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba zogadadiTvaliswinebs Sromis saerTaSoriso organizaciisa (ILO) da sxva saerTaSorisoorganizaciebis rezoluciebsa da standartebs.
  27. 27. 26saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT samuSaoze miRebis minimaluri asakia16 weli. saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT ar aris akrZaluli 16 wlamdearasrulwlovanis dasaqmeba, magram kanonmdebeli miuTiTebs im pirobebze,romelic unda iqnes gaTvaliswinebuli arasrulwlovanis dasaqmebisas:kanonieri warmomadgenlis an mzrunvelobis/meurveobis organos Tanxmoba;rodesac … SromiTi urTierTobebi ar ewinaaRmdegeba arasrulwlovanisinteresebs; zians ar ayenebs mis zneobriv, fizikur da gonebriv ganviTarebas;ar uzRudavs mas savaldebulo dawyebiTi da sabazo ganaTlebis miRebisuflebas da SesaZleblobas. 14 wlamde asakis arasrulwlovanTan SesaZlebeliaSromiTi xelSekrulebis dadeba, magram mxolod sportul, xelovnebasTandakavSirebul da kulturis sferoSi saqmianobaze, aseve sareklamo samuSaosSesasruleblad.akrZalulia arasrulwlovanTan SromiTi xelSekrulebis dadeba saTamaSobiznesTan, Ramis gasarTob dawesebulebebTan, erotikuli da pornografiuliproduqciis, farmacevtuli da toqsikuri nivTierebebis damzadebasTan,gadazidvasTan da realizaciasTan dakavSirebuli samuSaoebis Sesasruleblad.arasrulwlovanis kanonier warmomadgenels an mzrunvelobis/meurveobisorganos ufleba aqvT moiTxovon arasrulwlovanTan SromiTi xelSekrulebismoSla, Tu muSaobis gagrZeleba zians miayenebs arasrulwlovnis sicocxles,janmrTelobas an sxva, mniSvnelovan interesebs.Sromis kodeqsiT akrZalulia arasrulwlovanTan SromiTi xelSekrulebisdadeba mZime, mavne da saSiSpirobebiani samuSaoebis Sesasruleblad. SromiTikodeqsi zRudavs arasrulwlovnis 22 saaTidan 6 saaTamde dasaqmebas.bavSvis uflebebis dacvis meqnizmebi Cadebulia saqarTvelos kanonSi `ojaxSiZaladobis aRkveTis, ojaxSi Zaladobis msxverlTa dacvisa da daxmarebisSesaxeb~ (2006). ojaxSi Zaladoba gulisxmobs ojaxis erTi wevris mier meoris konstituciuri uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis darRvevas fizikuri, fsiqologiuri, ekonomikuri, seqsualuri ZaladobiT an iZulebiT.kanonis Tanaxmad, bavSvis mimarT fizikuri Zaladobis kvalis arsebobisaskanoniT dadgenili wesiT unda moxdes bavSvis misi mSoblebisagan gancalkeveba.sasamarTlos saboloo gadawyvetilebis miRebamde droebiTi RonisZiebis saxiTdamcavi orderis safuZvelze xdeba bavSvis gancalkeveba moZalade mSoblisagan.sasamarTlo gansazRvravs moZalade mSoblis mier bavSvis monaxulebis vadebs. amdrosac kanoni mkacrad icavs bavSvis usafrTxoebas. mSobels bavSvis monaxulebisufleba SeiZleba mieces mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, roca mis mimarT daculi iqnebausafrTxoebis yvela zoma, romelic SeiZleba moicavdes bavSvis monaxulebisadgils, dros, periodulobas, xangrZlivobas da pirs, romelic pasuxismgebeliabavSvis usafrTxoebis moTxovnebis dacvaze. Tu bavSvis mimarT usafrTxoebiszomebi daculi ar aris, moZalade mSoblis mier bavSvis monaxulebis uflebaizRudeba.
