INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES Verity Donnelly European Agency for Development  in Special Educational Needs
The Agency <ul><li>15th year of operations </li></ul><ul><li>Main secretariat in Odense, Denmark and European Liaison offi...
The Agency network <ul><li>National networks in 27 European countries: </li></ul><ul><li>Austria, Belgium (Flemish and Fre...
Focus  <ul><li>The Agency’s  focus is upon inclusive education within its widest interpretation – that is dealing with lea...
Activities <ul><li>Collection, analysis and dissemination of information on priority themes </li></ul><ul><li>Participatio...
Information Resources <ul><li>The Agency offers various information resources, which can all be accessed via the website  ...
Working parameters <ul><li>Countries are at different starting points and have different ‘histories’ in terms of education...
International Policy Context <ul><li>At all times, the Agency works to guiding principles as outlined in: </li></ul><ul><l...
Dilemmas for inclusion as systemic change <ul><li>Who   … all learners, vulnerable learners, learners with SEN/disability?...
Critical issues? <ul><li>Resources  </li></ul><ul><li>Access and participation </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher professional deve...
Movements towards inclusion <ul><li>Developments </li></ul><ul><li>A wider range and more flexible provision </li></ul><ul...
Percentage of pupils in the compulsory school sector recognised as having SEN in 2010 (in  all  educational settings)     ...
Percentage of pupils with SEN in segregated settings   Up to 1.0% 1.01 %- 2.0% 2.01%- 4.0% 4.01% and above Cyprus Luxembou...
Factors impacting upon inclusion   <ul><li>Coherence of services and possibilities within and across phases of educational...
Changes in legislation acting as levers for change <ul><li>I n creasing focus on the rights of pupils with SEN and their f...
A broadening of the concept of educational needs <ul><li>A move away from labelling and categorisation of needs </li></ul>...
What do we still need to know? <ul><li>What legislation and models of resourcing can support effective organisation of edu...
Underpinning beliefs <ul><li>Education is a fundamental human right and a foundation for a more just society </li></ul><ul...
European Hearing in Portugal   <ul><li>European Hearing of Young People with Special Educational Needs organised by the Ag...
Lisbon Declaration 2007 <ul><li>http://www.european-agency.org/publications/flyers/lisbon-declaration-young-peoples-views-...
‘ Inclusive education is mutually beneficial to us and to the others’ We see a lot of benefits in inclusive education: we ...
European Parliament Hearing 2011 In November 2011, there will be a further European hearing, this time for young people wi...
More information <ul><li>www.european-agency.org </li></ul><ul><li>European Agency for Development in Special Needs Educat...
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Inclusive Education in European Countries

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by Verity Donnelly - Inclusive Education Conference, Moscow, September 2011

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Inclusive Education in European Countries

  1. 1. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES Verity Donnelly European Agency for Development in Special Educational Needs
  2. 2. The Agency <ul><li>15th year of operations </li></ul><ul><li>Main secretariat in Odense, Denmark and European Liaison office in Brussels, Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>The Agency is financed by: </li></ul><ul><li>The member countries ’ Ministries of Education </li></ul><ul><li>European Commission as one of the 6 organisations supported by the Jean Monnet, Lifelong Learning Programme </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Agency network <ul><li>National networks in 27 European countries: </li></ul><ul><li>Austria, Belgium (Flemish and French speaking communities), Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom (England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales) </li></ul><ul><li>24 EU member states and 3 EFA countries </li></ul>
  4. 4. Focus <ul><li>The Agency’s focus is upon inclusive education within its widest interpretation – that is dealing with learner difference and diversity in all educational settings as a quality issue. The Agency’s work is essentially concerned with how the achievement of all learners - with a specific focus on the situation of those pupils identified as having special educational needs - can be improved in a meaningful way that enhances their life chances and opportunities for actively participating in society </li></ul>
  5. 5. Activities <ul><li>Collection, analysis and dissemination of information on priority themes </li></ul><ul><li>Participation and organisation of conferences, seminars and political events </li></ul><ul><li>Liaison with the European institutions and international organisations – UNESCO and its institutes (IBE, IITE), OECD Eurostat, Eurydice, Cedefop, World Bank </li></ul>
