Children in Montenegro - Data from the 2011 Census


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Children in Montenegro - Data from the 2011 Census

  1. 1. D a t a f r o m t h e 2 0 11 C e n s u s CHILDREN IN MONTENEGRO Data from the 2011 CensusPublisher:UNICEF MontenegroVladike Danila 2820 000 Podgorica,MontenegroE-mail:© United Nation Children’s Fund(UNICEF), August 2012
  2. 2. D a t a f r o m t h e 2 0 11 C e n s u s 1
  3. 3. CHILDREN IN MONTENEGRO TABLE OF CONTENTSD ATA F R O M T H E 2 0 1 1 C E N S U SStudy prepared by: FOREWORD........................................................................................................4Statistical Office of Montenegro - MONSTAT, Podgorica,Montenegro; Team members: Dr Bozidar Popovic, SnezanaRemikovic, Biljana Sekulovic, Dragan Dubak, Natasa Saranovic, METHODOLOGY.................................................................................................6and Katarina Bigovic (translation).© United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)August 2012 DEMOGRAPHY..................................................................................................12Permission to reproduce any part of this publication is required.Please contact UNICEF Montenegro (Vladike Danila 28, 20 000 EDUCATION......................................................................................................24Podgorica, Montenegro, Tel: +382 20 224 277; Fax: +382 20 224278; E-mail: Permission will be freelygranted to educational or non-profit organizations. EARLY MARRIAGE AND MOTHERHOOD.......................................................42The statements in this publication are the views of the authorsand do not necessarily reflect the policies or the views ofUNICEF . CHILD LABOUR................................................................................................52Photography:UNICEF Montenegro/Zoran Jovanovic Maccak CITIZENSHIP......................................................................................................60UNICEF Montenegro/Risto BozovicUNICEF Montenegro/Dusko Miljanic ETHNIC AND CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS...............................................68Design & prepress:Milovan KadovicEditing and proofreading: ANNEX 1:Peter Stonelake STATISTICAL MATRICES.................................................................................762 3
  4. 4. FOREWORDDear readers,The Government of Montenegro, MONSTAT and UNICEF share These and other data from the publication “Children in Monte-a commitment to improving knowledge and understanding of negro” clearly show that childhood experience in our countrythe situation of children in Montenegro and ensuring that kno- is diverse. We are pleased to see that for most children it is awledge is used to develop national action to ensure better period of play, learning, socialising in school and growing upoutcomes for all of our children. in a warm family environment. However, we are concerned that for some, childhood is broken by not going to school orThe “Children in Montenegro” booklet contributes to strength- facing challenges of the adults’ world prematurely and un-ening knowledge on children by consolidating key data on the prepared such as early marriage and taking care of children,situation of children obtained by 2011 Census of Population, employment and so on.Households and Dwellings. Every society is responsible for enabling every child to de-We are confident that the key decision makers at national and velop to his or her full potential. Our intention is, through thislocal level will find in this book useful information about the publication, to stimulate public dialogue based on statisticallyproblems that our children are coping with, which will help reliable data needed for the development of effective policies.them identify the most effective solutions. Our goal is to contribute to the changes that will enable every child in Montenegro to develop to his or her full potential. AsAccording to the 2011 Census, in Montenegro, 5% of children society and as individuals we owe that to our children.aged from 6 to 17 years, i.e. 5,313 of them do not attend school.443 children aged from 15 to 17 years are labour active while187 of them are employed. 310 children aged from 15 to 17 Ms Gordana Radojevic, MSc Benjamin Perks,years are married, and 69% of them are girls. Director of the Statistical UNICEF Office of Montenegro Representative4 5
