Piloting the INTES assesment in Serbia


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Regional Conference on Fighting Corruption in Education in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 24-25 November, Bratislava
Tinde Kovac Cerovic

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  • Some data based on the Labour Force surveys show that the percentage of early school leavers is even higher (30%), however the percentage in the table (19%) is based on the adding event drop out rates for different grades in primary and secondary education as well as the drop out rate in the transition between primary and secondary education. However this figure is slightly underestimated due to the unreliable data on the percentage of children who have never entered education system (Roma, children with disabilities etc.)
  • Piloting the INTES assesment in Serbia

    1. 1. T ünde Kovacs - Cerovic Serbia, State Secretary for education Piloting the INTES assessment in Serbia Fighting corruption in education
    2. 2. Content <ul><li>Not about the report! </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple motivation for </li></ul><ul><li>undertaking INTES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governmental perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social inclusion perspective * </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Added value of INTES and plans </li></ul><ul><li>for using the results </li></ul>
    3. 3. 1. Educational perspective <ul><li>Create the best context for human learning and development </li></ul><ul><li>School learning and motivation is rare event </li></ul><ul><li>Situated in an imperfect context </li></ul><ul><li>Educationalists try to maximize the </li></ul><ul><li>frequency of learning and minimize </li></ul><ul><li>contextual “intrusion” </li></ul>
    4. 4. Rare event <ul><li>Schools are expected to be </li></ul><ul><li>Places of intimate experience: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Places of development of the Self-concept: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-description/attribution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can they easily become that? </li></ul>
    5. 5. Rare event Serbia
    6. 6. Imperfect context <ul><li>Huge system - covers about 20% of the population in the country, but is </li></ul><ul><li>fragmented into small and dispersed units </li></ul><ul><li>example of country of 6mil </li></ul>No of schools No of facilities No of classes No of teachers No of students G1-G12 1.800 4.500 40.000 70.000 1.100.000
    7. 7. Imperfect context <ul><li>2. Perceived as major mechanism for social/economic promotion –high motivation, high incentives </li></ul>
    8. 8. Imperfect context <ul><li>3. Huge system of human interactions: interests, negotiations, conflicts, clans – all aspects of human nature present </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>4. Asymmetric relationships in its core: student-teacher, child-parent, parent-teacher (lack </li></ul><ul><li>of voice, protectionism) </li></ul>Imperfect context
    10. 10. Imperfect context <ul><li>Parents excluded (Roma parents even more excluded) – recent OSI study </li></ul>
    11. 11. Attended ... Listened ... Heard ... Understood ... Remembered ... Will apply ... Anti-corruption measures are genuinely welcomed Learning can become a really rare event
    12. 12. 2. Government perspective <ul><li>Education reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Equity, Quality, Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Education Development Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>for Serbia 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>Niches of corruption in education can diminish all the reform effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education is human capital development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corruption creates the opposite – waste of human capital* </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. AREAS OF CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS QA, self-evaluation, external evaluation matura Anti-discrimination measures, Violence prevention Outcomes and standards New curricula Quality of teachers (36 ECTS) Capitation formula EIS Clearer roles of schools, parents, students Extended preschool Inclusion of marginalized groups Individual education plans Roma pedagogical assistants Free secondary edu. Recognition of prior learning
    14. 14. Current moment <ul><li>Formulating priorities 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative acts 2009 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation from 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and fine-tuning 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term strategy development 2012-2020 </li></ul><ul><li>Good timing: Independent </li></ul><ul><li>assessment very important </li></ul>
    15. 15. Social benefits Personal benefits teachers ef f i cient e quitable accountable r egul ated participatory textbooks curriculum finan c i ng management assessment evaluation SCHOOL Research Development Policies 2025
