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UNC Emergency Responder Respirator

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UNC Emergency Responder Respirator - UNC EHS

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UNC Emergency Responder Respirator

  1. 1. UNC Respiratory Protection ProgramUNC Respiratory Protection Program for Environment, Health & Safetyfor Environment, Health & Safety Department Emergency RespondersDepartment Emergency Responders Presented byPresented by UNC-CH Environment, Health & SafetyUNC-CH Environment, Health & Safety
  2. 2. Class ObjectivesClass Objectives  Be able to explain the Importance of the RespiratoryBe able to explain the Importance of the Respiratory Protection Program in relation to UNC-CH policy, OSHAProtection Program in relation to UNC-CH policy, OSHA and EPA-HAZWOPER standards.and EPA-HAZWOPER standards.  Understand protection controls and EPA/OSHA levels ofUnderstand protection controls and EPA/OSHA levels of respiratory protection for hazardous material response andrespiratory protection for hazardous material response and hazardous waste sites.hazardous waste sites.  Be able to discuss the importance of the Selection ProcessBe able to discuss the importance of the Selection Process for different Types of Respirators for Emergency Responsefor different Types of Respirators for Emergency Response  Be able to demonstrate the limitations and Safety IssuesBe able to demonstrate the limitations and Safety Issues with the use of negative pressure air purifying respirators;with the use of negative pressure air purifying respirators;
  3. 3. Class ObjectivesClass Objectives  Be able to select, demonstrate the limitations and use of AirBe able to select, demonstrate the limitations and use of Air Purifying Respirator Filters and Respirator ChemicalPurifying Respirator Filters and Respirator Chemical CartridgesCartridges  Be able to demonstrate the inspection, donning and doffingBe able to demonstrate the inspection, donning and doffing procedures for air purifying respiratorsprocedures for air purifying respirators  Be able to demonstrate, using a negative pressureBe able to demonstrate, using a negative pressure respirator, the required negative and positive user sealrespirator, the required negative and positive user seal check procedurescheck procedures  Discuss the importance of Fit-Testing ProceduresDiscuss the importance of Fit-Testing Procedures  Discuss Maintenance & Storage RequirementsDiscuss Maintenance & Storage Requirements  Review and Post TestReview and Post Test
  4. 4. IntroductionIntroduction The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) RespiratoryThe University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) Respiratory Protection Program (RPP) describes written policy and procedures for theProtection Program (RPP) describes written policy and procedures for the use of respirators to protect the health of employees in accordance with theuse of respirators to protect the health of employees in accordance with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) RespiratoryOccupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) Respiratory Protection Standard, 29 CFR 1910.134 (General Industry RespiratorProtection Standard, 29 CFR 1910.134 (General Industry Respirator Standard).Standard). Under 29 CFR 1910.134, OSHA requires a formal written program for theUnder 29 CFR 1910.134, OSHA requires a formal written program for the selection and use of respirators. The two basic objectives are to protect theselection and use of respirators. The two basic objectives are to protect the worker from respiratory hazards and to prevent injury to the wearer from theworker from respiratory hazards and to prevent injury to the wearer from the incorrect use or malfunction of the respirator. This program includesincorrect use or malfunction of the respirator. This program includes protocols for the selection, training, fitting use, storage, and maintenance ofprotocols for the selection, training, fitting use, storage, and maintenance of respirators.respirators. For additional guidance regarding UNC-CH Respiratory Protection ProgramFor additional guidance regarding UNC-CH Respiratory Protection Program policies and procedures, click on the EHS Workplace Safety Respiratorypolicies and procedures, click on the EHS Workplace Safety Respiratory Section at:Section at: http://www.ehs.unc.edu/workplace_safety/rpp.shtmlhttp://www.ehs.unc.edu/workplace_safety/rpp.shtml
  5. 5. IntroductionIntroduction Some employees are also enrolled in the RPP for other specific standardsSome employees are also enrolled in the RPP for other specific standards (e.g. 29 CFR Subpart Z-Toxic and Hazardous Substances 1910.1001-(e.g. 29 CFR Subpart Z-Toxic and Hazardous Substances 1910.1001- asbestos) or the potential to exceed limits in other specific standards.asbestos) or the potential to exceed limits in other specific standards. For UNC-CH EHS Emergency Responders, personal protective equipmentFor UNC-CH EHS Emergency Responders, personal protective equipment use requirements are also designated in the OSHA Hazardous Wasteuse requirements are also designated in the OSHA Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) Standard, 29 CFROperations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) Standard, 29 CFR 1910.120.1910.120. Respirators should only be used as aRespirators should only be used as a "last line of defense""last line of defense" when engineeringwhen engineering control systems are not feasible. Engineering control systems, such ascontrol systems are not feasible. Engineering control systems, such as adequate ventilation should be used to negate the need for respirators.adequate ventilation should be used to negate the need for respirators.
  6. 6. Use of Controls for ProtectionUse of Controls for Protection 1910.120(g)(1)(i)1910.120(g)(1)(i) Engineering controls, work practices and PPE forEngineering controls, work practices and PPE for substances regulated in subparts G and Z,substances regulated in subparts G and Z, states:states: Engineering controls and work practices shall be instituted to reduce andEngineering controls and work practices shall be instituted to reduce and maintain employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits formaintain employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits for substances regulated by 29 CFR part 1910, to the extent required bysubstances regulated by 29 CFR part 1910, to the extent required by subpartsubpart Z, except to the extent that such controls and practices are not feasible.Z, except to the extent that such controls and practices are not feasible. Engineering controlsEngineering controls which may be feasible include the use of pressurizedwhich may be feasible include the use of pressurized cabs or control booths on equipment, and/or the use of remotely operatedcabs or control booths on equipment, and/or the use of remotely operated material handling equipment.material handling equipment. Work practicesWork practices which may be feasible are removing all non-essentialwhich may be feasible are removing all non-essential employees from potential exposure during opening of drums, wetting downemployees from potential exposure during opening of drums, wetting down dusty operations and locating employeesdusty operations and locating employees upwindupwind of possible hazards.of possible hazards.
