What is a Catalan Film?


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Communication presented at the 2008 ECREA conference in Barcelona

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  • What is a Catalan Film?

    1. 1. What is a Catalan film? Legal and extralegal parameters to establish what a Catalan film is Frederic Guerrero-Solé Mercè Oliva Rota Reinald Besalú Casademont Fermín Ciaurriz Velasco
    2. 2. What is a Catalan film? <ul><li>IT IS SAID THAT THIS IS A VERY CATALAN FILM... A SLICE OF BREAD WITH TOMATO * APPEARS ON IT. ( * TYPICAL CATALAN FOOD) </li></ul><ul><li>THEN I’M GOING TO WATCH IT </li></ul>L a Vanguardia (Ventura & Coromina, 05.10.2008, p.27)
    3. 3. The object of our research Catalan film policies (subventions program for Catalan film industry)  New subvention rules: Institut Català de les Indústries Culturals (ICIC), 2008) Objective How a Catalan film can be defined (through Catalan rules) Methodology Comparative analysis (UK, Germany, Spain/ Scotland, Bavaria, Basque Country) Film nationality protocol 1. Introduction
    4. 4. <ul><li>National cinema: </li></ul><ul><li>- Transmission of national identity and values </li></ul><ul><li>Memory and history preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Economic/industrial sector </li></ul><ul><li>Context: </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization (global/local) </li></ul><ul><li>Stateless nations </li></ul><ul><li>US cinema industry dominance </li></ul>1. Introduction
    5. 5. <ul><li>2.1. Catalan film industry </li></ul><ul><li>Production weaknesses: atomization , lack of a continuous production, low budged productions. </li></ul>2. The Catalan Case <ul><li>Few films are produced and exhibited in Catalan </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibition: lack of audience </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Prestige </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>2.2. Legal limitations: </li></ul><ul><li>No Catalan Film Certification  subsidiarity from Spanish film legislation </li></ul><ul><li>No Films Act </li></ul><ul><li>Subvention policies  Indirect definition criteria </li></ul>2. The Catalan Case
    7. 7. <ul><li>2.3. Previous rules: </li></ul><ul><li>Main objective: improvement of Catalan film industry </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria : Catalan producer = Catalan film </li></ul><ul><li> Increases the number of films/year, but does not solve: </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural contribution </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of audiences </li></ul>2. The Catalan Case
    8. 8. <ul><li>2.4. New rules (ICIC, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>- Authors and creative team </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural contribution </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial aspects </li></ul>Catalan Producer (mandatory) BUT promotes aspects related to Catalan culture & identity values 2. The Catalan Case
    9. 9. 3.1. The United Kingdom  Cultural Test (Schedule 1 to the Films Act 1985, 2007) <ul><li>16 points out of 31 </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural content : mandatory parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Little film industry promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity </li></ul>3. Comparative analysis
    10. 10. <ul><li>Few criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial/economical : German/European production company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorship : German/European director (scriptwriter / lead actors) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural : German language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Subventions criteria): </li></ul><ul><li> quality and commercial success as parameters </li></ul>3.2. Germany  German Film Certification (2003) 3. Comparative analysis
    11. 11. 3.3. Spain  Ley de cine (2007) 3. Comparative analysis <ul><ul><li>Industrial/economical : promote film industry and local talent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish/European production company </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crew (actors, technical crew) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Postproduction / Film location (optional) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorship : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The director must be Spanish/European </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scriptwriter / Photography Director / Music composer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C ultural : language (Spanish, Catalan, Galician, Basque) </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Scotland - Laxness - Film Industry Culture Authorship - Quality & Creativity - Creating audiences for Scottish films 3.4. European Stateless nations / Regions Bavaria - Film industry - Bayerneffekt : “ The producer must reinvestment 1.5 times the amount of loan in Bavaria” Basque country - Point system (minimum points to be achieved) 3. Comparative analysis
    13. 13. It does not accomplish most of the Catalan normative requirements It does accomplish most of the Catalan normative requirements It accomplishes some of the Catalan normative requirements 3. Comparative analysis
    14. 14. <ul><li>Spanish and German rules </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize authorship aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Spain : industrial issues more relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Germany : cultural issues more relevant </li></ul><ul><li>British rule </li></ul><ul><li>Very restrictive </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of the cultural contribution (golden points rule) </li></ul>3. Comparative analysis
    15. 15. <ul><li>Different national realities = different rules and laws </li></ul><ul><li>Catalan rules </li></ul><ul><li>Catalan rules defines a restrictive type of Catalan film, centered in language and cultural contributions. </li></ul><ul><li>Language is about 50% of subvention (defense/barrier) </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictive in definition BUT lax in application </li></ul><ul><li>1 Catalan € = Catalan film. No mandatory, restriction (1/180) </li></ul><ul><li>Focused in culture BUT no quality, creativity, originality parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Little promotion of industry </li></ul><ul><li>Middle budget films </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom degree (exclusive reference to residence/born in Catalonia) </li></ul>4. Conclusions
    16. 16. 1. New rules as guideline. Does not solve the question of what a Catalan film is. 2. Still remains the debate about the catalanity of cultural productions. 3. Still remains the debate between regulation and freedom of creativity. 5. Discussion
    17. 17. [email_address] [email_address] [email_address] [email_address]