  5. 5. holds and dwellings, and their Censuses of Population METHODOLOGY characteristics. and Housing, prepared inMETHODOLOGY The preparation, organisation cooperation with the UN Economic Commission for Europe and Statistical and conducting of the Census Office of the European are based on principles of rel- Communities - EURO- evance, impartiality, transpar- STAT; ency, timeliness, professional independence, rationality, con- sistency, publicity, statistical  Regulation (EC) No 763/ 2008 of the European confidentiality, and usage of Parliament, and of the EU personal data exclusively for Council on populationT he Census of Population, verage of Census units. The statistical purposes. and housing censuses, Households and Dwellin- Census was conducted in a andgs (hereinafter referred to as traditional manner using the The Census was conducted inthe “Census”) was conducted interview method, on a door- accordance with the Law on  Regulation (EC) No 1201/in Montenegro in the period to-door principle. Interviews the Census of the Population, 2009 on implementingfrom 1st to 15th April 2011. with respondents were per- Households, and Dwellings in Regulation (EC) No 763/ formed by enumerators. 20111, and Methodology for 2008 of the EuropeanThe Census was conducted the Preparation, Organisation, Parliament and of the EUaccording to the situation on and Conducting of the Census Council on population31st March 2011 at 24:00, whi- A Census, in accordance with (hereinafter referred to as the and housing censusesch is considered as the refer- international recommendati- “Methodology”). The Meth- regarding the technicalent moment of the Census. ons, conducted every ten odology is fully harmonised specifications of the top- with international standards ics and of their break-Immediately after the Census years, is a process of collect- downs.was finished, a quality control ing, processing, and publish- which determine commonof the Census was performed ing demographic, economic, rules on collecting population The units of the census areon a representative sample of educational, migration, eth- data, and the most important population, households, andenumeration areas in order to no-cultural, and social data ones are: dwellings.evaluate the coverage and related to the population of  The Conference of Euro-quality of data collected by the country in a certain peri- pean Statisticians’ Reco- The Census covers citizens ofthe Census. The first results od. Also, the Census provides mmendations for the 2010of the control indicate full co- data on the number of house- 1 Official Gazette of Montenegro, No. 41/10, 44/10, 75/106 CHILDREN IN MONTENEGRO 7
  6. 6. Montenegro, citizens of Mon- arrived in that place later but received based on the state- processing and spreadsheet METHODOLOGYtenegro and foreign citizens, with the intention of staying ment of the person on his/her applications, an Internet bro-foreign citizens and persons there at least for one year. legal marital status, regard- wser and e-mail client. Awithout citizenship (stateless less of the “de facto” situation. person able to apply all fourpersons) who have residence The Methodology is prepared Marital status is presented for mentioned applications is co-(permanent or temporary) in so as to ensure that every per- the population aged 15 years nsidered computer literate.Montenegro, irrespective of son has only one usual place or older. Those who are able to usewhether they are at the mo- of residence. In the interna- one, two or three applicationsment of the Census in Mon- tional context this is impor- The data on citizenship is col- but not all four of them aretenegro or abroad, irrespec- tant in order to avoid there lected on the basis of the res- considered partially computertive of whether they possess being individuals included in ponses on citizenship. All da- literate. Those who are notpersonal identification docu- the total population number ta is received only based on able to use any of the menti-ments at the moment of the in several countries or not the statement of the person, oned applications are consi-Census or not, and irrespec- included at all. Actually, the without checking personal dered computer illiterate. Thetive of whether they live in a main objective of the Census documentation. answer was collected on thedwelling, other type of build- is to determine the exact nu- basis of the respondent’sing or in public areas. mber of people who live and Knowledge of foreign langu- statement. use the infrastructure of a ages is defined as the abilityThe population refers to per- particular geographic area. of a person to understand, The 2011 Census collectedsons whose usual place of