  7. 7. Use of Controls for ProtectionUse of Controls for Protection 1910.120(g)(1)(ii) states: Whenever engineering controls and work1910.120(g)(1)(ii) states: Whenever engineering controls and work practices are not feasible or not required, any reasonable combination ofpractices are not feasible or not required, any reasonable combination of engineering controls, work practices andengineering controls, work practices and PPEPPE shall be used to reduce andshall be used to reduce and maintain employee exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit ormaintain employee exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit or dose limits for substancesdose limits for substances regulatedregulated by 29 CFR part 1910, subpart Z.by 29 CFR part 1910, subpart Z.
  8. 8. Use of Controls for ProtectionUse of Controls for Protection 1910.120(g)(1)(i)1910.120(g)(1)(i) Engineering controls, work practices and PPE forEngineering controls, work practices and PPE for substancessubstances not regulatednot regulated in subparts G and Z,in subparts G and Z, states:states: An appropriate combination of engineering controls, work practices andAn appropriate combination of engineering controls, work practices and personal protective equipment shall be used to reduce and maintainpersonal protective equipment shall be used to reduce and maintain employee exposure to or below published exposure levels for hazardousemployee exposure to or below published exposure levels for hazardous substances and health hazardssubstances and health hazards not regulatednot regulated by 29 CFR part 1910, subpartsby 29 CFR part 1910, subparts G and Z.G and Z. The employer may use the published literature and MSDS as aThe employer may use the published literature and MSDS as a guide in making the employer’s determination as to what level of protectionguide in making the employer’s determination as to what level of protection the employer believes is appropriate for hazardous substances and healththe employer believes is appropriate for hazardous substances and health hazards for which there is no permissible exposure limit or publishedhazards for which there is no permissible exposure limit or published exposure limit.exposure limit.
  9. 9. Review of Levels of PPEReview of Levels of PPE Selecting the proper PPE for a response involves identifying the potentialSelecting the proper PPE for a response involves identifying the potential hazards that may be faced, the work requirements, and task-specifichazards that may be faced, the work requirements, and task-specific conditions, as well as assessing the durability and performance of the PPEconditions, as well as assessing the durability and performance of the PPE material. PPE ensembles are classified into 4 levels outlined by 29 CFRmaterial. PPE ensembles are classified into 4 levels outlined by 29 CFR 1910.120, as Level A, B, C and D.1910.120, as Level A, B, C and D.
  10. 10. Review of Levels of PPEReview of Levels of PPE Level ALevel A:: The hazardous substance has been identified and requires theThe hazardous substance has been identified and requires the highest level of protection for the skin, eye, and respiratory system basedhighest level of protection for the skin, eye, and respiratory system based on either the measured (or potential for) high concentration of atmosphericon either the measured (or potential for) high concentration of atmospheric vapors, gasses, or particulates; or the site operations and work functionsvapors, gasses, or particulates; or the site operations and work functions involve a high potential for splash, immersion, or exposure to unexpectedinvolve a high potential for splash, immersion, or exposure to unexpected vapors, gasses, or particulates of materials that are harmful to skin orvapors, gasses, or particulates of materials that are harmful to skin or capable of being absorbed through the skin.capable of being absorbed through the skin. Substances with a high degree of hazard to the skin are known or suspectedSubstances with a high degree of hazard to the skin are known or suspected to be present, and skin contact is possible;to be present, and skin contact is possible; PPE consists of totally encapsulated chemical protective suit and positivePPE consists of totally encapsulated chemical protective suit and positive pressure full-facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus, chemicalpressure full-facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus, chemical protective gloves, and boots .protective gloves, and boots . All 5 senses are impaired when in this level of protection.All 5 senses are impaired when in this level of protection.
  11. 11. Review of Levels of PPEReview of Levels of PPE Level ALevel A:: Another Illustration:Another Illustration: *Courtesy of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Website;*Courtesy of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Website;
  12. 12. Review of Levels of PPEReview of Levels of PPE Level BLevel B:: Protection should be used when the type and atmosphericProtection should be used when the type and atmospheric concentration of substances have been identified and require a high level ofconcentration of substances have been identified and require a high level of respiratory protection, but less skin protection.respiratory protection, but less skin protection. The atmosphere contains less than 19.5% oxygen or the presence ofThe atmosphere contains less than 19.5% oxygen or the presence of incompletely identified vapors or gasses is indicated by a direct-readingincompletely identified vapors or gasses is indicated by a direct-reading instrument, but vapors and gasses are not suspected of containing highinstrument, but vapors and gasses are not suspected of containing high levels of chemicals harmful to the skin or capable of being absorbedlevels of chemicals harmful to the skin or capable of being absorbed through the skin.through the skin.
  13. 13. Review of Levels of PPEReview of Levels of PPE Level BLevel B: The highest level of respiratory protection consisting of either a: The highest level of respiratory protection consisting of either a positive pressure, full-face piece self contained breathing apparatus orpositive pressure, full-face piece self contained breathing apparatus or positive pressure supplied air respirator with escape SCBA.positive pressure supplied air respirator with escape SCBA.
  14. 14. Review of Levels of PPEReview of Levels of PPE Level CLevel C:: Protection should be used when all types of air contaminantsProtection should be used when all types of air contaminants have been identified, concentrations measured, and an air-purifyinghave been identified, concentrations measured, and an air-purifying respirator is available that can remove the contaminants; andrespirator is available that can remove the contaminants; and all criteria for the use of air-purifying respirators are met.all criteria for the use of air-purifying respirators are met. PPE includes a full-face or half face air-purifying respirator (NIOSHPPE includes a full-face or half face air-purifying respirator (NIOSH approved). Hooded chemical-resistant clothing such as tyvek, inner andapproved). Hooded chemical-resistant clothing such as tyvek, inner and outer gloves, and steel shank chemical resistant boots.outer gloves, and steel shank chemical resistant boots.
  15. 15. Review of Levels of PPEReview of Levels of PPE Level DLevel D: Should be used when the atmosphere contains no known hazard;: Should be used when the atmosphere contains no known hazard; and work functions preclude splashes, immersion, or the potential forand work functions preclude splashes, immersion, or the potential for unexpected inhalation of or contact with hazardous levels of any chemicals.unexpected inhalation of or contact with hazardous levels of any chemicals. ““Modified DModified D”: No inhalation hazard present. However, potential skin”: No inhalation hazard present. However, potential skin contact with chemicals may occur.contact with chemicals may occur. *Courtesy of the EPA website;*Courtesy of the EPA website; Exxon Valdez Spill Recovery: Note: no respiratory protection is used, butExxon Valdez Spill Recovery: Note: no respiratory protection is used, but chemical protective clothing is used.chemical protective clothing is used.
