Future government a global perspective in connection to open government

1,581 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,581
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
509
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
38
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Excellencies, Distinguished Guests, Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honour for me to represent the United Nations at this prestigious conference. I would first like to thank to the organizers, Ministry of the Interior and Administration, and the European Commission under the Polish Presidency of the European Union. Europe is recognized globally as a hub of cutting-edge e-government research and innovative applications. In my Division at the United Nations, we also constantly strive to put e-governance to work for the needs of people in achieving the internationally agreed development goals including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Indeed, e-governance has gained widespread traction, in both developed and developing countries. My presentation will attempt to give a global perspective of the future government in connection to the subject of this plenary session: Challenges and Opportunities of Open Government.
  • We now live in an information age. [next] I would like to call that the Net Generation, in particular the Mobile Generation. The global population is now seven billion. There are more than 4 billion people paying for mobile service and about 5 billion mobile phones will be in service by end of this year 2011. This is a milestone that offers unprecedented challenges and opportunities to all. [next] Around the world, we are constantly challenged by economic progress and competitiveness, social changes and responsibilities and last but not least environmental impact and protection. And the world [the world or member states???] finds itself far from realizing the development agenda. For instance, Development gains are being outpaced by population growth. Too many people still live in extreme poverty. Too many children die of preventable causes. Unsustainable consumption continues to erode the health of our ecosystems. Collectively as the United Nations, we need to work harder to strengthen integration and balance among the social, economic and environmental pillars of sustainable development. Our goal is to advance development for all, especially the most vulnerable. To this end, t he imperatives for Future Government are being shaped by these fundamental factors.
  • Just as the cube can be unfolded into six squares, there are 6 characteristics of the Future Government, interconnected and interdependent. The Future Government needs to be Citizen-centric, that is, working for the people; Inclusive, that is, striving for equality for all; Innovative, that is, constantly re-invent itself to be more efficient; Agile, that is, being adaptive to changes including technological advancement and emerging trends of the socio-economic and environmental factors; Open, transparent and accountable, for effective governance; and Connected, for collaborative governance. I would like to reiterate that all these 6 areas are all interconnected and equally important.
  • At the United Nations, through the UN Public Administration Programme, which my Division is responsible for, we have been working hard to advance development for all, especially the most vulnerable. In assisting the UN Member States in fostering efficient, effective, transparent, accountable, clean and citizen-centered public governance and administration, we focus on Institutional and human resource development Electronic government and mobile government Citizen engagement in managing development Open government data. [next] These 4 focus areas aim to advance public governance for the future, in building a “Future Government” that is [next] c itizen-centric, agile, innovative, inclusive, open, transparent and accountable, and connected, as indicated in my earlier slide. In particular, in addressing the emerging trends of open government, we have started conducting research on Open Government Data and Privacy since the beginning of the 2010. I shall share with you more about our initial findings in the following slides.
  • Through the UN Public Administration Programme, we deliver the following services: 1. Advocacy and Knowledge-sharing 2. Training and Advisory Assistance 3. Analytical Research Our work on Open Government includes the collection and analysis of legal and institutional frameworks, and also services provided by the 193 UN Member States. We not only look at openness of the government but also check the other side of the coin, that is, privacy and security. Specifically, we look at: Provide access to Government Information Freedom of Information Act Public Information Disclosure Act Data Privacy Act Financial Disclosure for Senior Government Officials In addition, we look at number of countries that publish information through Open Data Catalogues Through the UN Public Administration Programme, we deliver the following services: 1. Advocacy and Knowledge-sharing 2. Training and Advisory Assistance 3. Analytical Research Our work on Open Government includes the collection and analysis of legal and institutional frameworks, and also services provided by the 193 UN Member States. We not only look at openness of the government but also check the other side of the coin, that is, privacy and security. Specifically, we look at: Provide access to Government Information Freedom of Information Act Public Information Disclosure Act Data Privacy Act Financial Disclosure for Senior Government Officials In addition, we look at number of countries that publish information through Open Data Catalogues Finally, we also do research on e-government and e-participation development, on a bi-annual basis.