speak, read, and write a cer- data related to the economicresidence is in Montenegro. Data on age was obtained tain foreign language. Data is activity of the person, i.e. acti-The usual place of residence from a statement about the collected for up to three fore- vities carried out by a personis the place where a person respondent’s date of birth. ign languages. All data is rece- in the period from 25th to 31stusually resides regardless of ived exclusively based on a March 2011, the week preced-temporary absence for the The data about age is prese- respondent’s statement. ing the census. The responsepurposes of recreation, holi- nted by the years of age alre- was collected from personsday, visits to friends or rela- ady reached. This means that, Computer literacy is defined aged 15 years and older, andtives, business, medical treat- for example, the age interval as the ability to use basic com- on the basis of their statement.ment or religious pilgrimage; from 5 to 9 years of age inclu- puter applications for perfor-as well as the place where a des people who have reached ming daily tasks. In reference In the census any person inperson has been resident 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 years. to this, the data collected rel- the week preceding the cen-continuously, at least from ated to the ability to use pro- sus (from 25 to 31 March 2011)1 April 2010, or he/she has The data on marital status is gramme applications – word is considered employed who:8 CHILDREN IN MONTENEGRO 9
  7. 7.  performed any kind of Active population refers METHODOLOGY regular or usual work to any employed or unem- for wage/profit (in cash, ployed person aged 15 years goods or services) for at or over. least one hour or any kind of unpaid work (in a com- Fertility is a generally pre- pany, professional prac- tice or agricultural farm sented and well known term in the possession of any coming from the Latin word member of his/her fami- “fertilities” and it means ly), or “fertility, ability to give birth” . has not worked (due to Fertile age is the age in life of illness, vacation, state or a woman when she is biologi- religious holiday, educa- cally able to give birth, and it tion, training, maternity is scientifically defined as the leave, reduced production period from 15-49 years. Cer- or other temporary inabi- tainly, there are women who lity to work), but he/she can give birth and do give has a job to which he/she birth before 15 or after 49. will return. The Census collected dataIn the census a person is con- on the total number of live-sidered unemployed who: born children including chil- dren who were not alive at in the week before the the moment of the Census. census (from 25 to 31 Ma- This question referred only © UNICEF Montenegro/Risto Bozovic rch 2011) did not work, to female individuals aged 15 but he/she was actively years or more, regardless of looking for a job during their marital status. March 2011 (four weeks before the census), and he/she is ready to start The Census collected data working during the fol- on school attendance for any lowing two weeks. person regardless of age.10 CHILDREN IN MONTENEGRO 11
  8. 8. acteristics collected by the up to 18 years of age live in DEMOGRAPHY census become more useful Montenegro. Their share ofDEMOGRAPHY if they are cross-referenced with gender and age. It is the total population is 23.4%. important to note that recom- The percentages in the chart mended age groups were below refer to the share of used so that the data can be children in the total popula- compared spatially and by tion according the data from time. the 2003 and 2011 Censuses. Comparing the two census According to the 2011 Popula- years, the conclusion is that tion Census, 145 126 children there was a decrease in theD emographical data, par- ticularly on age and gen-der, is crucial for understan- should be afterwards entered on the basis of other data on people or households, the Chart 1: Population pyramids of the population in Montenegro according to the 2003 and 2011 Censusesding the distribution of edu - Statistical Office of Montene- Male Female Male Femalecational, social, employment gro did not use this imputa-and health indicators and op- tion method or method ofportunities across the entire inserting the data on age.population. Children, the young, and eld-To obtain data on age, the erly people are recognised ascensus collected information separate population catego-on date of birth. Data collec- ries for which different typestion on the date of birth en- of census data is requested.ables tabulation in two ways: Thus, for example, for chil-by year of birth and by age dren’s and young people’sreached. Although UN and education, this data is of keyEurostat recommendations importance, while for adults,foresee the case where the data on economic activity isdata on age is missing and more relevant. The examplefor this eventuality the data mentioned and all other char- 2003 201112 CHILDREN IN MONTENEGRO 13