  16. 16. Review of Levels of PPEReview of Levels of PPE *Courtesy of the EPA website;*Courtesy of the EPA website; This Superfund site, called the Valley of the Drums, was one of the earliestThis Superfund site, called the Valley of the Drums, was one of the earliest and most serious hazardous waste sites because it involved a vast quantityand most serious hazardous waste sites because it involved a vast quantity of illegally disposed material. Discovery of this site helped motivateof illegally disposed material. Discovery of this site helped motivate Congress to develop the Superfund law. (Courtesy EPA).Congress to develop the Superfund law. (Courtesy EPA). Can you find the workers in this picture?Can you find the workers in this picture?
  17. 17. Selection of Respiratory Protection-TypesSelection of Respiratory Protection-Types There are two primary types of respirators: Air-purifying andThere are two primary types of respirators: Air-purifying and Atmosphere supplying.Atmosphere supplying. 1)1) Air-Purifying Respirator (APR):Air-Purifying Respirator (APR): Both Negative & Positive PressureBoth Negative & Positive Pressure Types. Removes contaminants by mechanical removal ofTypes. Removes contaminants by mechanical removal of particulates using filters and chemical cartridges used for theparticulates using filters and chemical cartridges used for the removal of gasses & vapors by adsorption (surface binding). Theyremoval of gasses & vapors by adsorption (surface binding). They can’t be worn in oxygen-deficient or IDLH atmospheres. The aircan’t be worn in oxygen-deficient or IDLH atmospheres. The air concentration must be within the maximum use concentration ofconcentration must be within the maximum use concentration of the respirator.the respirator. 2)2) Atmosphere Supplying:Atmosphere Supplying: Provides fresh breathing air (“Grade D”Provides fresh breathing air (“Grade D” quality) from an external source. Examples of types of supplied airquality) from an external source. Examples of types of supplied air are Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA), and Airlineare Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA), and Airline respirators, .respirators, .
  18. 18. Selection of Respiratory Protection-TypesSelection of Respiratory Protection-Types AnAn Air-Purifying Respirator (APR)Air-Purifying Respirator (APR) is a respirator with an air-is a respirator with an air- purifying filter, cartridge, or canister that removes specific airpurifying filter, cartridge, or canister that removes specific air contaminants by passing ambient air through the air-purifyingcontaminants by passing ambient air through the air-purifying element. An APR can be either a negative pressure or positiveelement. An APR can be either a negative pressure or positive pressure type.pressure type. AirAir
  19. 19. Selection of Respirators-TypesSelection of Respirators-Types AA Positive Pressure RespiratorPositive Pressure Respirator is a respirator in which theis a respirator in which the pressure inside the respirator inlet covering exceeds thepressure inside the respirator inlet covering exceeds the ambient air pressure outside the respirator.ambient air pressure outside the respirator. AA Powered-Air Purifying Respirator (PAPR)Powered-Air Purifying Respirator (PAPR) is anis an example of a positive pressure respirator. It uses a blowerexample of a positive pressure respirator. It uses a blower motor (generally battery powered) to force the Ambient airmotor (generally battery powered) to force the Ambient air through air-purifying elements to the inlet covering.through air-purifying elements to the inlet covering.
  20. 20. Selection of Respiratory Protection-Use FactorsSelection of Respiratory Protection-Use Factors To select anTo select an Air Purifying RespiratorAir Purifying Respirator you must know:you must know:  The Identity of the contaminant.The Identity of the contaminant. Generally the contaminantsGenerally the contaminants can be found on the material safety data sheet or product label.can be found on the material safety data sheet or product label. However, specific chemical reactions can create additional hazards.However, specific chemical reactions can create additional hazards.  The Concentration of the contaminantThe Concentration of the contaminant The airborneThe airborne concentration of the contaminant must not exceed the maximumconcentration of the contaminant must not exceed the maximum use limit of the respirator (with cartridges and filters).use limit of the respirator (with cartridges and filters).  The Exposure Limit for the contaminant.The Exposure Limit for the contaminant. This value isThis value is typically found on the product material safety data sheet, NIOSHtypically found on the product material safety data sheet, NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards, or IH can provide thispocket guide to chemical hazards, or IH can provide this information.information.
  21. 21. Selection of Respiratory Protection-Use FactorsSelection of Respiratory Protection-Use Factors To select anTo select an Air Purifying RespiratorAir Purifying Respirator you must know:you must know:  IDLH for the contaminantIDLH for the contaminant. The airborne concentration of the. The airborne concentration of the chemical substance must not be exceeded the IDLH value. Thechemical substance must not be exceeded the IDLH value. The NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards provides this information.NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards provides this information. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npghttp://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg.. Also on product MSDS.Also on product MSDS.  The Odor Threshold for the contaminantThe Odor Threshold for the contaminant. A warning. A warning property exists when a chemical vapor has a distinct odor or taste,property exists when a chemical vapor has a distinct odor or taste, or when it causes respiratory tract or eye irritation.or when it causes respiratory tract or eye irritation.  The type of Chemical Cartridge to use for the contaminantThe type of Chemical Cartridge to use for the contaminant.. The chemical substance must be able to be filtered, absorbed, orThe chemical substance must be able to be filtered, absorbed, or neutralized by the APR.neutralized by the APR.  The Oxygen Level:The Oxygen Level: atmospheric level of oxygen must be aboveatmospheric level of oxygen must be above 19.5%19.5%
  22. 22. Selection of Respiratory Protection-Use FactorsSelection of Respiratory Protection-Use Factors The following conditions exclude or may exclude use of anThe following conditions exclude or may exclude use of an AirAir Purifying RespiratorPurifying Respirator::  Oxygen DeficiencyOxygen Deficiency  IDLH concentrations of specific substancesIDLH concentrations of specific substances  Entry into an unventilated or confined area where the exposureEntry into an unventilated or confined area where the exposure conditions have not been characterized.conditions have not been characterized.  Presence or potential presence of unidentified contaminants.Presence or potential presence of unidentified contaminants.  Contaminant concentrations are unknown or exceed designatedContaminant concentrations are unknown or exceed designated maximum use concentrations (explained on following slides).maximum use concentrations (explained on following slides).  Identified gasses or vapors have inadequate warning properties.Identified gasses or vapors have inadequate warning properties.  High relative humidity (may reduce the protection offered by theHigh relative humidity (may reduce the protection offered by the sorbent).sorbent).