  28. 28. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 272010 wlis martidan funqcionirebs “bavSvTa dacvis mimarTvianobis procedurebi”,romelic sami saministros – Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvissaministro, Sinagan saqmeTa saministro da ganaTlebisa da mecnierebissaministro – koordinaciis meqanizms warmoadgens da miznad isaxavs bavSvismimarT Zaladobis faqtebis adreul etapze gamovlenasa da maTze reagirebas.ojaxSi Zaladobis faqtze operatiuli reagirebisaTvis uflebamosili organosmier msxverplis dacvisa da moZaladis garkveuli moqmedebebis SezRudvisuzrunvelsayofad, droebiTi RonisZiebis saxiT, SesaZlebelia, gamoicesSemakavebeli an damcavi orderi. damcavi orderi aris pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos (mosamarTlis) mier administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT gamocemuli aqti, romliTac ganisazRvreba ojaxSi Zaladobis SemTxvevaSi Zaladobis msxverplis dacvis droebiTi RonisZiebebi, garda im SemTxvevisa, rodesac arsebobs sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis aRZvris safuZveli da pirs aRkveTis RonisZiebis saxiT Sefardebuli aqvs patimroba. moZaladis mier damcavi orderiT gaTvaliswinebuli moTxovnebis Seusrulebloba iwvevs sisxlissamarTlebriv pasuxismgeblobas. Semakavebeli orderi aris policiis uflebamosili TanamSromlis mier gamocemuli aqti, romliTac ganisazRvreba ojaxSi Zaladobis SemTxvevaSi Zaladobis msxverplis dacvis droebiTi RonisZiebebi da romelic gamocemidan 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi dasamtkiceblad waredgineba sasamarTlos.bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis 32-e muxli krZalavs bavSvis monuri Sromisgamoyenebas. analogiuri akrZalva mocemulia `transnacionaluri organizebulidanaSaulis winaaRmdeg~ gaeros konvenciisa da misi damatebiTi oqmi `adamianebis,gansakuTrebiT qalebisa da bavSvebis, trefikingis Tavidan acilebis, aRkveTisada dasjis Sesaxeb~, romlis monawilec 2006 wlidan saqarTveloc gaxda. trefikingi (adamianiT vaWroba) - adamianis yidva an gayidva, an mis mimarT sxva ukanono garigebis ganxorcieleba, agreTve muqariT, ZaladobiT an iZulebis sxva formiT, motacebiT, SantaJiT, TaRliTobiT, motyuebiT, umweo mdgomareobis an Zalauflebis borotad gamoyenebiT, sazRauris anda sargeblis micemis an miRebis gziT im piris Tanxmobis misaRwevad, romelsac sxva pirze zegavlenis moxdena SeuZlia, adamianis gadabireba, gadayvana, gadamalva, daqiraveba, transportireba, gadacema, Sefareba anda miReba eqspluataciis mizniT. arasrulwlovniT vaWroba (trefikingi) - arasrulwlovnis yidva an gayidva, an mis mimarT sxva ukanono garigebis ganxorcieleba, agreTve misi gadabireba, gadayvana, gadamalva, daqiraveba, transportireba, gadacema, Sefareba anda miReba eqspluataciis mizniT.trefikingis msxverpl bavSvTa uflebebis dacva xorcieldeba transnacionaluriorganizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg gaeros konvenciis oqmiT adamianebis,
  29. 29. 28gansakuTrebiT qalebisa da bavSvebis, trefikingis Tavidan acilebis, aRkveTisada dasjis, agreTve `adamianebiT vaWrobis (trefikingis) winaaRmdeg brZolisSesaxeb~ evropis sabWos konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli bavSvis uflebaTa dacvismeqanizmebiT da saerTaSoriso organizaciebis mier miRebuli saxelmZRvanelomiTiTebebiT. am dokumentebis safuZvelze. saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTliskodeqsSi gaTvaliswinebulia specialuri muxlebi – adamianiT vaWroba(trefikingi); arasrulwlovniT vaWroba (trefikingi); adamianis vaWrobis(trefikingis) msxverlis (dazaralebulis) momsaxurebiT sargebloba.saqarTveloSi moqmedebs specialuri kanoni `adamianiT vaWrobis (trefikingis)winaaRmdeg brZolis Sesaxeb” (2006), romliTac daculia bavSvis uflebebi.saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba yuradRebas uTmobs kanonTan konfliqtSi myofimozardisadmi efeqtur, samarTlian da humanur damokidebulebas da cdilobs,erovnul kanonmdeblobaSi daamkvidros saerTaSoriso standartebi am sferoSi.adaministraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsiT administraciulipasuxismgebloba ekisrebaT administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis CadenismomentisaTvis Teqvsmeti wlis asaks miRweul pirebs. magaliTad, metropoliteniTsargeblobis wesebis darRveva; wvrilmani xulignoba an xulignoba, CadeniliToTxmetidan Teqvsmet wlamde mozardis mier, wvrilmani qurdoba da sxva.administraciuli patimroba ar SeiZleba SeefardoT Tvrameti wlis asaksmiuRwevel pirebs.saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi uxvad Seicavs arasrulwlovanTauflebebis dacviT normebs. arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis saqarTveloSiarsebuli sistemis Sesaxeb dawvrilebiT ixileT me-2 TavSi.gamoxatvis Tavisufleba da bavSvis uflebebis dacva qarTulkanonmdeblobaSisaqarTvelos konstituciis 24-e muxli aRiarebs informaciisa da ideebisdaubrkoleblad gavrcelebisa da miRebis uflebas, Tumca SezRudvis erT-erT kriteriumad adgens sxva pirTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvas.Sesabamisad, gamoxatvis Tavisufleba SeiZleba SeizRudos im SemTxvevaSi, Tu islaxavs bavSvis konstituciiT dacul sxva uflebebs da winaaRmdegobaSi modisbavSvis konstituciiT dacul interesebTan.imTaviTve unda aRiniSnos, rom saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba gansxvavebul wesebsudgens samauwyeblo (tele- da radiomauwyebloba) mediasa da presas. samauwyeblomedias gacilebiT meti regulacia da valdebulebebi aqvs, misi zemoqmedebisSesaZleblobebidan gamomdinare.1bavSvTa uflebebis dacvas mediaSi iTvaliswinebda kanoni `mavne zegavlenisaganarasrulwlovanTa dacvis Sesaxeb~. 2004 wlis 23 dekembris cvlilebebis Tanaxmad1 ra Tqma unda, regulaciebi marto gavlenis SesaZlebelobebidan ar aris ganpirobebuli. mnSvnelovania amowurvadi resursebiT sargblobac, Tumca gansaxilvel SemTxvevaSi mniSvnelovania swored es sakiTxi, ris gamoc moxda masze aqcentireba.
