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Gender Issues in the Context of Low Emissions Development Strategies


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Gender Issues in the Context of Low Emissions Development Strategies

  1. 1. Gender Issuesin the Context of LEDS Komila Rakhimova Good Governance Unit UNDP Uzbekistan
  2. 2. In a nutshell• human development concept• gender (in)equality• incorporating gender issues into strategies and programs• gender, climate change, low-carbon development• recommendations
  3. 3. human development concept• women and men – the real wealth of nations – in center of attention• goal – to create an environment and opportunities for capacity development in line with needs and interests of people• long, healthy, and creative life of women and men• not only developing abilities and promoting opportunities (agency), but also using these opportunities at work, leisure time, and social activities (empowerment).• not only economic growth, but also equitable and sustainable distribution of results (between generations and social groups)
  4. 4. gender• biological differences at birth serve as a substantiation and justification for social sex (gender)• different positions and responsibilities, behavior standards and activities associated with women and men• determine the rights they enjoy, resources and powers at their disposal; the role in a family, society and economy• gender norms usually represent women as less important and weaker than men and as irrational and poor managers• unequal status of women results in differences between the contribution they make into human development as participants and how little they actually participate in the distribution of results and benefits• inequality in education and other opportunities, access to resources, decision-making, number of working hours, wage gaps, and life expectancy• under-usage of a vast human resource and innovative potential (half of humankind)
  5. 5. Statistics (worldwide)• Women make up 67% of all work worldwide (including household chores and informal labor)• They dedicate more time to housework compared to men (from 1 to 3 hours), from 2 to 10 more hours to child care and attending to the elderl, and sick family members, and from 1 to 4 hours less on productive activity• They produce from 45 to 90% of food (depending on the region), but earn only 10 % of global income. Women account for 70% of the poor• 99% of property and decision-making power is in the hands of men• In this context, men live less than women by an average of 4-5 years, while in “leading” countries they live 10-13 years less (Russia, Ukraine)• Even with increasing numbers of women at the level of decision- making, women-ministers are frequently entrusted with the management of social, rather than economic portfolio
  6. 6. Statistics (Uzbekistan)Year Academic General Professional Higher Lyceums Education Colleges Education Facilities Institutions Girls to boys2006 0.564 0.944 0.983 0.693 ratio (1=equal)2007 0.64 0.946 0.988 0.6632008 0.667 0.947 1.003 0.679 Women representSector Employed Employed Women, % Men, % more than 50% ofIndustry 42 58 population, but 22% ofForestry and Agriculture 51.1 48.9 the government, 6.2%Construction 12.8 87.2 of executive powerTransport and 17.3 82.7 and 21% of judicialCommunication power.ManagementTrade 53.7 46.3 positions in economy -Health Care, Sports, 78.3 21.7 27% of women andSocial Security 73% of men; womenEducation, Culture, 68.7 31.3 account for only 23%Science of all entrepreneurs.Finances, Credits, 45.5 54.5Insurance
  7. 7. Gender Equality• Does not mean sameness or complete reversal in the roles of women and men• Means that different behaviors, aspirations, and needs of women and men are taken into consideration equally• Differences do not serve as a pretext for discrimination or infringement of rights• Rights, responsibilities, and opportunities do not depend on one’s sex• Women and men have equal conditions for exercising their human rights and contributing to and enjoying the results of economic, social, and political development• Smart Economics - increase in productivity, improved wellbeing (especially in children), sustainability, inclusiveness, and representativeness of institutions and decision-making processes.