  23. 23. Selection of Respiratory Protection-Supplied AirSelection of Respiratory Protection-Supplied Air Atmosphere-Supplying RespiratorAtmosphere-Supplying Respirator is a respirator thatis a respirator that supplies the user with breathing air from a source independent ofsupplies the user with breathing air from a source independent of the ambient atmosphere. Types include supplied-air respiratorsthe ambient atmosphere. Types include supplied-air respirators (SARs) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units.(SARs) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units.
  24. 24. Selection of Respiratory Protection-Supplied AirSelection of Respiratory Protection-Supplied Air Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) is anis an atmosphere supplying respirator for which the breathing airatmosphere supplying respirator for which the breathing air source is designed to be carried by the user. This type of respiratorsource is designed to be carried by the user. This type of respirator is considered to provide the highest level of respiratory protection.is considered to provide the highest level of respiratory protection. Pressure-demand types of SCBAs are used for fire fighting,Pressure-demand types of SCBAs are used for fire fighting, rescue, emergency response, and other situations. They arerescue, emergency response, and other situations. They are acceptable for oxygen-deficient conditions, and against a wideacceptable for oxygen-deficient conditions, and against a wide variety of contaminants, and for entry into IDLH atmospheres.variety of contaminants, and for entry into IDLH atmospheres. Disadvantage is that the work time is limited to amount of air in theDisadvantage is that the work time is limited to amount of air in the external tank and the extra weight of the tank.external tank and the extra weight of the tank.
  25. 25. Selection of Respiratory Protection-IDLHSelection of Respiratory Protection-IDLH Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH)Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) is anis an atmosphere that posses an immediate threat to life, would causeatmosphere that posses an immediate threat to life, would cause irreversible, adverse, debilitating health effects, or would impair anirreversible, adverse, debilitating health effects, or would impair an individuals ability to escape.individuals ability to escape. For example, Oxygen-deficient atmospheres, less than 19.5 % oxygen byFor example, Oxygen-deficient atmospheres, less than 19.5 % oxygen by volume at sea level are considered (IDLH). Examples where IDLHvolume at sea level are considered (IDLH). Examples where IDLH situations may occur include entry into unventilated silos, boilers, tanks,situations may occur include entry into unventilated silos, boilers, tanks, sewers, etc.sewers, etc. Other examples of IDLH situations include:Other examples of IDLH situations include: -When a specific chemical exceeds its established IDLH concentration.-When a specific chemical exceeds its established IDLH concentration. IDLH values are published by the National Institute of OccupationalIDLH values are published by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) inSafety and Health (NIOSH) in thethe NIOSH Pocket Guide toNIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical HazardsChemical Hazards.. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npghttp://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg.. -Chemical concentrations that are in excess of their published IDLH-Chemical concentrations that are in excess of their published IDLH value and in excess of their Lower Explosive Limit are consideredvalue and in excess of their Lower Explosive Limit are considered IDLH.IDLH. -Firefighting and Emergency Response to an unknown contaminated-Firefighting and Emergency Response to an unknown contaminated atmosphere are considered IDLH.atmosphere are considered IDLH.
  26. 26. Selection of Respiratory Protection-IDLHSelection of Respiratory Protection-IDLH Is the below picture an example of a potential IDLH environment?Is the below picture an example of a potential IDLH environment? What other hazards are present?What other hazards are present?
  27. 27. Selection of Respiratory Protection-APFsSelection of Respiratory Protection-APFs  Assigned protection factors (APFs)Assigned protection factors (APFs): APFs are very important part of: APFs are very important part of the selection process.the selection process.  The assigned protection factor is the expected workplace level ofThe assigned protection factor is the expected workplace level of respiratory protection that would be provided by a properlyrespiratory protection that would be provided by a properly functioning respirator or a class of respirator to properly fitted andfunctioning respirator or a class of respirator to properly fitted and trained users. APFs are a measure of the overall effectiveness of atrained users. APFs are a measure of the overall effectiveness of a respirator used in conjunction with a good respirator program.respirator used in conjunction with a good respirator program.  Many groups have developed lists of APFs. In the United States, theMany groups have developed lists of APFs. In the United States, the two main lists of APFs are from the American National Standardstwo main lists of APFs are from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and NIOSH; however, respirator manufacturersInstitute (ANSI) and NIOSH; however, respirator manufacturers also recommend assigned protection factors.also recommend assigned protection factors.
