Montenegro- Research Regarding Capacities and Integrity of the Public Administration


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Montenegro- Research Regarding Capacities and Integrity of the Public Administration

  1. 1. MontenegroResearch regarding capacities and integrityof the public administration in Montenegro © 2009 Ipsos Ipsos Puls. All rights reserved. Contains Ipsos Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be disclosed or reproduced without the prior written consent of Ipsos. Nobody’s Unpredictable
  2. 2. Table of Contents MontenegroIntroduction and methodologyFindings  General population  Public administration staff  NGO’s  Business sector  High level officialsComparative findings for segments: agreement inopinion © 2009 IpsosComparative findings for segments: disagreement inopinionRecommendations 2
  3. 3. Introduction and methodology MontenegroThe aim of the research: capacities and integrity of public administration inMontenegro, with recommendations on how to improve the situationResearch implementers: Directorate for Anti-Corruption Initiative, UNDPMontenegro and Ipsos Puls AgencyFive segments of the research:  General population– 1.155 interviewees, representative sample for general population of Montenegro above the age of 18;  Public administration staff - 200 interviewees;  NGO representatives – 42 interviewees;  Representatives of businesses - 201 interviewees, as well as  Representatives of the managerial staff (high level officials) in public administration, in-depth interviews - 6Research was implemented in the field in the period from early May until the endof July of 2010 © 2009 Ipsos 3
  4. 4. Findings – I General population MontenegroPublic administration authorities moderately satisfy the demands of theirservice users (average 3.3 at the scale ranging from 1 to 5);Accessibility of state authorities and civil servants in them is generallynot a problem for the service users;General level of trust in public administration – moderate (grade 3.4);There is a high level of trust in authorities(President, Government, Parliament, judiciary), as well as the systems:educational system, health and pension system;Among the institutions that are trustworthy, it is only the health sectorthat is perceived as corrupt. Although corruption is perceived to exist inthe health sector, reasons for trust in this segment of publicadministration are as follows: importance of health sector; perception ofgenerally good service in the health sector, especially with regard to bad © 2009 Ipsosworking conditions; health insurance that covers majority of thepopulation. 4
  5. 5. Findings – I General population (2) MontenegroQuality of service in public administration – medium (grade 6.0 on ascale from 1 to 10). School system, health and pension system have thehighest quality of work;The most important elements for employment and promotion in publicadministration are family and friendly ties and political party affiliation ofthe candidate;Negativities in the work of public administration authorities:- too much paperwork (41%),- too many institutions to visit (being sent from one place to the other)(40%),- data is not updated, bad and inefficient service (33%),- corruption (29%). © 2009 IpsosCitizens mostly feel that the level of corruption has been reduced in thepast three years (33% say it’s lower, 34% say it’s the same, 20% say itwent up, 13% don’t know). 5
  6. 6. Findings – II Public administration staff MontenegroGenerally, civil servants gave positive answers to the questions.Still, there is a high number of questions which were not answered;2/3 of the interviewed civil servants say that they are ready to reportcases of corruption if they had any information about it;Over one half of the respondents say that the level of corruption hasbeen reduced as compared to the three preceding years;Greater efforts and better quality performance at work in publicadministration do not lead to increase in wage that is merit based – therewarding system is not adequate. © 2009 Ipsos 6
  7. 7. Findings – III NGO’s MontenegroPublic administration authorities and their staff were mostly accessible tothe NGO representatives, when they tried to contact them;Moderate level of trust in public administration – grade 3.3, scale1 to 5;The highest level of trust in: education (50% of interviewees, grade 4 or5), public enterprises (48%), health (43%), police (41%), tax administration(41%);Decision making within the public administration:professional, autonomous, responsible and timely, but also under politicalinfluence and not too transparent;Quality of work of public administration – moderate, grade 6.1, scale 1 to10. Quality improved over the past three years;Cooperation between public administration and NGO’s – moderately goodlevel of cooperation, grade 3.3, scale 1 to 5; © 2009 IpsosPresence of corruption: moderate (38%), less than three years ago, but stillhigher than in the EU member states. 7
  8. 8. Findings– IV Business sector MontenegroConfidence in public administration – 58% have confidence in it, grade3.5, scale1 to 5;Quality of work of public administration – 45% good, 21% bad, grade3.5;Use of budgetary funds – over one half of the respondents say it is nottransparent, perception is that the political interests have shaped to asignificant extent the regulations regarding public tenders;Work management within institutions – professional (57%), responsible(52%), in accordance with the law (50%), but under political influence(50%);Decision making regarding functioning of the institutions – they aremade in a professional (60%) and responsible (57%) manner; © 2009 IpsosPresence of corruption – 43% feel that corruption is lower than 3 yearsago, 33% feel that corruption is present to a great extent or mostlypresent. Still, only 15% of companies think that corruption is higher now. 8