  9. 9. Chart 2: Share of children in the total population, by municipality, negro as a whole. All the Mojkovac, Danilovgrad, DEMOGRAPHY 2003 and 2011 Censuses other municipalities, fifteen of Podgorica, Berane, Ulcinj, them, have a lower share of Bijelo Polje, Plav and Rozaje. 40% children in the total populati- 35% 30% on, than the country average. The share of population of 25% age under 18 in the total pop- 20% 15% In 2003, the share of children ulation is decreasing. Accord- 10% in the total population was ingly, in 2003, the share of 5% 25.3%, and eight municipali- children in the total population 0% -5% ties had a higher-than-aver- was 25.3%, while this percent--10% age share compared to the age in 2011 was 23.4%. A de- whole country, which are: crease in the number of chil- Rozaje Plav Berane Bijelo Polje Podgorica Ulcinj Montenegro Niksic Bar Mojkovac Budva Andrijevica Tivat Danilovgrad Kolasin Kotor Herceg Novi Pljevlja Zabljak Savnik Cetinje Pluzine 2003 2011 % decrease in the share of children in the total populationshare of children in the total the population consists ofpopulation in 2011 compared children aged 18 years or less.with 2003 in all municipali- Then come Plav with 27%,ties. The difference, i.e. the Berane with 26%, Bijelo Poljedecrease in the share of chil- and Podgorica with 25% ofdren in the total population is children in the total popula-highest in Danilovgrad (5%), tion. The lowest number ofCetinje and Plav (4%). The children (18%) is found in the © UNICEF Montenegro/Risto Bozoviclowest decrease of almost 1% municipalities of Pluzine, Cet-is in Berane. inje, Savnik and Zabljak.According to the 2011 Census In 2011, the share of childrendata, the share of children was higher in the followingin the total population by six municipalities: Rozaje, Plav,municipality indicates that Berane, Bijelo Polje, Podgor-in Rozaje almost one-third of ica, and Ulcinj, than in Monte-14 CHILDREN IN MONTENEGRO 15
  10. 10. Chart 2: Share of children in the total population, by municipality, in % DEMOGRAPHY 2011 Census 2003 Census Pljevlja 19.0 Pljevlja 21.4 Pluzine Pluzine 17.9 Zabljak 18.3 20.7 Zabljak 21.3 Bijelo Polje 25.5 Bijelo Polje 27.2 Mojkovac Mojkovac Savnik 18.0 Savnik 20.2 22.3 25.4 Berane 26.1 Rozaje Berane 26.8 Rozaje Niksic 22.9 Kolasin 25.0 31.7 Niksic 24.5 Kolasin 23.7 34.0 Andrijevica Andrijevica 22.1 23.2 Danilovgrad Plav Danilovgrad Plav Kotor 20.2 21.0 27.3 Kotor 22.3 25.7 31.2Herceg Novi Podgorica Herceg Novi Podgorica 20.2 24.6 21.7 26.1 Cetinje 18.0 Cetinje 22.5 Tivat 21.6 Tivat 22.8 Budva 22.2 Budva 24.2 17.90 - 19.99 Bar 22.6 Bar 24.1 20.00 - 23.99 Ulcinj 23.7 Ulcinj 26.8 24.00 - 27.99 28.00 - 34.00 16 CHILDREN IN MONTENEGRO 17
  11. 11. dren, from 156 683 to 145 126, zaje in this manner, although firms the vital statistics pro- there were more children DEMOGRAPHYwas recorded both in terms this municipality indicated duced by the Statistical Office aged 15 years and over inof percentage and absolute a decrease in the number of of Montenegro, which show 2003 than in 2011.number. In other words, there children from 34% down to a growth in the birth rate inwere 11 557 less children in 32%, meaning that a third of the last five years. In both The 2011 Census indicated fe-2011 compared with the data the inhabitants of Rozaje are census years when observing wer children of all individualfrom the census conducted aged 18 years or less. In mu- age structure, children are on years of age compared witheight years earlier. nicipalities of Pljevlja, Zabljak, average older. More children the 2003 Census. Savnik, Pluzine and Cetinje, under five years of age areIn 2003, the municipalities of the percentage of children out recorded in the 2011 Census Out of the total population,Rozaje and Plav were recog- of the total population is less than in the 2003 Census, but, older children are more rep-nized as the municipalities than 20% according to thewith the highest percentage 2011 Census, while this wasof children out of the total not the case in 2003. Chart 5: Age structure of children aged between 0 and 17 years,population, i.e. 34% and 31% 2003 and 2011 Censusesrespectively. The 2011 Cen- The data on age structuresus characterised only Ro- from the 2011 Census con- 10,000Chart 4: Age structure of Montenegrin population by individual years of age and gender 9,00010,000 9,000 8,000 7,000 8,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 7,000 1,000 0 100 103 106 109 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 55 58 61 64 67 70 73 76 79 82 85 88 91 94 97 1 4 7 2003. 2011. AGE Total Male Female18 CHILDREN IN MONTENEGRO 19