  28. 28. Selection of Respiratory Protection-APFsSelection of Respiratory Protection-APFs  Assigned protection factors (APFs)Assigned protection factors (APFs): In these studies measurements: In these studies measurements (air samples) are taken simultaneously outside and inside the(air samples) are taken simultaneously outside and inside the respirator as the worker does his or her normal job.respirator as the worker does his or her normal job. An APF of 10 means that the respirator will reduce theAn APF of 10 means that the respirator will reduce the contaminant's concentration actually breathed in by 10 timescontaminant's concentration actually breathed in by 10 times compared with the actual airborne concentration.compared with the actual airborne concentration. Examples of Assigned Protection Factors (NIOSH Guidance):Examples of Assigned Protection Factors (NIOSH Guidance): 1.1. Half face piece APRHalf face piece APR: both filtering face piece and elastomeric dual: both filtering face piece and elastomeric dual cartridge:cartridge: 1010 2.2. Full face piece APRFull face piece APR:: 50 or 10050 or 100 ( PF 100, e.g. North 7600 8A( PF 100, e.g. North 7600 8A series)series) 3.3. Powered Air Purifying RespiratorPowered Air Purifying Respirator (full face):(full face): 1,0001,000 4.4. Self Contained Breathing ApparatusSelf Contained Breathing Apparatus:: 10,00010,000
  29. 29. Selection of Respiratory Protection-MUCSelection of Respiratory Protection-MUC  Maximum Use Concentration (MUC)Maximum Use Concentration (MUC): A respirator may not be used: A respirator may not be used at a concentration greater than the contaminant’s occupationalat a concentration greater than the contaminant’s occupational exposure limit times the assigned protection factor for the type ofexposure limit times the assigned protection factor for the type of respirator used.respirator used.  This is called the Maximum Use Concentration of the respirator. ItThis is called the Maximum Use Concentration of the respirator. It is determined by multiplying the PEL or Occupational Exposureis determined by multiplying the PEL or Occupational Exposure Limit by the APF.Limit by the APF. MUC = PEL (OEL) of contaminant X APF of theMUC = PEL (OEL) of contaminant X APF of the respiratorrespirator However, other factors must be considered. For example the MUCHowever, other factors must be considered. For example the MUC will be limited by the following:will be limited by the following: * IDLH value* IDLH value *Chemical cartridge rating*Chemical cartridge rating *Oxygen Deficient Atmospheres*Oxygen Deficient Atmospheres
  30. 30. Selection of Respiratory Protection-MUCSelection of Respiratory Protection-MUC Maximum Use Concentration (MUC):Maximum Use Concentration (MUC): MUC = PEL (OEL) of contaminant X APF of the respiratorMUC = PEL (OEL) of contaminant X APF of the respirator For example, Toluene’s PEL is 200 PPM. A ½ face APR hasFor example, Toluene’s PEL is 200 PPM. A ½ face APR has an APF of 10. What is the MUC? Could a ½ face APR bean APF of 10. What is the MUC? Could a ½ face APR be used safely for this environment if the air concentration wasused safely for this environment if the air concentration was 2,000 PPM?.2,000 PPM?. Do any other factors apply?Do any other factors apply?
  31. 31. Selection of Respiratory Protection-MUCSelection of Respiratory Protection-MUC Maximum Use Concentration (MUC):Maximum Use Concentration (MUC): MUC = PEL (OEL) of contaminant X APF of the respiratorMUC = PEL (OEL) of contaminant X APF of the respirator Answer:Answer: The MUC for the ½ face APR is 2,000 PPM.The MUC for the ½ face APR is 2,000 PPM. However, other important factors must be considered besides the MUCHowever, other important factors must be considered besides the MUC calculation.calculation. The chemical cartridges would probably experience breakthrough atThe chemical cartridges would probably experience breakthrough at 1,000 ppm.1,000 ppm. In addition, the NIOSH IDLH value for Toluene is 500 ppm.In addition, the NIOSH IDLH value for Toluene is 500 ppm. *Therefore at this concentration, a ½ face APR*Therefore at this concentration, a ½ face APR can notcan not be used due tobe used due to an IDLH environment and due to over saturation of the chemicalan IDLH environment and due to over saturation of the chemical cartridges.cartridges. Only a positive pressure SCBA or positive pressure suppliedOnly a positive pressure SCBA or positive pressure supplied air line respirator with an escape cylinder could be usedair line respirator with an escape cylinder could be used..!!!!!!!!
  32. 32. Selection of Respiratory Protection-MUCSelection of Respiratory Protection-MUC Maximum Use Concentration (MUC):Maximum Use Concentration (MUC): MUC = PEL (OEL) of contaminant X APF of the respiratorMUC = PEL (OEL) of contaminant X APF of the respirator For example, there is a large spill of Acetic Anhydride. After initialFor example, there is a large spill of Acetic Anhydride. After initial investigation in Level B protection, air monitoring determined an airinvestigation in Level B protection, air monitoring determined an air concentration of 100 ppm. What would be an appropriate respirator toconcentration of 100 ppm. What would be an appropriate respirator to use for response to clean up the spill?use for response to clean up the spill? --The PEL = 5 PPMThe PEL = 5 PPM --IDLH value= 200 PPMIDLH value= 200 PPM --Assume a cartridge rating of 0.1% by volume = 1,000 PPMAssume a cartridge rating of 0.1% by volume = 1,000 PPM Answer: A half face APR could not be used. MUC = PF 10 X 5 = 50Answer: A half face APR could not be used. MUC = PF 10 X 5 = 50 A full face APR could be used! MUC= PF 50 X 5 =A full face APR could be used! MUC= PF 50 X 5 = 250250
  33. 33. Safety Issues/Problems with Use of RespiratorsSafety Issues/Problems with Use of Respirators The use of Personal Protective Equipment (including a respirator) canThe use of Personal Protective Equipment (including a respirator) can itself create significant worker hazards such as:itself create significant worker hazards such as: -Heat stress,-Heat stress, - Physical and psychological stress,- Physical and psychological stress, - Impaired vision, impaired mobility, and impaired communication.- Impaired vision, impaired mobility, and impaired communication. In general, greater levels of PPE can cause the associated risk to increase.In general, greater levels of PPE can cause the associated risk to increase. The next couple of slides addresses specific problems with use of aThe next couple of slides addresses specific problems with use of a respirator.respirator.
  34. 34. Safety Issues/Problems with Use of RespiratorsSafety Issues/Problems with Use of Respirators Facial HairFacial Hair-- facial hair that lies along the sealing area of the respiratorfacial hair that lies along the sealing area of the respirator such as beards, sideburns, or even a few days of growth of stubble,such as beards, sideburns, or even a few days of growth of stubble, shallshall notnot be permitted because wit will prevent a good seal and may causebe permitted because wit will prevent a good seal and may cause leakage of the respirator, which could cause contaminants to enter yourleakage of the respirator, which could cause contaminants to enter your breathing zone.breathing zone. The use of a:The use of a: ==
  35. 35. Safety Issues/Problems with Use of RespiratorsSafety Issues/Problems with Use of Respirators Prescription Eye GlassesPrescription Eye Glasses:: Responders can not wear prescriptionResponders can not wear prescription glasses with a full- face air purifying respirator or SCBA face piece. Eyeglasses with a full- face air purifying respirator or SCBA face piece. Eye glasses with temple bars or straps that pass between the sealingglasses with temple bars or straps that pass between the sealing surface of a full face piece and can cause the mask to not fit tightly on thesurface of a full face piece and can cause the mask to not fit tightly on the face. This will produce a break in the face to face piece seal and canface. This will produce a break in the face to face piece seal and can cause leakage and cause contaminants to enter your breathing zone.cause leakage and cause contaminants to enter your breathing zone. Special inserts with corrective lenses can be placed inside a full-facepieceSpecial inserts with corrective lenses can be placed inside a full-facepiece respirator and are available from all manufactures of full-facepiecerespirator and are available from all manufactures of full-facepiece respirators.respirators. Eye glasses or goggles may interfere with half-face respirators. WhenEye glasses or goggles may interfere with half-face respirators. When interference occurs, a full-facepiece with special corrective lenses shouldinterference occurs, a full-facepiece with special corrective lenses should be provided and worn.be provided and worn.