  30. 30. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 29aRniSnuli funqcia srulad gadavida komunikaciebis erovnuli komisiisregulirebis sferoSi da mas daevala `mauwyebelTa qcevis kodeqsis miReba~,romliTac dadgindeboda bavSvTa sakiTxebis gaSuqebisaTvis savaldebulowesebi. swored is faqti, rom arasrulwlovanTa interesebis dacva mediaSigaTvaliswinebulia mxolod da mxolod `mauwyebelTa qcevis kodeqsSi~,ganapirobebs mis savaldebuloobas mauwyeblebis da ara presis mimarT.presis mimarT vrceldeba is zogadi kriteriumebi da moTxovnebi, rac dadgeniliakonstituciiTa da kanoniT `sityvisa da gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb~.magaliTad, yalbi faqtebis, Seuracxmyofeli masalebis gavrcelebiT, sxvapirovnuli uflebebis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi dainteresebul pirs SesaZleblobaaqvs, dava awarmoos sasamarTloSi media saSualebis winaaRmdeg. aRniSnuli imasgulisxmobs, rom presas SeuZlia imoqmedos sakuTari eTikuri standartebisSesabamisad, winaswar kanoniT dadgenili wesebis gareSe, xolo dainteresebulpirs2 aqvs post-faqtum reagirebis ufleba.gansxvavebul mdgomareobaSia samauwyeblo media. Jurnalistebis mierarasrulwlovanTa sakiTxebis gaSuqebisaTvis savaldebulo wesebs adgenssaqarTvelos komunikaciebis erovnuli komisiis 2009 wlis 12 martis dadgenilebiTdamtkicebuli `mauwyebelTa qcevis kodeqsis~ me-11 Tavi. qcevis kodeqsi adgensim winaswar kriteriumebs, rac savaldebulod unda gaiTvaliswinos mauwyebelma.magaliTad, sabavSvo gadacemebis gaSveba gansazRvrul dros, savaraudoauditoriis winaswar gansazRvra.arasrulwlovnebze mavne zegavlenis Tavidan acilebis mizniT filmebzegamoiyeneba Sesabamisi specialuri SemzRudavi niSani. gansakuTrebuladSezRudulia uxamsi da Zaladobis amsaxveli masalebis gaSveba eTerSi im dros,rodesac, savaraudod, didia arasrulwlovanTa auditoria. aseve akrZaluliamaTTvis gankuTvnil gadacemebSi Seuracxmyofeli leqsikis gamoyeneba.arasrulwlovanTa interesebis dacvis TavlsazrisiT gansakuTrebulimniSvneloba akisria sazogadoebriv mauwyebels, romelic `mauwyeblobis Sesaxeb~kanonis3 Tanaxmad valdebulia, programebSi asaxos asakobrivi mravalferovnebada, aseve, bavSvTa da mozardTa interesebis Sesabamisi proporciiT ganaTavsossabavSvo programebi.sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis sameurveo sabWos mier datkicebul 2010 wlissamoqmedo gegmaSi gansakuTrebulad aris gamoyofili bavSvTa interesebisgaTvaliswineba. sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis erT-erTi prioritetia `sabavSvoda axalgazrduli programebi yvela asakobrivi (skolamdeli, umcrosi saskolo,ufrosi saskolo, studentebi) jgufisaTvis~.42 am SemTxvevaSi igulisxmeba bavSvi da misi kanonieri warmomadgeneli.3 ix. saqarTvelos kanoni `mauwyeblobis Sesaxeb~ muxli 16.4 www.gpb.ge
  31. 31. 303. bavSvis uflebebi da mediaZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi  mediis gavlena axalgazrdebze  bavSvebis asaxva mediaSi  mediis mier bavSvebis eqspluatacia  bavSvebis monawileoba mediaSi  mediis mxridan bavSvze zemoqmedebis fsiqologiuri aspeqtebi`oslos gamowveva~1999 wlis noemberSi mediaproeqtebSi Cabmuli axalgazrdebi, mediisprofesionalebi da bavSvis uflebaTa eqspertebi Seikribnen norvegiis dedaqalaqosloSi, raTa ganexilaT, Tu ra rolis Sesruleba SeuZlia medias bavSvisuflebebis ganviTarebaSi msoflio masStabiT. msjeloba moicavda xuT Temas:  bavSvis ufleba, xeli miuwvdebodes mediaze, maT Soris axal mediaze;  bavSvis ufleba, miiRos codna da Seiqmnas warmodgena mediasTan dakavSirebiT;  bavSvis ufleba, monawileoba miiRos mediaSi;  bavSvis ufleba, daculi iyos mediiT miyenebuli zianisgan da ekranze arsebuli Zaladobisgan;  mediis roli bavSvis uflebebis dacvasa da xelSewyobaSi.am ganxilvebis safuZvelze gaCnda `oslos gamowveva~, romelic aRiarebda, rom`bavSvebsa da medias Soris urTierToba aris kari bavSvebis da maTi uflebebisdid da mravalsaxovan samyaroSi – ganaTlebis, gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis,TamaSis, identobis, janmrTelobis, Rirsebis da sakuTari Tavis pativiscemis,dacvis samyaroSi – da rom media garkveul rols TamaSobs bavSvis uflebebisyvela aspeqtSi, bavSvis cxovrebis yovel elementSi~.