International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women 2011

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International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women 2011

  1. 1. International Day for the Eliminationof Violence Against WomenUnpacking the impact of policies on gender-based violence
  2. 2. Definitions• According to CEDAW general recommendation 19 (1992) “gender-based violence is a form of discrimination that seriously inhibits womens ability to enjoy rights and freedoms on a basis of equality with men”. “CEDAW GR 19 defines gender based violence as “violence that is directed against a woman because she is a woman or that affects women disproportionately”.• The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women (1993) Defines Violence Against women as “any act of gender- based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such act, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life”• Article 3 of Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (2011) defines violence against women “as a violation of human rights and a form of discrimination against women”; (also incorporates above definitions)
  3. 3. Forms of gender based violence• UN Secretary General’s Report (2006) identifies the following forms of violence against women Female genital mutilation Domestic violence Forced pregnancy Harmful practices Forced sterilization Maltreatment of widows Female infanticide Marital rape Femicide So-called ‘honor’ crimes Sexual harassment Dowry-related violence Sexual violence Acid throwing Sexual violence in situations of Early marriage armed conflict Stalking Forced marriage Trafficking
  4. 4. Gender based violence in Numbers• Women aged 15-44 are more at risk from rape and domestic violence than from cancer,motor accidents, war and malaria, according to (World Bank data).• Worldwide, up to 6 in 10 women have suffered physical and/or sexual violence in theirlifetime. (Most of this violence takes place within intimate relationships, with many women reporting their husbands or partners as theperpetrator)- UN Women fact sheet)• Globally, 603 million women live in countries where domestic violence is not yet considereda crime. (Today 125 countries have specific laws that penalize domestic violence however Violence against women remains one of themost widespread human rights violations yet one of the least prosecuted crimes) (UN WOMEN)•In Europe 12% to 15% of women face violence in their home every day. (Source :European Commission)•Over 60 million girls are child brides and some 100 to 140 million girls and women haveexperienced female genital mutilation/cutting. (UNICEF)•More than 600,000 women and girls are trafficked across borders each year, the vastmajority for sexual exploitation. (UNWOMEN)
  5. 5. Indicators and data collection Current core set of statistical indicators for measuring violence against women (“noted with satisfaction” by the UN Statistical Commission at the last meeting in February 2011)1. Total and age specific rate of women subjected to physical violence in the last 12 months by severity of violence, relationship to the perpetrator and frequency2. Total and age specific rate of women subjected to physical violence during lifetime by severity of violence, relationship to the perpetrator and frequency3. Total and age specific rate of women subjected to sexual violence in the last 12 months by severity of violence, relationship to the perpetrator and frequency4. Total and age specific rate of women subjected to sexual violence during lifetime by severity of violence, relationship to the perpetrator and frequency5. Total and age specific rate of ever-partnered women subjected to sexual and/or physical violence by current or former intimate partner in the last 12 months by frequency6. Total and age specific rate of ever-partnered women subjected to sexual and/or physical violence by current or former intimate partner during lifetime by frequency7. Total and age specific rate of women subjected to psychological violence in the past 12 months by the intimate partner8. Total and age specific rate of women subjected to economic violence in the past 12 months by the intimate partner9. Total and age specific rate of women subjected to female genital mutilation
  6. 6. Indicators and data collection• Violence against Women Prevalence Data: Surveys by Country (85 countries)• http://www.endvawnow.org/uploads/browser /files/vaw_prevalence_matrix_15april_2011.p df
  7. 7. Factors that perpetuate gender based violence1. Cultural- Gender specific socialization- Cultural definitions of appropriate sex roles- Expectation of roles both of men and women- Customs of marriage- Acceptability of violence as means to resolve conflict2. Economic- Women’s economic dependence on men- Limited access to financial resources- Discriminatory laws regarding access to property, inheritance , and maintenance after divorce or widowhood- Limited access to employment in formal and informal sector- Limited access to education and training for women
  8. 8. Factors that perpetuate gender based violence3. Legal- Lack of gender sensitive laws- Lesser legal status of women either by written law or practice- Laws regarding divorce, child custody, inheritance….- Legal definition of rape and domestic abuse- Low levels of legal literacy among women- Gender insensitive treatment of women and girls by police and judiciary4. Political- Under- representation of women in decision making , (politics, private sector, media …)- Limited organization of women as political force- Limited participation of women in political systems
  9. 9. The Socio-Economic costs of violence against women and girlsThe socio economic costs of VAW• Direct costs : value of goods and services used on treating or responding to violence (medical, police, criminal justice, housing, social services)2. Intangible/ Non monetary costs : pain (increased morbidity, abuse of alcohol and drugs, depressions ,fuels HIV/ AIDS epidemic)3. Economic effects : decreased labour market participation, reduced productivity on the job, lower earnings, intergenerational impacts as lower education attainment of children, decreased savings4. Social effects: reduced quality of life, impact on participation in democratic life, erosion of social capitalCosts of VAW:• US$1.38 million annually (as of 2006) in Macedonia. (Gancheva, et. al., 2006) - includes the criminal justice and social system, as well as costs to NGOs (highest)• Costs of domestic violence alone in England and Wales (Walby 2004) are 32.9 billions of Euros x year• In Europe 27 states the costs are €1 million every half hour (European Commission)• In CoE region, 33 billion Euros x year (Council of Europe)
  10. 10. What works: Investments in Women’sEmpowerment and Gender Equality
  11. 11. UN Women’s ED Ms Bachelet’s comprehensive policy agenda16 steps:Today, 25th NOV, STEP 1:Ratify international and regional treaties … that protect the rights of women and girls, and ensure that national laws and services meet international human righst standards.
  12. 12. Ready?• Do you know your facts on violence against women? Take the Say NO quiz and find out! Whats more, every point you score counts towards the Say NO action counter.• http://www.saynotoviolence.org/quiz

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