  • I believe that it’s our common understanding that there is a close relationship between open data and open services The availability of open data, we believe, leads to greater e-participation, which in turn moves e-government higher in the spectrum in achieving the development goals. The opposite applies. With less open data, one can expect that that there will be more gaps in e-participation and e-government, and as a result, there are further removed from achieving the development goals. [please check that this wording is okay???]
  • Open Government is important for all public agencies around the world. Today, many participants have spoken about its benefits. I will give you one recent example from your region, from the EU Ombudsman. In 2010, the most common subject of complaints to the European Ombudsman was the lack of transparency and the refusal to access information, nearly 1 out of 3 complaints was in this category. That is to say, there is still some work to be done by EU Governments in this area, not to mention other parts of the world.
  • I will now present global statistics from my Division’s research. As you know, the United Nations must cover all 193 UN Member States, no matter how small or how big they are. The first statistics are on legislation related to accessing government data. Freedom of Information Acts/Legislations can serve as the stepping stone towards Open Government. This pie chart gives you the overall picture: Currently, 90 of the 193 UN Member States have a specific legislation on FOI, and 22 only have a constitutional provision which grants citizens a right of free access to governmental information, with no separate or draft legislation regarding FOI. There are 26 Member States currently discussing drafts of FOI laws. A total of 55 UN Member States have no FOI legislation, nor are they discussing any legislative measures on FOI.
  • When we look at the situation in different regions, we see a great diversity. As you can see, the majority of the countries in Africa have no such legislation. [??? – in contrast to Europe …???]
  • The situation is much better in Europe. European UN Member States have the highest density of FOI laws worldwide, that is, the vast majority, 91% of European Member States have FOI legislation.
  • If we look at the timeline of enacted date for these legislations, we see that: Scandinavian countries have adopted the first FOI Legislation, with Sweden dating the origins of its modern provisions to the 18th century, and Finland following In 1990, only 13 countries had adopted national FOI laws, whereas the situation is much better right now as explained before
  • Another recent trends in access to government data, is being proactive and publishing data in government websites, usually called, open government data catalogues - or OGD catalogues. As you can see, only a minority of UN Member States, 42 out of 193, or 22% facilitate an OGD catalogue. As you all know, the Open Government Data movement has recently gained momentum, major drivers can be listed as: The President of the United States Barack Obama, on his first day in Office, signed a memorandum that instructed government agencies to share information with the public through online, open, accessible, and machine-readable formats. The United Kingdom, starting 18 November 2010, as part of its ongoing drive to make government more accountable, efficient and transparent than ever before, all departments started to publish details of their spending over £25,000 for the last six months through their open data platform. In 2011, the Open Government Partnership, a new multilateral initiative, was launched in order to secure concrete commitments from governments to promote transparency, empower citizens, fight corruption, and harness new technologies to strengthen governance. Around 47 countries endorsed the partnership as of October 2011.
  • When we look at the regional view, we see that EU Member States [EU MS??? Or UN MS in Europe???] are also leading in the open government data area. Currently, 24 countries in Europe (56%) publish their data in open formats in dramatic contrast to other regions. http://www.UNPAN.org/DPADM/ Division for Public Administration and Development Management
  • Major points related to accessing government data are as follows: Comprehensive Freedom of Information laws are the first step towards Open Government Data initiatives. However, a Freedom of Information law itself does not guarantee that the right to access information is actually granted to citizens. FOIA vary to a great extent. Research by the OECD shows that the width and depth of Freedom of Information laws vary even among European UN Member States. Typically there is no strong supporting legislation for Open Government Data Catalogues, therefore, the danger of shutting down OGD Catalogues due to financial concerns is present. FOIA are mostly used by media and NGOs - most citizens are not even aware of these laws or simply don’t make use of them. OGD is still in a very early stage of its development but it has the potential to lower the barrier for citizens to stay informed and to oversee the actions of their governments.