`oslos gamowveva~ moqmedebisken mowodebaa. igi yvelas miswvda, vinc bavSvebisada mediis rTuli urTierTobis kvleviT, ganviTarebiT da monitoringiT arisdakavebuli da monawileobs amaSi: mTavrobebi, organizaciebi da kerZo pirebi,romlebic bavSvebis sakiTxebze muSaoben, mediis profesionalebi yvela donezeda yvela media saSualebaSi, kerZo seqtori, maT Soris mediis mflobelebi,bavSvebi da axalgazrdebi, mSoblebi, maswavleblebi da mkvlevrebi (`iunisefis~vebgverdi www.unicef.org/magic am mowodebaze gamoxmaurebaa – aq mocemuliamTeli msoflios bavSvebis mier bavSvebisTvis da bavSvebis monawileobiTSeqmnili mediaproeqtebi, sxva bmulebTan da informaciasTan erTad).gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis ramdenime ZiriTadi muxli exeba mediisa dabavSvebis sakiTxebs. bavSvis uflebaTa komitetma sami ZiriTadi sakiTxi gamoyogansaxilvelad:
  32. 32. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 31  mediis saSualebebiT bavSvis warmoCenis gaumjobeseba;  bavSvebis waxaliseba, rom aqtiurad miiRon mediaSi monawileoba;  bavSvebis dacva mediis mavne zemoqmedebisgan.konvenciis me-17 muxli ganmartavs mediis mniSvnelovan rols informaciisgavrcelebaSi da ganusazRvravs monawile saxelmwifoebs konkretul amocanebs,rac farTo gagebiT xels uwyobs bavSvis keTildReobas. igulisxmeba, romsaxelmwifoebi `aRiareben masobrivi informaciis saSualebaTa mniSvnelovanrols~ da `uzrunvelyofen bavSvisaTvis sxvadasxva erovnuli da saerTaSorisowyaroebiT gavrcelebuli informaciisa da masalebis xelmisawvdomobas,gansakuTrebiT iseTi informaciis da masalebisa, romlebic mimarTulia bavSvissocialuri, sulieri da moraluri keTildReobisaken, agreTve jansaRi fizikurida fsiqikuri ganviTarebis xelSewyobisaken.~konvenciis me-12 muxli aRiarebs bavSvis uflebas, gamoxatos Tavisi Sexedulebebinebismier sakiTxze, romelic mas exeba. me-13 muxli amkvidrebs gamoxatvisTavisuflebas: `es ufleba moicavs Tavisuflebas, miuxedavad sazRvrebisa,moiZios, miiRos an gaavrcelos nebismieri saxis informacia an mosazrebebizepirad, werilobiT an beWdviTi formiT, xelovnebis saxiT an nebismieri sxvasaSualebiT sakuTari arCevanisamebr.~es muxlebi emsaxureba ara marto kargad informirebuli moqalaqis Camoyalibebas,aramed imasac, rom axalgazrdebis xma ufro xSirad ismodes masobriviinformaciis saSualebebiT. igi iZleva mkafio gzavnils, rom bavSvebi unda iyvnensaainformacio revoluciis rogorc monawileebi, ise beneficiarebi.ukanaskneli ori aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi, kerZod, masobrivi informaciis axalisaSualebebisa da internetis gavrcelebis Semdeg, bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebismediis sakiTxma globaluri mniSvneloba SeiZina. zogierTma dainteresebulmamxarem daiwyo bavSvis uflebebis realizeba mediis saSualebiT – magaliTad,imis uzrunvelyofiT, rom axalgazrduli auditoriisTvis xelmisawvdomi iyosmaRalxarisxovani Sinaarsis media, gaismodes axalgazrdebis xma da bavSvebisSesaxeb sakiTxebi eTikurad Suqdebodes.mediis gavlena axalgazrdebzemravali kvlevaa Catarebuli bavSvebze mediis _ maT Soris mediaSi Zaladobisasaxvis _ zemoqmedebis Sesaxeb. rogorc zogierTi eqsperti, magaliTad, miCiganisuniversitetis profesori l. rouel hiusmani (2000) amtkicebs, 50-wlianidakvirveba cxadyofs, rom `Zaladoba mediaSi zrdis bavSvebis agresiulobas daes wlebis Semdeg iCens Tavs, rodesac isini zrdasrul asaks aRweven.~ Tumcasxvebi, maT Soris jonaTan fridmani torontos universitetidan, amtkiceben,rom `samecniero monacemebi ar adasturebs, rom Zaladobis naxva ZaladobaswarmoSobs an mis mimarT ugrZnobs xdis adamians.~mediis gavrceleba da globalizacia Tanamedrove axalgazrduli kulturiserT-erTi ganmsazRvreli faqtoria. bevr qveyanaSi axalgazrdebs gacilebiT
  33. 33. 32metad miuwvdebaT xeli multimediis saSualebebze, vidre adre – es aristradiciuli, satelituri da sakabelo televiziis arxebi; radiosadgurebi;gazeTebi da Jurnalebi; interneti, kompiuteri da videoTamaSebi. dRes ucxouriprogramebi da media bevrad ufro xelmisawvdomia. msoflios bevr qveyanaSinaklebia oficialuri cenzura da kontroli. informaciis, eleqtronulifostis da fotoebis gacvla msoflioSi dRes ufro swrafad da Tavisufladxdeba, vidre odesme. amitom ganxiluli unda iqnes, rogorc bavSvebis mediaSimonawileobis, ise mavne zegavlenisagan maTi dacvis sakiTxebi.bavSvebis asaxva mediaSimediis mier bavSvebis asaxva did gavlenas axdens bavSvebisa da bavSvobis mimarTdamokidebulebaze da mniSvnelovnad moqmedebs bavSvebis mimarT mozrdilTaqcevaze. mediis saSualebiT mowodebuli aRwera misabaZ magaliTad iqcevaaxalgazrdebisTvis da zemoqmedebas axdens maT poziciasa da molodinze. is,Tu rogor xdeba bavSvebis warmodgena mediis mier, an sulac maTi ignorireba,gavlenas axdens bavSvebTan dakavSirebiT miRebul gadawyvetilebebze dasazogadoebis danarCeni nawilis damokidebulebaze maT mimarT. media xSiradbavSvebs ise aRwers, rogorc pasiur, utyv `msxverplebs.~bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisaTvis SesaZleblobis micemiT, Tavad ilaparakonTavianT imedebze, SiSebsa Tu miRwevebze, aseve maT cxovrebaze ufrosebis qceviszemoqmedebaze, mediis profesionalebs SeuZliaT Seaxsenon sazogadoebas, rombavSvebi iseve imsaxureben pativiscemas, rogorc yvela adamiani.Jurnalistebis saerTaSoriso federaciis informaciiT, mediis mier bavSvebisasaxva amkvidrebs mTel rig miTebs:  ganviTarebadi qveynebis ojaxebi, Rataki bavSvebi, agreTve omisa da sxvadasxva ubedurebis msxverplebi kargaven individualobas da humanurobas. maT xSirad aCveneben rogorc umweo tanjulebs, romlebsac ar SeuZliaT moqmedeba, fiqri an laparaki;  bavSvebis problemebis gaSuqebisas arsebobs tendencia, rom fokusireba moxdes sensaciur ambebze, xolo mravalricxovani problemebi, romlebic bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciaSia gansazRvruli, uyuradRebod rCeba;  xSirad mediaSi erTjeradi reportaJebia bavSvebis Sesaxeb, rasac ar mohyveba analizi da Semdgomi moqmedeba;  konfidencialurobas bavSvebTan dakavSirebiT yovelTvis ar uweven angariSs;  axal ambebSi bavSvebs xSirad stereotipulad warmoaCenen, magaliTad: `afrikeli moSimSile bavSvebi~ da `upasuxismgeblo Tineijerebi.~dominirebs ambebi bavSvebis mimarT Zaladobaze, arasrulwlovanTadamnaSaveobaze, quCis bavSvebze, maSin, rodesac bavSvis uflebebTandakavSirebuli sxva problemebi, rogoricaa TamaSis, dasvenebisa da sportisufleba, ar aris miCneuli axali ambebisTvis saintereso siuJetad. amisSedegad iqmneba daubalansebeli STabeWdileba, rom bavSvebi an `msxverplebi~
  34. 34. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 33arian, an saxifaTo `SfoTisTavebi.~1998 wels britanuli organizacia `Cildrenz eqspresi~ romelic saSualebasaZlevs bavSvebs da axalgazrdebs, monawileoba miiRon mediis saqmianobaSi, Tavadweron da redaqtireba gaukeTon reportaJebs, monitorings uwevda erovnuligazeTebis Sinaarss erTi kviris ganmavlobaSi. mkvlevrebma `Svidi momakvdinebelistereotipi~ aRmoaCines. sixSiris mixedviT esenia:  `msxverpli bavSvebi~: 31,5%  `sayvareli bavSvebi~ (gaumarTlebeli, mizanTan Seusabamo foto/ gamosaxuleba): 26,7%  `patara eSmakebi~ (bavSvebis `demonizeba~/anu maTTvis aTasnairi codvis miwera): 10,8%  `bavSvebi SesaniSnavebi arian~ (gansakuTrebuli bavSvebi): 9,7%  `bavSvebi, rogorc aqsesuarebi~ (anu mSoblebis sakuTreba): 8,4%  `dRevandeli bavSvebi~ (mozrdilebis nostalgia warsulis mimarT): 7,5%  `patara angelozebi~ (visac cudis gakeTeba ar SeuZlia): 5,4%stereotipebisken midrekilebas mowmobs kvleva, romelic organizacia `MORI~-m(bazrisa da sazogadoebrivi azris saerTaSoriso kvleva - Market and OpinionResearch International) Caatara 2004 wels britanuli JurnalisTvis `Young PeopleNow~ (`dRevandeli axalgazrdoba~). masSi naTqvamia: [axalgazrdebis] es jgufebixedaven presaSi damkvidrebul negatiur stereotips da grZnoben, rom esmoqmedebs maT yoveldRiur cxovrebaze, imaze, Tu rogor eqcevian maT ufrosebi,rodesac sajaro TavSeyris adgilebSi arian megobrebTan erTad. amasTan,isini Tvlian, rom Jurnalistebi naCqarevad ikaveben moraluri upiratesobispozicias, rodesac axalgazrdebis qcevas afaseben~. isini amas farisevlur pozadaRiqvamen, radgan Tvlian, rom Jurnalistebs axasiaTebT gazviadeba imisaTvis,rom ukeTesad gayidon gazeTebi da fuli iSovon: `nebismier rames miagneben damoipoveben, Tu dasaweri SemoakldebaT. sul ar adardebT, vinmes reputacias TuCrdili miadgeba.~ es `MORI~-s adrindel (2003) gamokvlevas exmaureba, romeliccxadyofs, rom 11-18 wlis 914 axalgazrdidan orma mesamedma (64%) ganacxada,rom ar endoba Jurnalistebs.ase rom, marTalia, media mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs bavSvTa uflebebis Sesaxebsazogadoebis informirebulobis amaRlebaSi, magram, amave dros, is SeiZlebasaeWvo partnioric aRmoCndes.mediis mier bavSvebis eqspluataciaerTi mxriv, sainformacio media aSuqebs Zaladobis msxverplebs an mogviTxrobsambebs moZaladeebis Sesaxeb reportaJebis, fotoebis, dokumenturi filmebisa dasxva saSualebebiT. meore mxriv, igi Tavad SeiZleba gaxdes eqspluatatori, rodesacaxal ambebSi an reklamaSi bavSvebis seqsualurad provokaciul saxeebs qmnis.mediis profesionalebi kargad arian momzadebulni saimisod, rom bavSvisuflebebi stabilurad SeinarCunon sainformacio formatSi, am uflebebis