  36. 36. Safety Issues/Problems with Use of RespiratorsSafety Issues/Problems with Use of Respirators Impaired VisionImpaired Vision: Peripheral vision is impaired when using most types: Peripheral vision is impaired when using most types of full face respirators. Dependent on the type of respirator, you canof full face respirators. Dependent on the type of respirator, you can only see a limited field of view. In addition, certain weather conditionsonly see a limited field of view. In addition, certain weather conditions such as high humidity and cold weather can fog the interior lens of thesuch as high humidity and cold weather can fog the interior lens of the respirator which can further impair vision.respirator which can further impair vision. Impaired Situational AwarenessImpaired Situational Awareness:: With the respirator donned, youWith the respirator donned, you must be cognizant of the surrounding work environment such asmust be cognizant of the surrounding work environment such as distance away from hazardous equipment, moving objects, potential slip,distance away from hazardous equipment, moving objects, potential slip, trips, and fall hazards, moving vehicles, etc.trips, and fall hazards, moving vehicles, etc. Impaired CommunicationImpaired Communication:: Is much more difficult. Especially ifIs much more difficult. Especially if using radios or talking to a buddy in PPE with background noise.using radios or talking to a buddy in PPE with background noise.
  37. 37. Safety Issues/Problems with Use of RespiratorsSafety Issues/Problems with Use of Respirators Heat StressHeat Stress: In the summer months, this is a major concern. Ensure: In the summer months, this is a major concern. Ensure everyone is aware of the signs and symptoms of heat related injuries (e.g.everyone is aware of the signs and symptoms of heat related injuries (e.g. heat rash, heat exhaustion, & heat stroke).heat rash, heat exhaustion, & heat stroke). In addition, a person working in high temperatures is under increased levels ofIn addition, a person working in high temperatures is under increased levels of stress. Wearing a respirator causes additional stress. A respirator thatstress. Wearing a respirator causes additional stress. A respirator that provides low breathing resistance is recommended under these conditions (e.g.provides low breathing resistance is recommended under these conditions (e.g. supplied air respirator or powered-air purifying respirators). Such a respiratorsupplied air respirator or powered-air purifying respirators). Such a respirator used in low or high temperature atmospheres may be equipped with a vortexused in low or high temperature atmospheres may be equipped with a vortex tube to cool the air inspired. Also recommend drinking plenty of water beforetube to cool the air inspired. Also recommend drinking plenty of water before and during the response action.and during the response action. Also heat stress is a major concern with the various levels of PPE used during aAlso heat stress is a major concern with the various levels of PPE used during a response. Cooling packs are recommended to help cool responders. They comeresponse. Cooling packs are recommended to help cool responders. They come in different styles by safety manufacturers.in different styles by safety manufacturers.
  38. 38. Safety Issues/Problems with Use of RespiratorsSafety Issues/Problems with Use of Respirators FatigueFatigue: has both a physical and psychological effect. During major: has both a physical and psychological effect. During major response events, 1response events, 1stst Responders and support staff could be faced with aResponders and support staff could be faced with a work schedule where routine meals or breaks are suddenly interrupted.work schedule where routine meals or breaks are suddenly interrupted. Work conditions suddenly change from an office or training environmentWork conditions suddenly change from an office or training environment to real conditions.to real conditions. Recommendations consist of adequate work/rest cycles; Use of theRecommendations consist of adequate work/rest cycles; Use of the buddy system to identify signs of fatigue; and enforcement of operationalbuddy system to identify signs of fatigue; and enforcement of operational periods and fatigue recommendations in the field.periods and fatigue recommendations in the field.
  39. 39. Selection of Filters and Chemical CartridgesSelection of Filters and Chemical Cartridges FiltersFilters are an integral component used with negative and positiveare an integral component used with negative and positive pressure air purifying respirators to remove solid or liquid aerosols such aspressure air purifying respirators to remove solid or liquid aerosols such as dusts, mists, fibers, and metal fumes.dusts, mists, fibers, and metal fumes. This type of element "filters" particulate matter by physically trapping it inThis type of element "filters" particulate matter by physically trapping it in the fibrous filter material. In addition, the wool-felt filters contain anthe fibrous filter material. In addition, the wool-felt filters contain an electrostatic charge that increases filter efficiency by electrostaticallyelectrostatic charge that increases filter efficiency by electrostatically attracting the particles to the fibers. Although mechanical filters becomeattracting the particles to the fibers. Although mechanical filters become more efficient as they are used, they should be changed when breathingmore efficient as they are used, they should be changed when breathing resistance becomes excessive.resistance becomes excessive.
  40. 40. Selection of Filters and Chemical CartridgesSelection of Filters and Chemical Cartridges Particulate filters have different classifications of filter efficiency based onParticulate filters have different classifications of filter efficiency based on the testing procedures for protection against oil mist.the testing procedures for protection against oil mist. P100 filter designation is the primary type of HEPA used for protectionP100 filter designation is the primary type of HEPA used for protection against dusts, mists, fumes, smokes (any particulates). It has beenagainst dusts, mists, fumes, smokes (any particulates). It has been tested for a 99.97% filter efficiency when tested against 0.3 um docytltested for a 99.97% filter efficiency when tested against 0.3 um docytl phthalate (DOP- “oil mist”) particles.phthalate (DOP- “oil mist”) particles. P100 filters are color coded purple/magenta.P100 filters are color coded purple/magenta.