  12. 12. Chart 6: Structure by age group, 2003 and 2011 Censuses years of age) are boys, with girls. DEMOGRAPHY 52%. In 2003, there were 107 0 0 boys per 100 girls, and in 2011, The composition of populati- 5% 5% 108 boys. on by gender is defined, amo- 15 -17 15 -17 19% 1 -3 18% 1 -3 ng other things, by the propo- 15% 16% The changes noticed between rtion of boys and girls out of the two censuses in munici- the total number of live-born palities with a small popula- children. Such high values of 4 -5 4 -5 10% 10% tion may be caused by so- masculinity rates defined in called “small numbers”, and Montenegro in live births are10 -14 10 -14 relative indicators show large explained by: a decrease in29% 29% variations but in real, absolu- fertility; the wish of parents 6 -9 6 -9 te terms, the differences can to have a son at any cost; and 22% 22% be very small. by progress in ultrasound me- 2003. 2011. thods – which has enabled In the majority of municipali- sex-selective abortion on the ties in Montenegro there are grounds of the sex of unbornresented. Thus, children of tion in 2003 was 35.9 years, more boys than girls. In 2003, babies (Pison, 2004).age: 17, 16 or 15 have a share and in 2011 it was 37.2 years. the largest difference was inof more than 6%. There is a The average age of children Kotor, where there were 110 Large differences in the gen-constant decrease of 5% in did not change from 2003, boys per 100 girls; then in Bu- der structure of children bythe proportion of children un- and it was 9 years. dva, Danilovgrad and Podgor- municipality require furtherder 1 year of age. The lowest ica: 109; and in Herceg Novi review and may be the sub-share of children is visible The gender structure indicates and Rozaje there were 108 ject of a special analysis andamong children in their first that there are more boys than boys per 100 girls. survey with a focus on theyear (4.9%). girls in the observed popula- causes of this phenomenon. tion. The total number of boys In 2011, a larger difference A detailed analysis of this phe-The size of individual age is 75 367, and the total num- was noticed in Bar, Danilov- nomenon would provide angroups in the total children ber of girls is 69 759. While grad, Herceg Novi and Rozaje explanation of results discov-population did not significan- the majority of the total popu- with 111 boys per 100 girls; in ered by the census.tly fluctuate in period betwe- lation are women with 51%, Danilovgrad and Berane, 110;en the two censuses. the majority in the observed in Budva, Kotor, Mojkovac and In the total children populati-The average age of popula- population (children under 18 Podgorica, 109 boys per 100 on, as well as in all national,20 CHILDREN IN MONTENEGRO 21
  13. 13. Table 1: The number of boys per 100 girls by municipality, Chart 7: The number of children in Montenegro by ethnicity, DEMOGRAPHY 2003 and 2011 Censuses and gender Number of boys per 100 girls Male Female 2003 2011 Andrijevica 106 97 35,000 Bar 105 111 30,000 Berane 105 110 Bijelo Polje 105 106 25,000 Budva 109 109 20,000 Cetinje 102 110 Danilovgrad 109 111 15,000 Herceg Novi 108 111 10,000 Kolasin 105 97 Kotor 110 109 5,000 Mojkovac 101 109 0 Niksic 106 107 Montenegrins Serbs Bosniaks Does not Albanians Muslims Roma Other Egyptians Croats Plav 106 108 want to Pljevlja 103 102 declare Pluzine 101 100 Podgorica 109 109 Rozaje 108 111 Savnik 97 102 Tivat 107 107 Ulcinj 107 105 99 92 Chart 8: Number of boys per 100 girls, by ethnicity Zabljak Montenegro 107 108 116.0i.e. ethnic, groups there are the Egyptian population, i.e. 110.4 108.6 108.3 107.7 107.6 107.2higher percentages of boys 116 boys per 100 girls, then 103.5than girls. Only among chil- among Serbs - 110 boys per 99.1dren whose national affiliation 100 girls. The smallest differ-was not declared, are there ence in the gender structuremore girls than boys. of children is among Croats, Egyptians Serbs Muslims Bosniaks Roma Montenegrians Albanians Croats Does not where there are 103 boys per want to declareThe highest difference is in 100 girls.  22 CHILDREN IN MONTENEGRO 23
