The UNDP Capacity Development Approach:Integrating CD in Country Office Programmes Mao Kawada and Robert Bernardo Capacity Development Practice Bratislava Regional Centre
SOME TRENDS: Georgia 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 US Russia 0.6 0.5 • 2011 TI 0.4 • 2009 HI (Gallup 0.3 • 2012 ESI (Yale) 0.2 • 2011 DI (EIU) 0.1 • 2011 HDI 0 Norway Turkey ESI (2012) DI (2011) HDI (2011) TI (2011) Albania Tajikistan HI (05-09)
Where is Tajikistan on the MDGs? MDG Goals/TargetsGoal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hungerGoal 2. Achieve universal primary educationGoal 3. Promote gender equality and empowerwomenGoal 4. Reduce child mortalityGoal 5. Improve maternal healthGoal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and otherdiseasesGoal 7. Ensure environmental sustainabilityGoal 8. Develop a global partnership fordevelopment Source: http://www.undp.tj/files/MDG%20summary%20table.pdf
CD Crossing Practices HIV/AIDS, Energy and Good Crisis Poverty Malaria and Environment Governance Prevention Reduction TB Capacity Development Common, Unified CD Approach Do we identify strategic entry Do we measure ‘change’ in Do we introduceDo we effectively assess points for CD? capacity (transformations) sustainable CD capacity gaps? why, whose, based on our responses? and what interventions? capacities?
SCISPM MoEDT MoEd MoEP MoH CSOs MoF MoPE Academe MoFAMoAg HIV/AIDS, Energy and Good Crisis Poverty Malaria and Environment Governance Prevention Reduction TB Capacity Development
SCISPM MoEDT MoEd CSOs MoEP MoH MoF Academe MoPE MoFA MoAg HIV/AIDS,Energy and Good Crisis Poverty Malaria andEnvironment Governance Prevention Reduction TB Capacity Development
Integrating Capacity Development in Programming• CD is UNDP’s overarching contribution to development (SP; UNDG PS; CD PN; CA PN; etc.)• Capacity development is to be translated into programmes and actions• Capacity development responses are rooted in: – Cultural specificity and grounded in local context – State and public sector’s willingness to reform – Local capabilities and knowledge base – Social capital mobilization 8 8
Why the renewed focus on CD? Trainings, exposure trips = Capacity Development ?? 9
Why the renewed Focus on CD? Equipment, Facilities, Str uctures = Capacity Development ?? 10
Partner ‘s Capacity to perform on their ownR? UNDP Technical Support (e.g., experts, resources) Y?
Capacity Development Process Step 1: Step 5: Engage Monitor & Partners and Evaluate CD Build Strategies Consensus Capacity Step 4: Development Step 2: Process AssessImplement Capacity CD Assets andStrategies Needs Step 3: Formulate CD Strategies 12
A Systems Approach: The Three Layers of Capacity Development Individual level (experience, knowledge & technical skills) Deepening effective and Organisational level accountable (systems, procedures state-citizen & rules) engagement Enabling environment (institutional framework, power structure & influence) Successful capacity development requires not only skills & organizational procedures, but also incentives & good governance 13
Capacities for Whom?• State Institutions (central, sub-national)• Civil Society Organizations• Private Sector• Other implementing partners 14
Capacities for What?• Technical Capacities – associated with particular areas of professional expertise or knowledge (e.g., economic planning, environmental management, public health, public education, etc.) 15
Capacities for What? • Functional Capacities – activities associated with the formulation, implementation and evaluation of policy, programmes and projects; relevant in all situations irrespective of sector/organization Engage in Multi-Stakeholder Dialogue Assess a Situation and Create a Vision and Mandate Formulate Policy and Strategy Budget, Manage and Implement Monitor and Evaluate 16
Core capacity issuesThe policies, practices and systems that allow for effective functioning of anorganization or group. These may include ‘hard’ rules such as laws or the termsof a contract, or ‘soft’ rules like codes of conduct or generally accepted values.Leadership is the ability to influence, inspire and motivate others to achieveor even go beyond their goals. It is also the ability to anticipate and respond tochange. Leadership is not necessarily synonymous with a position of authority;it can also be informal and be held at many levels.Knowledge underpins people’s capacities and hence capacity development.Seen from the perspective of our three levels, knowledge has traditionally beenfostered at the individual level, mostly through education. But it can also becreated and shared within an organization, such as through on-the-job training,and supported through an enabling environment of effective educationalsystems and policies.Accountability is about the willingness and abilities of public institutions to putin place systems and mechanisms to engage citizen groups, capture and utilizetheir feedback as well as the capacities of the latter to make use of suchplatforms.
Capacity Development Strategies Institutional Reform and Leadership development Incentives • Negotiation • Functional Reviews • Visioning skills • Incentives/Salary reform • Strategic planning • Business processes • Coaching and mentoring • Change management • Ethics • Champions and coalitions • Advocacy • Cross-Cultural CommunicationsEducation and Learning Accountability and Voice • Trainings Mechanisms • Learning events • Peer reviews, Citizen watch • OJT/Exchanges • Monitoring and evaluation • Research • Stakeholder feedback and forums• Participatory processes • Public information campaigns • Group engagement techniques
Some typical CD interventions• Technical and Policy Support, including fielding of high level advisors and technical experts, and conduct of policy studies• Human Resource Development, including provision of various training programs, coaching and mentoring programs, diaspora engagement and brain gain• Grant Schemes to promote and implement capacity development activities;• Performance Support Systems, including incentive systems, salary supplementation schemes;• Facilities and Infrastructure Development, including construction of office buildings and provision of equipment and facilities
Defining and Measuring Capacity Impact: Change in National Development Goals People’s Well-Being National Institutions Outcome: Change in PerformanceInstitutionalPerformance,Stability andAdaptability Stability Adaptability Levers of Change: Capacity Development Core Issues / Responses Institutional Leadership Knowledge Accountability Arrangements • Streamlined • Clearly formulated • Research supply • Audit systems and Processes vision and demand practice standards • Clear definitions • Communication linkage • Participatory Output: of roles and standards mechanism planning Product responsibilities • Management tools • Brain gain and mechanismProduced or • Merit-based • Outreach retention • Stakeholder Service appraisal mechanism strategies feedback Provided mechanism • … • Knowledge mechanism • Coordination sharing tools and • … mechanism mechanism • … • …
For CO Programmes:• Are there strategic institutions whose capacities need to be developed? What menu of CD services should be deployed?• What capacities (at the enabling environment, organizational, individual levels) do we expect to be in place at the end of our programme engagement?• Can we measure change in capacities over time as a result of our programmes?
CD Focus Areas Aid and Development EffectivenessNational Implementation Capacities and Country Systems National and Sectoral CD Strategies Local Service Delivery
UNDP Definitions Related to CapacityCapacity: the ability of individuals, institutions, and societies to performfunctions, solve problems, and set and achieve objectives in a sustainable manner.Capacity Development: the process through which the abilities to do so are obtained, strengthened, adapted and maintained over time.Capacity Assessment: An analysis of current capacities against desiredfuture capacities; this assessment generates an understanding of capacity assets and needs which in turn leads to the formulation of capacity development strategies. 23
Your Capacity Development Team in BRC Albert Soer, CD Practice Leader Mao Kawada, CD Programme Officer Robert Bernardo, CD Policy Specialist