  8. 8. Gender Equality and Development Equality in a household, employment, and society (access to resources, finances, and decision-making) Improved access of women Higher level of health care and Increased voice of women in decision- to markets education services for women making and household Improved health ofHigher level of women’s participation in the labor market and childrenincreased productivity and incomes Higher incomes / expenses Better health and education = better productivity in adulthood More savings Poverty reduction and improved economic Further poverty reduction and economic development development
  9. 9. Gender Mainstreaming in Programs and Strategies Women and Development Gender and Development (the 70s-80s) (beginning in the 90s) diagnosis women/girls gender relations goals, women/girls women, men, strategies, girls and boys actions all categories monitoring change in the status of women and boys, and women/girls girls and boys evaluation• assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in any area and at all levels• experiences of women and men are indispensable element in design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programs• the goal is to achieve progress results of equal value for women and men, and to eradicate inequality
  10. 10. Gender, Climate Change, LED- as resources dwindle, catastrophes and - climate changes, diseases become more frequent, women environmental deterioration tend to spend more time on housework, and shrinking natural care for the sick, and obtaining energy resources impact women and thus reducing their time on education, men in different ways rest, and etc. - their health, workload and- according to LSE study of 141 natural social stance, and disasters – in societies with greater opportunities (risks and equality of sexes, both women and men adaptation) suffer equally, while in societies with less - for climate change equality – there are more casualties adaptation and mitigation among women and children strategies to be effective,- for example, women are more vulnerable they need to consider during floods – 75% of victims in the 2004 differences and tsunami in Asia were women and children vulnerabilities of women (due to limited mobility and knowledge as and men well as various responsibilities)
  11. 11. Gender, Climate Change, LED - Women and men have unequal access to and control over natural resources (property, accessWhat types of to knowledge and credits, mobility)energy do - Energy needs, using energy and experiencewomen and vary between women and men (gender-basedmen use? Whatfor? How the division of labor)types of energy - For better effectiveness and targetedness,influence health behavioral and practice change strategiesand workload of should consider these differencesmen/women? - Equal involvement of women into decision-What type ofemissions are making on issues related to environment andmore harmful? climate change (from households to international negotiations) will tap on their knowledge and practices and increase the number of solutions and innovations
  12. 12. Gender, Climate Change, LED• any reforms, innovations, changes in the sector, including LEDS, projects for carbon markets funds and the UN Carbon Facility, and climate change mitigation and financing initiativeы may have different effects on women and men• they may either improve or worsen the employment opportunities, health, income, household workload distribution, access to resources and new knowledge for women and men, empowerment of women and gender equality• paying attention gender issues and gender mainstreaming, women’s involvement in decision making and acquiring knowledge, taking into account the different roles and responsibilities of women and men, gender-based division of labor, the use of their expertise and attention to their needs will improve the outcomes and effectiveness of policies and programs• For example, “Achieving Sustainability of Ecosystems on Degraded Land in Karakalpakstan and the Kyzylkum Desert” project
  13. 13. Gender, Climate Change, LED• Goal: to pilot, evaluate and disseminate innovative approaches and practices for sustainable land management and conservation of ecosystem stability• post-Aral, few alternative sources of income, traditionally cattle-breeding is developed, land degradation, non- diversified diet• training events and farming learning sessions usually attended by men• the project team did not have sufficient understanding and skills of gender mainstreaming• gender expert was attracted and training for the team, community assessment and mobilization were carried out
  14. 14. Gender, Climate Change, LED • division of labor (household plots, pastures), different interests, unused additional workforce • training for women and children from 40 families in the field of farming school • master courses in farming, new plants, processing and making preserves • 6 hectares of plots, contest for the best green yard at two schools, business plans (greenhouse, sewing shop) • development of microclimate, additional income for families • improved diet, increased participation of women
  15. 15. Recommendations• determine the picture of gender (in) equality - gender analysis of the sector • what is the access to and control over resources among men/women? • have gender roles and needs of men/women been taken into account? • who is engaged in what activity (division of labor)? • who decides on and controls incomes/expenses? • what knowledge and experiences do women and men have?• consultations with beneficiaries of both sexes• collection of data disaggregated by sex, region, age and etc.• special sub-components and positive discrimination measures to eliminate inequalities (+ $)• incorporation of gender indicators into programs/strategies to assess the equality of results for women and men• awareness raising and capacity building on gender issues for all parties involved• consultations with womens NGOs and gender experts• improving the participation of women as beneficiaries and decision makers (including, at least, 30% quota of the opposite sex)