  35. 35. 34dasacavad seriozuli Zalisxmeva gamoiyenon da moiTxovon bavSvis uflebebisdacva imaTgan, vinc amas ar akeTebs. magram komerciulma mosazrebebma SeiZlebaaiZulos media, rom Tavidan airidos es pasuxismgebloba. interesTa uxerxuliwonasworoba prevalirebs iq, sadac eTikuri standartebi SeiZleba msxverpladSeewiros komerciul moTxovnebs.bavSvebis monawileoba mediaSiaxalgazrdebis mediaSi monawileobis magaliTebi adasturebs maT interessgare samyaros mimarT, gansakuTrebiT, Tu maT Sansi eZlevaT, rom TavianTiTavi gamoxaton im sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT, romlebic maT exeba. interesTajgufebis da mediis organizaciebis mzardi raodenoba uamrav SesaZleblobasqmnis axalgazrdebisaTvis, rom mediaSi miiRon monawileoba. mediaproeqtebis magaliTebi warmatebuli mediaproeqtebisa da programebis magaliTebi bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisTvis da maTi monawileobiT: `ANDI~ – bavSvis uflebaTa braziliuri axali ambebis saagento monitorings uwevs mediis mier bavSvebisa da axalgazrdobis gaSuqebas, treningebs utarebs da muSaobs JurnalistebTan, romlebic weren bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis sakiTxebze. `ANDI“-s ZalisxmeviT mniSvnelovnad gaizarda da gaumjobesda bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis sakiTxebis gaSuqeba braziliur mediaSi. es modeli axla laTinuri amerikis rva qveyanaSi inergeba. `TROC“ - albaneTis axalgazrda reportiorebi. aTeulobiT axalgazrda 13- dan 18 wlamde qveynis yvela kuTxidan gadis trenings am yovelkvireuli teleJurnalis saSualebiT. studentebi swavloben video axali ambebis warmoebis yvela aspeqts da pasuxismgebelni arian programebis dagegmvasa da gamoSvebaze ufrosebis mciredi daxmarebiT. es programa Zalze popularulia axalgazrda mayureblebs Soris albaneTsa da mezobel qveynebSi. isini afaseben `TROC“-s rogorc pirvel satelevizio Sous, romelic saTanadod aSuqebs socialur problemebs mTeli qveynis masStabiT. `mukTo xobor~ (Mukto Khobor) – (Tavisufali axali ambebi) – es aris yovelkvireuli axali ambebis 25-wuTiani gamoSveba da mimdinare ambebis programa bangladeSSi, romelsac 11-dan 17 wlamde bavSvebi da axalgazrdebi qmnian. is yuradRebas amaxvilebs bavSvebsa da maT uflebebTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze. igi uzrunvelyofs forums axalgazrdebisTvis, rom maT SeZlon TavianTi Sexedulebebis gamoxatva, uviTarebs axalgazrda Jurnalistebs specialur unar-Cvevebs, STaagonebs axalgazrda mayureblebs, romlebic xedaven TavianTi Tanatolebis warmatebul muSaobas mediaSi da uCvenebs, rom axalgazrdebs SeuZliaT, mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitanon arsebul problemebTan brZolaSi.
  36. 36. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 35 afrikis bavSvTa da mauwyeblobis fondi (`CBFA“). es fondi 1995 wels Seiqmna. misi mizani iyo, xeli Seewyo bavSvebisa da mauwyeblobis Sesaxeb afrikis wesdebis ganxorcielebisTvis, agreTve miepyro mauwyeblebisa da prodiuserebis yuradReba maRalxarisxovani sabavSvo televiziis Seqmnis aucileblobisken. `CBFA“-s miznobriv jgufSi Sedian 9-dan 16 wlamde axalgazrdebi, mediis profesionalebi da mauwyeblebi. fondi marTavs seminarebs, kinoCvenebebsa da Sexvedrebs, romelTa ganxilvis sagani afrikeli bavSvebis problemebi da uflebebia. egviptis video da Temis ocnebebis proeqti avrcelebs ganviTarebis da mosaxleobis saqmianobis centr `axali horizontebis~ programis codnasa da gamocdilebas da aZlierebs axalgazrda qalebisa da gogonebis xmas egviptur sazogadoebaSi. qalTa jgufebi sxvadasxva egvipturi Temidan euflebian video da saprodiusero unar-Cvevebs da swavloben problemur an delikatur sakiTxebze muSaobas. jgufis wevrebi cnobadi xdebian, rogorc spikerebi da liderebi da xels uwyoben stereotipebis damsxvrevas. am jgufebis mier Seqmnili videomasalebi xSirad aRZravs diskusiebs da xels uwyobs problemis mogvarebis adgilobrivi gzebis Ziebas TiToeul TemSi.mediaSi monawileoba SesaniSnav Sedegebs aZlevs axalgazrdebs, rac Sejamebulia`iuneskos~ sainformacio samsaxuris 2001 wlis yovelwliur gamocemaSi`mosazrebebi bavSvebisa da mediis Sesaxeb.