  6. 6. Information Resources <ul><li>The Agency offers various information resources, which can all be accessed via the website www.european-agency.org </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thematic Reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thematic Databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsletters and Electronic Bulletin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agency publications can be downloaded in up to 21 member languages </li></ul>
  7. 7. Working parameters <ul><li>Countries are at different starting points and have different ‘histories’ in terms of education generally and inclusion specifically: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T here is a need to account for that and see it as a strength </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No-one has all the answers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many countries have clear examples of good practice, but all countries are still ‘moving ahead’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning from diversity is a principle for all Agency work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As well as being an aim for inclusive education itself </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. International Policy Context <ul><li>At all times, the Agency works to guiding principles as outlined in: </li></ul><ul><li>Council Resolutions concerning inclusion of children and young people with disabilities into mainstream systems of education </li></ul><ul><li>UNESCO Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action in Special Needs Education (1994) </li></ul><ul><li>UN Convention on Rights of People with Disabilities (2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Article 24 in particular </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Dilemmas for inclusion as systemic change <ul><li>Who … all learners, vulnerable learners, learners with SEN/disability? </li></ul><ul><li>Where ... special settings/mainstream school (under the same roof or engaged in a common learning endeavour) </li></ul><ul><li>When ... full/part time. Can you be a little bit ‘included’? </li></ul><ul><li>How ... focus on diagnosis/label or social/environmental barriers to learning and participation </li></ul>
  10. 10. Critical issues? <ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Access and participation </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher professional development </li></ul><ul><li>Policy and legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Whole school reform </li></ul><ul><li>Identification and placement </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment, accountability, efficiency and effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Building capacity and sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Peters, S. (2004) Inclusive Education: An EFA strategy for all </li></ul><ul><li>children. Paper for World Bank </li></ul>
  11. 11. Movements towards inclusion <ul><li>Developments </li></ul><ul><li>A wider range and more flexible provision </li></ul><ul><li>Developing funding models </li></ul><ul><li>The development of resource centres   </li></ul><ul><li>  Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Academic achievements (output) versus SEN </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary education </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing all teachers for inclusive education </li></ul><ul><li>Over 2% of pupils are being educated in separate settings (schools and classes) across Europe </li></ul>
  12. 12. Percentage of pupils in the compulsory school sector recognised as having SEN in 2010 (in all educational settings)     < 2.0% 2.01% - 4.0% 4.01% - 6.0% 6.01% - 10.0% > 10% Sweden Austria France Greece Luxembourg Poland Portugal Spain UK (England) UK (Wales) Italy * Belgium (Fr) Cyprus Denmark Germany Hungary Ireland Latvia Malta Netherlands Switzerland UK (N.I.) Belgium (Fl) Czech rep. Estonia Finland Norway Slovenia UK (Scotland) Iceland Lithuania
  13. 13. Percentage of pupils with SEN in segregated settings   Up to 1.0% 1.01 %- 2.0% 2.01%- 4.0% 4.01% and above Cyprus Luxembourg Malta Portugal Spain Italy * Austria France Iceland Ireland Lithuania Norway Poland Slovenia Sweden UK (England) UK (N.I.) UK (Scotland) UK (Wales) Finland Greece Hungary Netherlands Belgium (Fl) Belgium (Fr) Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Germany Latvia Switzerland
  14. 14. Factors impacting upon inclusion <ul><li>Coherence of services and possibilities within and across phases of educational provision: Early Childhood Intervention through to Higher Education </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal factors that impact on all phases of educational provision: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational assessment systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher education and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financing systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provision for meeting a diversity of learners’ needs </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Changes in legislation acting as levers for change <ul><li>I n creasing focus on the rights of pupils with SEN and their families – this relates to access to compulsory education; access to specialist support and services; access to mainstream, inclusive education </li></ul><ul><li>Devolution of responsibilities – to local and/or regional level bodies and organisations  </li></ul><ul><li>Improving frameworks and structures of provision – all legislative changes and developments aim towards improvements in provision and services within the national system and context </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting specific tools and approaches within provision – i.e. the implementation of Individual Education Plans for pupils with SEN </li></ul>