  9. 9. Findings – High level officials in public administration MontenegroIncreased satisfaction and confidence of citizens in publicadministration, numerous procedures have been simplified and require less timenow, but there is still room for improvements;Low level of satisfaction among civil servants due to: low wages, inadequateworking conditions, non-existence of the rewarding system, are all reasons thatmake it difficult to hire quality and professional staff;Budget execution and public procurement – controlled by numerous competentinstitutions, significantly reduced possibilities for abuse;Quality of work in public administration – improved in the past threeyears, influenced by increase in the number of staff and development of ITsystem;In the fight against corruption, protection of persons reporting corruption hasbeen achieved. Police Directorate and DACI are institutions that enjoy thehighest level of trust, all institutions responsible for fighting corruption are © 2009 Ipsosperceived as successful and independent;More efficient fight requires: greater awareness among citizens, improvedenforcement of legal measures and adequate sanctioning. 9
  10. 10. Comparatrive findings between segments – agreement in opinion MontenegroReduced corruption as compared to three years ago, and better quality of publicadministration services is perceived as better than three years ago. There is progressmade, things are moving in the right direction. Currently, optimum has not been achieved, thereis still a lot of room for improvements, but situation is definitely better than before. Definitely, themain positive finding in the whole research.Complicated procedures for service provision represent a bigger problem thancorruption, too much sending from door to door, complicated procedures, bad organization ofwork, inability to do everything at one place, a lot of paper work, are all stated as biggerproblems in the functioning of the public administration institutions than corruption itself. Thus, itis necessary to properly position corruption, it represents a serious problem due to itsnature, even if it occurs only sporadically, but it is not the only problem and definitely not thebiggest one for the service users. The issue of capacities and all aspects of service provisionshould be treated in a systemic manner, and corruption is one segment in all that.Bad position of public administration staff, non-existence of the adequate rewarding systemand motivation to perform better, low level of satisfaction among staff, wages should behigher, these are problems recognized by all segments. Besides, bad working conditions, highturnover of staff, better conditions in the private sector, thus, the lack of staff (things stated bythe civil servants and managerial staff (high level official), as segments with better insight. Civil © 2009 Ipsosservants represent a weak link in the chain, so they must be tackled in a systemic andprofessional manner, within the given limitations. Otherwise, there sill be an impact of such aposition of staff on their performance at work, thus, on the overall feelings and occurrence ofcorruption. 10
  11. 11. Comparatrive findings between segments–disagreement in opinion Montenegro Level of corruption, general population, business sector, and to a lesser extent NGOs feel that corruption is widely present, while civil servants state that corruption is a sporadic phenomenon, and high level officials say that they did not have direct experience with corruption, and that the legal framework, controls and transparency in the operations remove the possibilities for corruption to occur. Similar views exist when it comes to answers to other questions regarding functioning of the public administration. Level of knowledge about institutions responsible for the fight against corruption, NGOs, businesses and especially the general population do not know well the individual institutions and do not have a lot of information about them. E.g. DACI is known by 49% of the citizens, 76% of NGO representatives, and 71% of companies. Service providers have a much greater level of knowledge about the institutions responsible for fight against corruption. One thing that is common to all is that they have the best level of knowledge about the Police Directorate. Due to specific knowledge and experience of various groups, this was an expected result, and it is necessary to work on educating and informing these various groups. Perception of corruption initiators, civil servants feel that employees in public administration rarely initiate or propose corruption; high level officials, by rule, do not believe in that concept that employees could be the corruption initiators or proposers (they believe that it is the service users who are motivated to initiate corruption), although they don’t exclude this possibility; while © 2009 Ipsos general population, companies and to a lesser extent NGOs believe that the initiators and proposers of corruption are often the public administration employees (although it does not mean that public administration employees are perceived as exclusive corruption initiators). Service users see problems as much bigger, while service providers are much more careful in speaking about shortcomings and problems in the functioning of the public administration 11