~ es Sedegebia:  siamayis, siZlierisa da sakuTari Tavis pativiscemis grZnobis gaZliereba, rodesac axalgazrdebi grZnoben, rom maTi xma yuradRebis Rirsi gaxda, isini sazogadoebis nawils warmoadgenen, maT gauges sxvebs da sakuTar kulturas;  maTi yoveldRiuri ocnebebis da sakuTari adgilobrivi, socialuri da eTnikuri kulturisa da sinamdvilis asaxva mediaSi;  unar-Cvevebisa da cnobismoyvareobis gaZliereba da mediis sakiTxebSi kompetenturobis amaRleba (magaliTad, mediis kritikuli gaazreba);  audio-vizualuri mediis warmoebaSi monawileobis meSveobiT socialuri samarTlianobis gazrdili SegrZneba im axalgazrdebSi, romlebic kargad ar swavloben tradiciul, beWdviT masalebze dafuZnebul skolebSi;  meti interesi da monawileoba sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi, sakuTari pirobebiT, rac, Tavis mxriv, gadaizrdeba moqmedebaSi, romelic miznad daisaxavs mediasa da TemebSi axalgazrdebis problemebis ganxilvis gaumjobesebas.mediis mxridan bavSvze zemoqmedebis fsiqologiuri aspeqtebibavSvebi da mozardebi masmediis yuradRebis centrSi, rogorc wesi, raimenegatiuri, dramatuli movlenebisa da incidentebis Sedegad xvdebian: omi,
  37. 37. 36SimSili, bunebrivi katastrofebi, mkvleloba da Zaladoba – ai is konteqsti,romlis mTavari gmirebi xSirad bavSvebi arian. Sesabamisad, iqmneba STabeWdilebabavSvebze, rogorc msxverplsa an moZaladeze. mozardebTan dakavSirebuliproblemuri situaciebis gaSuqeba gavlenas axdens, rogorc Tavad incidentSiCarTul mozardze, aseve masmediis mravalaTasian auditoriaze, gansakuTrebiTki bavSvebze.Jurnalistebs xSirad aqvT saqme ama Tu im xarisxis matravmirebel movlenasada dazaralebul, travmirebul adamianTan. masmedia, romlis movaleobaagaaSuqos es incidentebi, mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs (zogjer negatiurs)Zaladobis, incidentebis, travmirebulobis xarisxis gansazRvraSi.informaciis Segrovebis dros, dazaralebulis interviurebis procesSiJurnalisti cdilobs aRweros rac SeiZleba `mZime~ da `saSineli~ istoria,moagrovos e.w. `sensaciuri masala~. es amZimebs matravmirebeli incidentisxarisxs, aiZulebs dazaralebuls, kidev erTxel ganicados is tkivili,damcireba, SiSi da Seuracxyofa, romelic mas Tavs gadaxda. Jurnalistiar aris fsiqoTerapevti da, bunebrivia, is ver gauadvilebs dazaralebulsmdgomareobas _ is Tavisda uneburad tovebs respondents pirispir sakuTargancdebTan.masmediis matravmirebeli zegavlenis kidev erTi aspeqtia is, Tu rogorinterpretacias aZlevs Jurnalisti matravmirebel (Zaladobis) incidents.aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac xdeba movlenis dramatizeba, kidev ufro damZimeba.Jurnalisti aseve cdilobs, moiZios mizezebi da ipovos damnaSaveebi, xdebawarsulze fiqsireba, iqmneba gamouvalobis STabeWdileba, ramac mkiTxvelauditoriaSi SeiZleba gamoiwvios ususurobis gancda, SiSisa da SfoTvismomateba, agresiuli impulsebis gaaqtiureba, rac sabolood sazogadoebaSiarasasurveli fsiqoemociuri fonis Seqmnas uwyobs xels.rac Seexeba masmediis gavlenas bavSvebisa da mozardebis fsiqikur janmrTe-lobaze, winamdebare saxelmZRvaneloSi weria: `bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacioqseli: eTikuri saxelmZRvanelo principebi bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxe-bis gaSuqebisaTvis:nu miayenebT raime zians bavSvs; moerideT iseT kiTxvebs an komentarebs,romlebic SeiZleba sadavo aRmoCndes kulturuli TvalsazrisiT da romlebicbavSvs Seuqmnis safrTxes, daucvels gaxdis Seuracxyofisgan an gaaRviZebs masSitkivilsa da wuxils, gamowveuls travmuli movlenebiT”zianSi, `tkivilsa da wuxilSi” igulisxmeba bavSvis fsiqoemociuri mdgomareobada qvemoT moyvanil magaliTebSi kargad Cans, ramdenad seriozuli SeiZlebagaxdes es `ziani~.SemTxveva 1arasrulwlovanma k.g.-m, quCaSi urTierTSelaparakebis dros, civi iaraRiTmsubuqi Wriloba miayena moqalaqe r.d.-s. incidentis Semdeg is mSobelTan