  14. 14. EDUCATIONEDUCATIONT he term education refers to all deliberate, system-atic and organized action or in-service training courses in factories), is not considered "school attendance" for cen-process of teaching someone sus purposes. Data on schoolespecially in a school or uni- attendance refers to the timeversity. Most education takes of the census, i.e. 31 Marchplace in schools or universiti- (or their equivalents), but itcan be provided outside these Although data on school at-institutions. Data on school tendance was collected byattendance was collected by the 2003 Census, this datathe Census. was never published, and that information was only used inSchool attendance is defined processing and data controlas regular attendance at any on the “highest achieved level © UNICEF Montenegro/Risto Bozovicaccredited educational insti- of education”. However, thistution or programme, public publication will present foror private, for organised lear- the first time the 2003 Censusning at any level of education. data on school attendance inInstruction in a particular skill, order to compare it with thewhich is not part of the rec- findings in this area of theognised educational structure 2011 Census.of the country (for example24 CHILDREN IN MONTENEGRO 25
  15. 15. The concept of school atten- Census, children of pri- Chart 9: Percentage of children by age group of the totaldance is different from, but mary education age was populationcomplementary to, that of en- made up of children bet-rolment as normally covered ween 7 and 14 years ofby annual school statistics. age. Children under 6 years - 7%Attendance means the day-to-  At that time, primary sch-day presence of participants ool lasted for eight yearsat an institution of learning. compared with 2011, wh-Enrolment refers to the formal en primary school lasted Children from 6 nine years. Adults - 77% to 14 years - 12%registration of pupils at thestart of the school year.  In the period between the two censuses, primaryInformation on school atten- education system reform Children from15dance relates in particular to took place and gradually to 17 years - 4 % the shift was made fromthe population of official sch- an eight-year to nine-yearool age. For the purpose of primary school. At thethis publication children were time of the 2011 Census,grouped as follows: primary education lasted for nine years and child- lation. In other words, a tenth nicipality of Rozaje (15.7%), Children of primary edu- ren enrolled at primary of the inhabitants of Monte- which means that one-sixth of cation age – 6-14 years of school at 6 years of age. negro are of primary-school the inhabitants of Rozaje are age, age. As regards secondary children aged between 6 and To enable more simple use of school attendance, data on 14 years. One-eleventh of the Children of secondary the data on age structure in education age – 15-17 children from 15 to 17 years inhabitants of Pluzine, Cetinje, future surveys, children are was considered, and accord- Savnik, and Zabljak are prima- years of age. grouped by school age. In Mo- ing to the 2011 Census there ry-school-aged children.In addition to this, it should ntenegro there were 46 114 were 26 375 children in thatbe also noted that exact equi- children of pre-primary sch- age group or 4.3% of the total Among 72 637 children agedvalence with the 2003 Census ool age (under 6 years old) or population. from 6 to 14 years, 68 835 chi-data is not possible for several 7.4% of the total population; ldren or 95% of them attendreasons: 72 637 primary-school-aged The highest share of primary- school, and 3 802 children or children (6-14 years) represe- school-aged children in the 5% of this age do not attend At the time of the 2003 nting 11.7% of the total popu- total population is in the Mu- school. There is a similar situ-26 CHILDREN IN MONTENEGRO 27
  16. 16. Chart 10: Structure of children by age group, and by municipality, ation with children between 6 years attend school. These EDUCATIONin % and 17 years where out of municipalities have the high- 99 012 children of that age est school attendance rates in Children under 6 years From 6 to14 years From 15 to 17 years 93 699 (95%) attend school Montenegro. Podgorica and35% while 5 313 (5%) do not go to Berane are the municipalities30% school. with the lowest school atten-25% dance rate for children betw-20% In the municipalities of Zablj- een 6 and 17 years (93%).15%10% ak, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Ko-5% tor, Ulcinj, and Mojkovac, 97% In 2011, the percentage of chil-0% of children between 6 and 17 dren 6-17 years old attending