  • Let’s now move to the other side of the coin, that is, privacy and security. Openness and data privacy and protection must be well balanced. Data published through Open Government Data portals must not include the personal information of citizens. These concerns are usually overcome by preventing certain data sets from being shared with the public through legal means, such as Data Protection Acts, Privacy Laws and others. Global situation in data protection and privacy is seen in the slide: only 39% of UN Member States have Data Privacy (DP) legislation, 6% are discussing drafts, and 4% provide basic protection through constitutional provisions of DP (mainly South America - Habeas Data provisions) whereas 51% don’t have any DP legislation http://www.UNPAN.org/DPADM/ Division for Public Administration and Development Management
  • When we look at the regional view in data privacy, we notice similar situation like we have seen in access to gov’t information. No legislation in majority of Africa, while the vast majority of European Member States (42 of 43, Montenegro being the only country without data privacy legislation) have implemented privacy protection legislation. Globally only a minority of non-European Member States have done so (36 out of 150). http://www.UNPAN.org/DPADM/ Division for Public Administration and Development Management
  • Major findings related to gov’t data privacy are as follows: Thanks to EU-wide policies, Europe is ahead of the curve in legislation related to data privacy and protection. Comprehensive privacy legislation is necessary for successful Open Government initiatives in order to overcome concerns of politicians, public administrators and citizens regarding Open Government Data. Strong institutional framework is necessary for access to gov’t data and data privacy.
  • The last point takes us to the Institutional Framework. As you can see: Currently, 53 of the 193 Member States (nearly 30%) offer an independent Freedom of Information and/or Data Protection body to oversee government regulations. There us a worldwide lack of Institutional Framework to facilitate the implementation and oversight of Freedom of Information and Data Privacy for UN Member States. However, the vast majority of European UN Member States facilitate an independent Freedom of Information and Data Privacy Body. http://www.UNPAN.org/DPADM/ Division for Public Administration and Development Management
  • We see a very similar trend in the e-participation index. Europe again receives the highest score. Asia, however, leads as the second place, performing better than the Americas in the third place. Africa continues to lag far below the world average. Indeed, there is close co-relation between e-government and e-participation. Countries that fare well in overall e-government index are those that have also done well for e-participation. I would like to underscore that some developing and transition countries such as Bahrain, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Estonia, Lithuania and Malaysia, have made to the top 35 in e-government and e-participation. Globally there is still a huge potential for all countries to perform better in e-participation. And one channel is through providing more open government data and promoting open services including co-creating public services with other stakeholders.
  • We see a very similar trend in the e-participation index. Europe again receives the highest score. Asia, however, leads as the second place, performing better than the Americas in the third place. Africa continues to lag far below the world average. Indeed, there is close co-relation between e-government and e-participation. Countries that fare well in overall e-government index are those that have also done well for e-participation. I would like to underscore that some developing and transition countries such as Bahrain, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Estonia, Lithuania and Malaysia, have made to the top 35 in e-government and e-participation. Globally there is still a huge potential for all countries to perform better in e-participation. And one channel is through providing more open government data and promoting open services including co-creating public services with other stakeholders.
  • In the 2010 Survey, we see that Europe receives the highest score followed by the Americas. The Asian region is slightly above the world average, but the Republic of Korea is the exception, as it stands at the top of 2010 global rankings in the e-government development index. Africa continues to lag far below the world average, given that most of the world’s least developed countries are in this region and they generally lack the financial and human resources to fully implement e-government.
  • I believe that it’s our common understanding that there is a close relationship between open data and open services The availability of open data, we believe, leads to greater e-participation, which in turn moves e-government higher in the spectrum in achieving the development goals. The opposite applies. With less open data, one can expect that that there will be more gaps in e-participation and e-government, and as a result, there are further removed from achieving the development goals. [please check that this wording is okay???]
  • I would like to highlight 2 new indicators which are included in the upcoming edition of the UN E-Government Survey, both of which hich are in close connection to Open Government: On Open Government: The Survey checks if open government initiatives are promoted in national government portals. - Worldwide, only 25% of government national websites had such statement. 50% of the European Member States had such statements on their website On Social Media: The Survey assesses the presence of social media in national government portals. - 77 government websites, or nearly 40%, have presence in Facebook, Twitter or other mainstream social media. - 22 countries or 51% in Europe, are currently using social media as e-participation tool. We will have more indicators to come as our research continues in this area.