  38. 38. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 37erTad gamocxadda policiaSi, sadac daakaves. amis Semdgom mozardi TveebisganmavlobaSi masmediis yuradRebis centrSi aRmoCnda, ZiriTadad SemTxvevisgaSuqebisas xdeboda faqtis dramatizeba, Sefaseba, ojaxisa da mozardisdadanaSauleba. nawili sazogadoebisa iziarebda aseT damokidebulebas, nawilicdilobda, mozardi `gmirad~ warmoeCina da mis dauyonebliv ganTavisuflebasiTxovda. yuradRebis centrSi yofna, sazogadoebrivi damokidebulebis aseTipolarizeba zemoqmedebs mozardis jer kidev Camouyalibebel fsiqikaze. orivepozicia momxdari faqtis Seusabamoa. moyvanil magaliTSi moxda mozardzeorazrovani `iarliyis~ – msxverplisa da moZaladis – mikvra. msgavsi viTarebazemoqmedebs mozardis fsiqoemociur mdgomareobaze, vinaidan orive poziciaaraadekvaturia, xels uSlis mozards, gaacnobieros sakuTari pasuxismgeblobada Camouyalibdes kongruentuli, Sesatyvisi damokidebuleba momxdariincidentis mimarT. amgvari aJiotaJi, zewola arTulebs mozardTa adaptaciisisedac rTul process arasrulwlovanTa aRmzrdelobiT dawesebulebaSi. aqmoyvanil SemTxvevaSi mozard k.-s aReniSneboda Zilis problemebi, Ramis koSmarebi,brazis Semotevebi, autoagresia _ suicidis ramdenime mcdeloba.SemTxveva 2arasrulwlovani gogona n.k. seqsualuri Zaladobis msxverpli gaxda. esSemTxveva gaSuqda erT-erTi gazeTis furclebze, sadac moZaladis saxeli dagvari anonimuri iyo, xolo gogonas Sesaxeb gazeTi srul informacias gvawvdida.Sedegad momxdaris Sesaxeb gaiges mezoblebma, skolam da gogona Temis mxridanzewolis msxverpli gaxda, masTan urTierToba Sewyvites megobrebma (ZiriTadadmSoblebis moTxovniT), mezoblebma. gogonam jer uari Tqva skolaSi siarulze,mere gareT gamosvla Sewyvita, Semdeg sakuTari oTaxidan ar gamodioda,Camouyalibda depresiuli simptomatika, Zlieri braleulobis gancda, dabaliTviTSefaseba, uimedoba, uperspeqtivoba da a.S. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom esgogona erovnebiT rusi iyo da es faqtoric (Cvens sazogadoebaSi gavrcelebulistigma) mis winaaRmdeg gamoiyenes. gogonasTan fsiqologiuri muSaobis Semdegmisi mdgomareoba gaumjobesda, Tumca ojaxma mainc miiRo gadawyvetilebadaetovebinaT saqarTvelo da sacxovreblad sxva qveyanaSi gadasuliyvnen, rasacam incidentamde ar apirebdnen.orive SemTxveva naTlad gviCvenebs, rom amgvar situaciaSi irRveva ara martomozardis uflebebi, aramed ziandeba misi fsiqikuri janmrTelobac, rom mediisamgvarma muSaobam SeiZleba negatiuri gavlena moaxdinos bavSvisa Tu mozardiscxovrebaze. mediis mier bavSvebsa da mozardebTan dakavSirebuli movlenebisasaxva gansazRvravs sazogadoebis pozicias maT mimarT, damokidebulebasada qcevas, gavlenas axdens saxelmwifo instituciebis mxridan mozardebTandakavSirebiT miRebul gadawyvetilebebze.
  39. 39. 38SefasebaSearCieT mediis informacia bavSvebis Sesaxeb da ganixileT bavSvis uflebaTakonteqstSi.damatebiTi literatura da resursebi`msoflios bavSvebi, axalgazrdebi da media: tendenciebisa da problemebis mimoxilva~, siuzengigli, `iunisefis~ masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis kompleqsis kvleviTi instituti, 2004wlis aprili: http://www.intermedia.org/bavSvebis, axalgazrdebisa da mediis Semswavleli centri:http://www.childrenyouthandmediacentre.co.uk/`bavSvTa uflebebi da media – wyaro JurnalistebisTvis~:http://www.unicef.org/southafrica/SAF publications soulbuddiez.pdf`iunisefi~ - vebgverdi Magic: http://www.unicef.org/magic/briefing/about.html`iunisefi~ - axalgazrdebis xma: http://www.unicef.org/voy. am gverdebze axalgazrdebi TavianTisityvebiT gamoxataven azrebs mediis Sesaxeb sakuTar qveynebSi.`iuneskos~ bavSvebis, axalgazrdebisa da mediis saerTaSoriso sainformacio samsaxuri:http://www.nordicom.gu.se/clearinghouse.php. informaciis kargi wyaroa msoflios bavSvebTan,axalgazrdebTan da mediasTan dakavSirebuli konkretuli proeqtebis da sakiTxebis Sesaxeb.sainformacio samsaxuri miznad isaxavs, aamaRlos bavSvebis, axalgazrdebisa da mediis Sesaxebinformirebulobisa da codnis done, safuZvels qmnis saTanado politikis formulirebisTvis,xels uwyobs konstruqciul sazogadoebriv debatebs, aZlierebs bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisgaTviTcnobierebas da kompetenturobas mediis sakiTxebSi.bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio qseli: mediahttp://www.crin.com/themes/ViewTheme.asp?id=12mediaSi asaxuli Zaladobis gavlena axalgazrdobaze (Psychological Science, marti 2004)http://www.psychologicalscience.org/pdf/pspi/pspi43.pdf`saxelmwifo jandacvis midgoma mediis Zaladobrivi Sinaarsis zemoqmedebis Sesaxeb kvlevisSedegebis mimarT~: The Lancet, tomi 356, gamocema 9460 (2005 wlis Tebervali, gv. 702-710)l. rouel hiusmani (2000) `kolumbiis olqis kvleva~, miCiganis universiteti: http://www.rcgd.isr.umich.edu/aggr/Projects/CCLS/description.html

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