  16. 16. A broadening of the concept of educational needs <ul><li>A move away from labelling and categorisation of needs </li></ul><ul><li>A widening definition of which groups should be considered under legislation that gives access to services </li></ul><ul><li>Evident in terms of the ‘words’ or terms’ being used to identify key concepts: e.g. ‘additional support needs’ and not disability or SEN specific labels </li></ul><ul><li>Children with disability as a specific group with specific needs within the educational continuum of individual needs </li></ul>
  17. 17. What do we still need to know? <ul><li>What legislation and models of resourcing can support effective organisation of education and quality for all? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes an effective, inclusive teacher - skills, experience, attitudes? </li></ul><ul><li>What works for learners in education - organisation, pedagogy, curriculum and assessment? </li></ul><ul><li>How agencies can collaborate to provide holistic support - early intervention, family support, community involvement? </li></ul><ul><li>What are valued outcomes (academic and social) – long term quality of life, being active and contributing citizens? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Underpinning beliefs <ul><li>Education is a fundamental human right and a foundation for a more just society </li></ul><ul><li>Disability is socially constructed – everyone needs support </li></ul><ul><li>Sorting, ranking, categorising can obscure strengths and talents - labels should be replaced by useful information to support learning, increasing learning capacity of all </li></ul><ul><li>All learners are entitled to an interesting curriculum that is meaningful in context, with consistent pedagogy and assessment that supports learning </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of life is a key indicator – listen to learners, consider impact on life chances </li></ul>
  19. 19. European Hearing in Portugal <ul><li>European Hearing of Young People with Special Educational Needs organised by the Agency, within the framework of the Portuguese Presidency of the European Union and the European Year of Equal Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>The event took place in Lisbon within the framework of the Portuguese Presidency of the European Union </li></ul><ul><li>The Lisbon Declaration ‘Young People’s Views on Inclusive Education’ is the main result of this event </li></ul>
  20. 20. Lisbon Declaration 2007 <ul><li>http://www.european-agency.org/publications/flyers/lisbon-declaration-young-peoples-views-on-inclusive-education/lisbon-declaration-young-people2019s-views-on-inclusive-education </li></ul><ul><li>‘ We have the right to the same opportunities as everyone else, but with the necessary support to meet our needs. No one’s needs should be ignored’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Teachers need to be motivated, to be well informed about and understand our needs. They need to be well trained, ask us what we need and to be well co-ordinated among themselves’ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.european-agency.org/publications/ereports/young-voices-meeting-diversity-in-education/young-voices-meeting-diversity-in-education </li></ul>
  21. 21. ‘ Inclusive education is mutually beneficial to us and to the others’ We see a lot of benefits in inclusive education: we acquire more social skills; we live more experiences; we learn about how to manage in the real world; we need to have and interact with friends with and without special needs
  22. 22. European Parliament Hearing 2011 In November 2011, there will be a further European hearing, this time for young people with and without disabilities, held in the European Parliament, Brussels It will involve 31 country delegations with 3 young people per delegation, aged between 14 to 18 years The country delegations will have the opportunity to express their own views and perspectives on inclusive education based upon their experiences, as well as highlight their needs and hopes for the future
  23. 23. More information <ul><li>www.european-agency.org </li></ul><ul><li>European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education </li></ul><ul><li>Østre Stationsvej 33 </li></ul><ul><li>DK-5000 Odense C </li></ul><ul><li>Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Amanda Watkins [email_address] </li></ul>

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