  41. 41. Selection of Filters and Chemical CartridgesSelection of Filters and Chemical Cartridges There are 9 classes of respirator particulate filters:There are 9 classes of respirator particulate filters: 3 Series Types3 Series Types N =N = NNot oil resistantot oil resistant R =R = RResistant to oilesistant to oil P = oilP = oil PProofroof 3 Efficiency Percentages3 Efficiency Percentages 95 % efficient95 % efficient 99 % efficient99 % efficient 100 % efficient100 % efficient Filter Classifications can be any combination of the listed SeriesFilter Classifications can be any combination of the listed Series and Efficiencyand Efficiency (e.g.. N-95, N-pp, N-100, R-95, R-99, R-100, P-95, P-99, P100)(e.g.. N-95, N-pp, N-100, R-95, R-99, R-100, P-95, P-99, P100)
  42. 42. Selection of Filters and Chemical CartridgesSelection of Filters and Chemical Cartridges Canister or CartridgeCanister or Cartridge is a container with a filter, sorbent, oris a container with a filter, sorbent, or catalyst, or combination of these items, which removes specificcatalyst, or combination of these items, which removes specific contaminants from the air passed through the container. Theycontaminants from the air passed through the container. They differ from aerosol filters in that they use sorbents, generallydiffer from aerosol filters in that they use sorbents, generally carbon to remove harmful gasses and vapors.carbon to remove harmful gasses and vapors.
  43. 43. Selection of Filters and Chemical CartridgesSelection of Filters and Chemical Cartridges To make it easier for the user to identify respirator cartridges andTo make it easier for the user to identify respirator cartridges and filters, they have designated colors. The color is based on the typefilters, they have designated colors. The color is based on the type of air contaminant (s) which the user will be wearing the respiratorof air contaminant (s) which the user will be wearing the respirator for protection against. Examples of filter and cartridge colors andfor protection against. Examples of filter and cartridge colors and associated contaminant type include:associated contaminant type include:  Acid gasses – White  Organic vapors- Black  Ammonia gas- Green  Acid gasses and organic vapors- Yellow  P100 & HEPA filters- Purple/magenta  Mercury Vapor- Orange
  44. 44. Selection ofSelection of Filters and Chemical CartridgesFilters and Chemical Cartridges The service life of the chemical cartridge variesThe service life of the chemical cartridge varies based on variables including:based on variables including: -Chemical weight (carbon and molecular weight) of the-Chemical weight (carbon and molecular weight) of the vapor,vapor, -The cartridge media-The cartridge media -The concentration of vapor in the atmosphere,-The concentration of vapor in the atmosphere, -The relative humidity of the atmosphere,-The relative humidity of the atmosphere, -The breathing rate of the respirator wearer.-The breathing rate of the respirator wearer.
  45. 45. Selection ofSelection of Filters and Chemical CartridgesFilters and Chemical Cartridges It is important to implement aIt is important to implement a Chemical Cartridge Change OutChemical Cartridge Change Out ScheduleSchedule. The change schedule described in the plan for canister. The change schedule described in the plan for canister and cartridges must be based on objective information or dataand cartridges must be based on objective information or data (e.g. industrial hygiene air monitoring data) that will ensure that(e.g. industrial hygiene air monitoring data) that will ensure that canisters or cartridges are changedcanisters or cartridges are changed before theirbefore their end of service lifeend of service life.. This will help prevent “break-through” of the chemical cartridgeThis will help prevent “break-through” of the chemical cartridge and will prevent the wearer from being exposed to airand will prevent the wearer from being exposed to air contaminants as a result of overuse of a saturated chemicalcontaminants as a result of overuse of a saturated chemical cartridge.cartridge. If uncertain about the length of useIf uncertain about the length of use, recommend disposing of the, recommend disposing of the chemical cartridges after the response action or the work shift andchemical cartridges after the response action or the work shift and obtain new ones.obtain new ones.
  46. 46. Selection ofSelection of Filters and Chemical CartridgesFilters and Chemical Cartridges When using a respirator for protection for gasses andWhen using a respirator for protection for gasses and vapors, if you detect a chemical taste, smell, or irritation, youvapors, if you detect a chemical taste, smell, or irritation, you should exit to a clean area and replace the cartridges and inspectshould exit to a clean area and replace the cartridges and inspect the respirator immediately.the respirator immediately. Additional assistance in determining chemical cartridge changeAdditional assistance in determining chemical cartridge change schedules can be found under the Workplace Safety/Respiratoryschedules can be found under the Workplace Safety/Respiratory ProtectionProtection Section of our website at:Section of our website at: http://www.ehs.unc.edu/workplacehttp://www.ehs.unc.edu/workplace If uncertain about the length of useIf uncertain about the length of use, recommend disposing of the, recommend disposing of the chemical cartridges after the response action or the work shift andchemical cartridges after the response action or the work shift and obtain new ones.obtain new ones.
  47. 47. Selection of Filters and Chemical Cartridges What type of filter or cartridge is the below?What type of filter or cartridge is the below?
  48. 48. Types of RespiratorsTypes of Respirators Review of the Characteristics of Specific Types of RespiratorsReview of the Characteristics of Specific Types of Respirators Category and Type of Respirator NIOSH Protection Factor Use for Unknown Exposures and Concentrations? Specific Cartridge(s) Needed? Required Maintenance Level Interferes with Eyeglasses? Can be worn by persons with Facial hair? Air-Supplying: Positive Pressure, Self Contained Breathing Apparatus 10,000 Yes No High Yes No Air-Supplying: Supplied air (air line) 10-2000 No No High Yes Yes (with loose fitting hood only) Air-Purifying: Powered, Tight-fitting hood Powered, Loose-fitting hood 50- 1,000 25 No No Yes Yes High High Yes No No Yes Air-Purifying: Full-face piece 50 No Yes Moderate Yes No Air-Purifying: Half-face piece 10 No Yes Moderate Maybe No Air-Purifying: Filtering face piece, Disposable (e.g. N95) 10 No No Low Maybe No
  49. 49. Medical EvaluationMedical Evaluation Using a respirator may place a physiological burden, which variesUsing a respirator may place a physiological burden, which varies with type of respirator worn, the job and workplace conditions inwith type of respirator worn, the job and workplace conditions in which the respirator is used, and the medical status of thewhich the respirator is used, and the medical status of the employee. Potential negative physical demands of wearing aemployee. Potential negative physical demands of wearing a respirator include:respirator include:  Extra strain on the heartExtra strain on the heart  Increased body temperatureIncreased body temperature  Heat StressHeat Stress  DehydrationDehydration  Other ill health effectsOther ill health effects Each employee assigned to wear a respirator in carrying out his/herEach employee assigned to wear a respirator in carrying out his/her job responsibilities is to receive a medical evaluation to determinejob responsibilities is to receive a medical evaluation to determine his/her ability to wear a respirator. The medical evaluation musthis/her ability to wear a respirator. The medical evaluation must be performed to determine the employee’s ability to use abe performed to determine the employee’s ability to use a respirator,respirator, before fit testing and use.before fit testing and use.