  • Degree of Openness  similar to degree of openness of economy,
  • You will agree with me that mobile government will continue to be a growing trend and is definitely here to stay. It’s important to provide the “Right Data”. To elaborate, - There is need: First, to enhance quality and quantity of data Second, to provide demand-driven data And third, to use common standards for value-added usability and scalability It’s also equally important to promote the “Right” Services, which encompasses One, providing demand-driven services And two, co-creating services with citizens. We should also note that There is also a need to provide more relevant training and other capacity building activities, both at the national and sub-national levels investment in order to embrace open government It is also critical to c reate and institutionalize a culture of open government, including such as the appointment of the information and privacy commissoner or equivalent at the national level. As in all policy, the devil is in its detail of implementation. Constant evaluation and monitoring is needed to ensure continuity.
  • Our research on Open Government data is all part of the United Nations Public Administration Country Studies, or UNPACS in short. UNPACS is developed through a niche and identified need, that is, the reach and convening power of the United Nations allows it to provide complete and up-to-date information and assessment of areas that can lead to the accelerated achievement of the internationally agreed development agenda including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The first phase of UNPACS development will focus on the following areas: Open government data, as I have discussed in brief earlier; Codes of conduct; E-Government strategies/policies; CIOs or equivalents; National institutions/systems on citizen engagement, etc. As part of the UN Secretariat, we hope that UNPACS can assist the UN Member States in enhancing their capacities to deliver quality public services that are efficient, effective, transparent, accountable, less corrupted and citizen-oriented. By providing country research data and information or all 193 Member States, UNPACS will e nable governments and all stakeholders in making evidence-based decisions for the implementation of internationally agreed development agenda including the MDGs.
  • Finally, I would like to conclude with one important message. As I mentioned in my introduction, there are 3 dimensions of sustainable development – social, economic and environmental. In sustainable development, there are two key concepts: First is the concept of 'needs', in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and Second, the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs. In pursuance of global sustainable development, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) will take place in Brazil on 20-22 June 2012. It is envisaged as a Conference at the highest possible level, including Heads of State and Government or other representatives. The objective of the Conference is to secure renewed political commitment for sustainable development, assess the progress to date and the remaining gaps in the implementation of the outcomes of the major summits on sustainable development, and address new and emerging challenges And the outcomes, inter alia, including important cross-cutting issues such as e-governance, will be channeled into the Post 2015 Development Agenda. Open government as a key component in Future Government, contributes to sustainable development, through enhanced dialogue and policy making increased transparency in public sector as well as internal efficiency and effectiveness Let’s work together for the development of all as we approach 2015.
  • Thank you for your attention.
  • Future government a global perspective in connection to open government

    1. 1. Future Government A Global Perspective in Connection to Open Government Ms. Haiyan Qian Director Division for Public Administration and Development Management (DPADM) Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) United Nations
    2. 2. The Net (Mobile) Generation Economic Social Environment FUTURE GOVERNMENT
    3. 3. Future Government is … Citizen-Centric ▼ “ For the People” Inclusive ▼ Equality Agile ▼ Adaptive to Changes Open, Transparent, Accountable ▼ Effective Governance Innovative ▼ Efficient Connected ▼ Collaborative Governance
    4. 4. UN Public Administration Programme Future Government = Citizen-centric + Agile + Innovative + Inclusive + Open, Transparent and Accountable + Connected (Since 1948) Advancing Public Governance for the Future Electronic and Mobile Government Institutional and Human Resource Development Citizen Engagement in Managing Development Open Government Data
    5. 5. UN Public Administration Programme <ul><li>Advocacy and Knowledge-sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Training and Advisory Assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical Research (related to open government data) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of Information Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Privacy Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Government Data Catalogues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information and Privacy Commissioners or Equivalents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Government Development Index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Participation Index </li></ul></ul>(Since 1948)