    16. 16. Potential niches <ul><li>finan c i ng </li></ul><ul><li>Allocation of resources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leakage in money flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private use of resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ghost teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity of deception </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procurement: </li></ul><ul><li>construction, </li></ul><ul><li>refurbishing, </li></ul><ul><li>maintenance, </li></ul><ul><li>equipment </li></ul><ul><li>school materials </li></ul><ul><li>utility bills </li></ul><ul><li>Allocation of allowances, stipends, places in dormitories </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralized distribution of funds, many transfer steps, </li></ul><ul><li>many actors (tracking the funds needed ) </li></ul><ul><li>BOR </li></ul>
    17. 17. Potential niches <ul><li>assessment </li></ul><ul><li>evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examinations frauds (entry/exit) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion based on bribes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selling diplomas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluating institutions </li></ul><ul><li>manipulating external evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Accrediting institutions, programs </li></ul><ul><li>Major frauds: cases in Serbia: </li></ul><ul><li>Law School University of Kragujevac + Ministry, 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>January </li></ul><ul><li>Enrolment exam for secondary education, 2008 June </li></ul>
    18. 18. Potential niches <ul><li>teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher management: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hiring/firing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deployment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Licensing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Teachers’ responsibilities distorted: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>undue reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>private tutoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>absenteeism, use of sick leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accepting extra fees, gifts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>biased grading </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New regulations, but still low salaries, </li></ul><ul><li>strong teacher unions (case of June 2011 legislation) </li></ul>
    19. 19. Potential niches <ul><li>management </li></ul><ul><li>ethos </li></ul><ul><li>Who is managing and overseeing the schools? </li></ul><ul><li>Appointment of principals/deans/rectors </li></ul><ul><li>Appointment of school boards </li></ul><ul><li>selecting the Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Use of information systems: </li></ul><ul><li>Withholding information, </li></ul><ul><li>changing, manipulating data, </li></ul><ul><li>not producing data.. </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability to students, parents </li></ul><ul><li>Student placements </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulating school boards </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulating parent councils </li></ul><ul><li>Not including students </li></ul><ul><li>Major area of protectionism: student placements – each September </li></ul><ul><li>School principals PE teachers </li></ul>
    20. 20. Policy consequences Public expenditure of education and % of GDP in 2007 ( State Treasury data for Serbia, EUROSTAT for other countries)
    21. 21. Policy consequences <ul><li>Low participation rate (especially of Roma childeren) </li></ul><ul><li>Drop out in primary education </li></ul><ul><li>Drop out between primary and secondary education </li></ul><ul><li>Drop out within secondary education </li></ul>High percentage of early school leavers Data source: EUROSTAT (2008) and National Statistic Office for Serbia (drop out rates) Data for Serbia underestimated due to the data shortages
    22. 22. <ul><li>Added value of INTES </li></ul><ul><li>for Serbia </li></ul>
    23. 23. Added value of INTES <ul><li>Confirmation of vulnerable areas from independent angle </li></ul><ul><li>(important for fine-tuning) </li></ul><ul><li>Assistance in understanding </li></ul><ul><li>bottlenecks in the system </li></ul><ul><li>(important for strategy) </li></ul><ul><li>Assistance in “labeling” risky practicestrengthening the reform agenda </li></ul>
    24. 24. Based on impressions Based on evidence low quality high quality Added value general: Evidence for policymaking
    26. 26. Added value general: Contributing to a developmental context <ul><li>Research and </li></ul><ul><li>monitoring </li></ul>Education Developmental priorities (equity and efficiency) Legal instruments Anti-corruption solutions in other countries
    27. 27. Way to go <ul><li>At least two strands </li></ul><ul><li>Select areas – for quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Select areas – stakeholder </li></ul><ul><li>discussions, participative </li></ul><ul><li>planning </li></ul>
    28. 28. Way to go: stakeholders
    29. 29. <ul><li>Thank you for your attention </li></ul><ul><li>(PS the slides used proved useful </li></ul><ul><li>for communicating education </li></ul><ul><li>reform priorities and processes to the wider public in Serbia) </li></ul>