Rozaje Plav Berane Bijelo Polje Mojkovac Podgorica Ulcinj Montenegro Andrijevica Niksic Bar Danilovgrad Kolasin Budva Pljevlja Tivat Kotor Herceg Novi Pluzine Savnik Zabljak Cetinje Chart 12: Children between 6 and 17 years attending school, by municipality, in % Do not attend school Attend schoolChart 11: Children between 6 and 14 years of age by school 97% 97% 97% 97% 97% 97% 96% 96% 96% 96% 96% 95% 95% 95% 95% 95% 94% 94% 94% 94% 93% 93% attendance, in % 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 6% 6% 6% 6% 7% 7% Zabljak Cetinje Danilovgrad Kotor Ulcinj Mojkovac Pljevlja Kolasin Pluzine Herceg Novi Budva Niksic Bar Tivat Montenegro Bijelo Polje Savnik Andrijevica Plav Rozaje Podgorica Berane Do not attend school 5% school increased from 94% to as in 2003. An increase in the Attend school 95% compared with the previ- school attendance rate was 95% ous census. In four municipali- registered in most municipali- ties – Zabljak, Tivat, Berane, ties, while a decrease of 1% and Pljevlja– school attendan- was registered in Budva, Nik- ce rates are at the same level sic and Podgorica.28 CHILDREN IN MONTENEGRO 29
  17. 17. Chart 13: Children from 6-17 years who attend school, Chart 14: Children 6-17 years old who do not attend school, EDUCATION 2003 and 2011 Censuses, in % by municipality, 2003 and 2011 Censuses, in % 2011 2003 2011 2003100% 98% 16% 96% 94% 14% 92% 12% 90% 88% 10% 86% 84% 8% 82% 80% 6% 78% 4% Zabljak Cetinje Danilovgrad Kotor Ulcinj Mojkovac Pljevlja Kolasin Pluzine Herceg Novi Budva Niksic Bar Tivat Montenegro Bijelo Polje Savnik Andrijevica Plav Rozaje Podgorica Berane 2% 0% Berane Podgorica Rozaje Plav Andrijevica Savnik Bijelo Polje Montenegro Tivat Bar Niksic Budva Herceg Novi Pluzine Kolasin Pljevlja Mojkovac Ulcinj Kotor Danilovgrad Cetinje ZabljakWhen comparing the 2003 resulted in a decrease in sch-and 2011 Censuses data, it ool attendance rates in com-should be taken into account parison with 2003 in the muni-that displaced persons from cipalities of Podgorica, Budva,Kosovo, according to the cur- and Niksic, where the share ofrent methodology, were not this population is the highest.calculated in the populationof Montenegro in 2003. A sig- The percentage of children © UNICEF Montenegro/Zoran Jovanovic-Maccaknificant number of displaced not attending school in 2003persons from Kosovo are in- and 2011 remained the samedividuals from the Roma and in the following municipalities:Egyptian populations with a Zabljak, Tivat, Berane, andschool attendance rate signi- Pljevlja. Budva, Niksic and Po-ficantly lower than in other dgorica recorded an increasegroups. Inclusion of this part of 1% in the share of childrenof the population in the popu- who do not attend school inlation of Montenegro, accor- comparison with the previousding to the 2011 Census, has census; there is a decrease in30 CHILDREN IN MONTENEGRO 31
  18. 18. the percentage of children not uiring citizenship 16% do not Chart 15: Children aged 6-17 by attending school and citizenship EDUCATIONattending school in other mu- attend school, and 15% of in %nicipalities. children who are citizens of a foreign country do not attend Do not attend school Attend schoolObservations by citizenship school. The lowest percentageshow that 34% of stateless of children that do not attendchildren do not attend school. school is among children withOf the total number of children Montenegrin citizenship (4%).who are in the process of acq- 66% 85% 84% 96% 92%Table 2: Children aged 6-17 by attending school and citizenship, Census 2011 34% 15% 16% 4% 8%Citizenship of: Total Do not attend Attend Do not attend Attend Montenegro Foreign In process of acquiring Stateless school school school school No data about countries Montenegrin citizenship citizenshipTotal 99,012 5,311 93,701 5% 95%Montenegro 92,290 4,092 88,198 4% 96%Foreign countries 3,084 478 2,606 15% 85%In process of aquiring 1,294 212 1,082 16% 84%Montenegrin citizenshipStateless 1,331 450 881 34% 66%No answer 1,013 79 934 8% 92%Children who are 6 years old rolled in primary school. Re-have the lowest school atten- garding the time of the cen- © UNICEF Montenegro/Risto Bozovicdance rate, which can perhaps sus (31 March 2011) at whichbe explained by the provisions point the school year was intoof the Law on Primary Educa- its second semester and thetion (2002, and amendments calendar year 2011, childrenin 2011) according to which that needed to enrol at schoolchildren that reach 6 years of in autumn 2011 had alreadyage in a calendar year are en- reached 6 years of age.32 CHILDREN IN MONTENEGRO 33