    6. 6. Why Open Government Data? E-Participation E-Government & E-Governance Open Data Open Services
    7. 7. Why Open Government Data? Complaints received by the European Ombudsman 2010 2,667 33% of complaints was related to lack of transparency in the EU Administration. This included refusal of information and of access to documents. Source: European Ombudsman
    8. 8. Access to Information – Global View Source: DPADM/UNDESA Ongoing Research
    9. 9. Access to Information – Regional View 43 Member States 14 Member States 47 Member States 35 Member States 54 Member States 47% 19% 17% 17% 57% 17% 20% 6% 41% 17% 6% 36% 91% 2% 7% 14% 21% 51% 14% Source: DPADM/UNDESA Ongoing Research
    10. 10. Access to Information - Europe Source: DPADM/UNDESA Ongoing Research
    11. 11. FOIA – Timeline of Selected Countries
    12. 12. OGD Catalogues – Global View Source: DPADM/UNDESA Ongoing Research (22%) (78%)
    13. 13. OGD Catalogues – Regional View 4% of the 54 Member States from Africa 18% of the 35 Member States from the Americas 18% of the 47 Member States from Asia 56% of the 43 Member States from Europe 17% of the 14 Member States from Oceania Source: DPADM/UNDESA Ongoing Research
    14. 14. OGD Catalogues – Timeline
    15. 15. FOIA - Major Findings <ul><li>Europe is leading in open government data legislation. </li></ul><ul><li>FOIA varies in scope from country to country. </li></ul><ul><li>FOIA is used mainly by the media and the civil society in general. </li></ul><ul><li>Most citizens are not aware of its existence. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing FOIA is the only the first step. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need for effective implementation, monitoring and evaluation of FOIA. </li></ul><ul><li>Most FOIAs do not contain specific legislation for providing Open Government Data Catalogues. </li></ul>
    16. 16. DPA - Global View Source: DPADM/UNDESA Ongoing Research
    17. 17. DPA - Regional View Source: DPADM/UNDESA Ongoing Research 54 Member States 43 Member States 35 Member States 47 Member States 14 Member States 78% 11% 4% 7% 34% 48% 9% 9% 59% 30% 11% 98% 2% 86% 14%
    18. 18. DPA - Major Findings <ul><li>Europe is leading in data privacy and protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy legislation is necessary for the success of Open Government initiative. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong institutional framework is critical for access to government data and data privacy. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Institutional Arrangement 4% of African Member States 15% of American Member States 15% of Asian Member States 84% of European Member States 23% of Oceanic Member States
    20. 20. Open Government Data by Region Source: DPADM/UNDESA Ongoing Research *Including FOIA, DPA, OGD Catalogue and Institutional Arrangement Open Government Data* by Regional
    21. 21. E-Participation by Region Source: UN E-Government Survey 2010 E-Participation Index Regional Averages
    22. 22. E-Government Development by Region Source: UN E-Government Survey 2010 E-Government Development Index Regional Averages
    23. 23. Why Open Government Data? E-Participation E-Government & E-Governance Open Data Open Services
    24. 24. 2012 UN E-Government Survey <ul><li>The 2012 Survey checks if open government initiatives are promoted in national government portals. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Challenges of Open Government Data <ul><li>Degree of “openness” </li></ul><ul><li>Growing citizens’ expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital divide (inclusion for the vulnerable groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberation by UN intergovernmental bodies </li></ul>
    26. 26. Moving forward <ul><li>The “Right” Data and “Right” Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand-driven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance quality of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value-added </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create a culture of open government through training and institutional building, including the capacity for proper evaluation and monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Connect all citizens online, especially the vulnerable groups </li></ul>
    27. 27. UN Public Administration Country Studies (UNPACS) <ul><li>Research (first phase) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open government data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government institution restructuring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Codes of conduct of public service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Government strategies/policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CIOs or equivalents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National institutions/systems on citizen engagement, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enable governments and all stakeholders in making evidence-based decisions for the implementation of internationally agreed development agenda including the MDGs </li></ul>
    28. 28. Future Government Open Government  Future Government  Sustainable Development
    29. 29. Thank you for your attention!

    ×