  12. 12. Recommendations – Part I MontenegroSimplification of services to the users, due to excessive paper work and too much sendingfrom door to door; complicated procedures and bad organization of work, which were mentionedas the most common problems in the work of public administration. It is necessary to analyzecritical points in the provision of various services to the users in public administration institutionsand to identify problems and ways to resolve them.Introduce a one-stop-shop system for services, solve problems of the users and provideservices at one place, where this is possible, and inform the users where those types ofsolutions already exist.Encourage service users and employees in public administration to report cases ofcorruption: a)ensure anonymity of the ones who report it, without anonymity and feeling ofsecurity there is no corruption reporting, and b) create a realistic belief that reporting isworthwhile, i.e. reported cases will be investigated and processed, and if suspicion is supportedby evidence, the perpetrators will be adequately sanctioned.Inform the public about real employment and promotion criteria in the institutions ofpublic administration, general population, business sector and NGOs feel that employmentand promotion in public administration are influenced by family and friendly relations and partyaffiliation of the candidates. On the other hand, employees and high level officials in publicadministration emphasize as important elements the education, expertise and experience of the © 2009 Ipsoscandidate, as well as the role of HRMA. It is necessary to bring the views of service users andservice providers (public administration) closer regarding this important issue. Trust of theservice users in the public administration institutions depends on the way in which service usersperceive employees in public administration. 12
  13. 13. Recommendations – Part II MontenegroConduct an analysis of employee satisfaction in public administration, because 61% of theemployees say that they are dissatisfied, determine the causes ofsatisfaction/dissatisfaction, motivation for the employees, etc. Without satisfied employees inpublic administration, there is no progress when it comes to performance.Develop a system of rewarding the employees in public administrationinstitutions, because such a system does not exist in most of the institutions, and the existingsystem of wage determination is not motivating for the staff. It is necessary to develop a systemthat will connect in a transparent manner the performance, efforts invested and expertise withthe wage, thus encouraging the employees to greater commitment in the fulfillment of theirtasks.Increase level of knowledge about the institutions responsible for fight againstcorruption, except for the Police Directorate and DACI, other institutions are not so well knownby the general population and other service users; at least 1/3 of the adult citizens have notheard of the other institutions.Harmonize perception of budget execution and public procurement among service usersand public administration institutions, citizens, businesses and NGOs feel that budgetaryprocesses in public administration are not transparent and that there is a high level of influenceof politics on public procurement. On the other hand, service providers believe the opposite, by © 2009 Ipsosrule, that there is transparency and things operate as they should, they emphasize thateverything is accessible on the internet. It is necessary to reduce that gap in perception of bugetexecution and public procurement and to inform the service users about the possibilities formonitoring these aspects of work of public administration institutions. 13
  14. 14. Recommendations – Part III MontenegroHarmonize the perception of service users and service providers regarding transparencyof services and access to public administration resources, because the service userscomplain that: they cannot get insight into documents and acts; that revenues are not spent in atransparent manner, there is politization (illegal issuance of construction permits), etc., while civilservants recognize those problems to a lesser extent. It is necessary to continuously inform theusers about possibilities and manners of work of public administration, as well as about the legalprovisions regarding free access to information.Further awareness raising regarding the issue of corruption, further progress in the fightagainst corruption cannot be achieved without the use of preventive measures. Education aboutcorruption and consequences of corruption, as well as about the sanctions for corruption can beeffective.Proposal of stricter punishment for corruption, this was often mentioned as one of theaspects that could affect reduction in corruption. It could be useful to use the punishment to setexamples (deterrent effect of sanctions).Capacity building with regard to the functioning of public administration institutions asan anti-corruption measures. Public administration that functions well and provides effectiveservice to the citizens does not motivate the citizens and businesses to engage incorruption, they receive satisfactory service through regular procedures. Increased number of © 2009 Ipsosstaff, increased expertise of the staff, better working conditions in the public administrationinstitutions, IT system development (digitalization) are some of the examples of measures thatcan be used within the given financial situation. 14
  15. 15. Recommendations – Part IV MontenegroLegal regulations as an anti-corruption measures, law enforcement and implementation oflegal measures, clearer regulations and procedures of action represent measures that are alsoseen by all as contributing to suppression of corruption.Greater role of the media, publication of cases of corruption, informing the citizens and otherusers of public administration services about their rights and ways to exercise them, possibilitiesto report corruption, etc, awareness raising, education and change of perception were oftenmentioned in this report as important factors for the functioning of a good public administration.Cooperation with NGOs in the fight against corruption, should be intensified and improvedin the upcoming period. © 2009 Ipsos 15