  50. 50. Inspection ProceduresInspection Procedures All respirators used in routine situations are to be inspected beforeAll respirators used in routine situations are to be inspected before and after each use and during cleaning. Before donning and usingand after each use and during cleaning. Before donning and using the respirator check for any malfunctions such as:the respirator check for any malfunctions such as:  Broken/loose connectorsBroken/loose connectors  ReceptaclesReceptacles  Cracked distorted facepiecesCracked distorted facepieces  Deformed valvesDeformed valves  Unclean respiratorsUnclean respirators  Check that you have the correct filter/cartridge and that theCheck that you have the correct filter/cartridge and that the service life has not been exceeded.service life has not been exceeded.  If something is damaged or worn, get a replacement partIf something is damaged or worn, get a replacement part before using it.before using it.
  51. 51. Respirator InspectionRespirator Inspection Donning the respirator: There are general steps you take withDonning the respirator: There are general steps you take with any respirator-try different respirator sizes until you are sure ofany respirator-try different respirator sizes until you are sure of fit and comfort. For example, if a half-mask respirator does notfit and comfort. For example, if a half-mask respirator does not fit, you may have to wear a full face respirator.fit, you may have to wear a full face respirator. Steps: Place chin in the respirator, pull it over your head,Steps: Place chin in the respirator, pull it over your head, tighten straps, check for tight seal.tighten straps, check for tight seal. Always perform a positive and negative pressure user sealAlways perform a positive and negative pressure user seal check to ensure a good seal (explained in more detail in thecheck to ensure a good seal (explained in more detail in the following slides).following slides). Respirators that fail an inspection or are found to be defectiveRespirators that fail an inspection or are found to be defective are to be removed from service, and either discarded, repaired,are to be removed from service, and either discarded, repaired, or adjusted. Repairs or adjustments are to be made by personsor adjusted. Repairs or adjustments are to be made by persons appropriately trained.appropriately trained.
  52. 52. Respirator InspectionRespirator Inspection Each individual who uses a tight-fitting respirator is to performEach individual who uses a tight-fitting respirator is to perform a user seal check to ensure that an adequate seal is achieveda user seal check to ensure that an adequate seal is achieved each time the respirator is put on. This can be achieved byeach time the respirator is put on. This can be achieved by performing aperforming a positivepositive andand negativenegative pressure check.pressure check. Positive Pressure Check Negative Pressure CheckPositive Pressure Check Negative Pressure Check
  53. 53. Respirator InspectionRespirator Inspection Negative Pressure Check:Negative Pressure Check: Close off the inlet opening of theClose off the inlet opening of the canister or cartridges by covering with the palm of the hand orcanister or cartridges by covering with the palm of the hand or by replacing the filter seal, inhale gently so that the face pieceby replacing the filter seal, inhale gently so that the face piece collapses slightly, and hold the breath for ten seconds. Thiscollapses slightly, and hold the breath for ten seconds. This test can be performed by covering the inlet opening of thetest can be performed by covering the inlet opening of the cartridge with a thin latex or nitrile glove. If the face piececartridge with a thin latex or nitrile glove. If the face piece remains in its slightly collapsed condition and no inwardremains in its slightly collapsed condition and no inward leakage of air is detected, the tightness of the respirator isleakage of air is detected, the tightness of the respirator is considered satisfactory.considered satisfactory.
  54. 54. Respirator InspectionRespirator Inspection Positive Pressure CheckPositive Pressure Check:: Close off the exhalation valve (placeClose off the exhalation valve (place palm of your hand over exhalation valve) and exhale gently into thepalm of your hand over exhalation valve) and exhale gently into the face piece. The face fit is considered satisfactory if a slight positiveface piece. The face fit is considered satisfactory if a slight positive pressure can be built up inside the face piece without any evidence ofpressure can be built up inside the face piece without any evidence of outward leakage of air at the seal.outward leakage of air at the seal.
  55. 55. Fit-Test ProceduresFit-Test Procedures Employees at UNC-CH are required to receive a quantitative fit testEmployees at UNC-CH are required to receive a quantitative fit test with the respirator that they will be using. The fit-testing will occurwith the respirator that they will be using. The fit-testing will occur prior to initial use of the respirator, or whenever a different respiratorprior to initial use of the respirator, or whenever a different respirator face piece (size, style, model, or make) is used, and at least annuallyface piece (size, style, model, or make) is used, and at least annually thereafter.thereafter. An additional fit-test is conductedAn additional fit-test is conducted annuallyannually thereafter and wheneverthereafter and whenever the employee, supervisor, the Environment, Health, and Safety Office,the employee, supervisor, the Environment, Health, and Safety Office, or the UEOHC makes visual observations of changes in the employee’sor the UEOHC makes visual observations of changes in the employee’s physical condition that could affect respirator fit.physical condition that could affect respirator fit. Such conditions include, but are not limited to, facial scarring, dentalSuch conditions include, but are not limited to, facial scarring, dental changes, cosmetic surgery, or any obvious change in body weight. Thechanges, cosmetic surgery, or any obvious change in body weight. The employee may select a different respirator if he/she does not think theemployee may select a different respirator if he/she does not think the respirator fit is acceptable, even after passing the test.respirator fit is acceptable, even after passing the test.
  56. 56. Fit-Test ProceduresFit-Test Procedures Quantitative fit testing is an assessment of the adequacy ofQuantitative fit testing is an assessment of the adequacy of respirator fit by numerically measuring the amount of leakagerespirator fit by numerically measuring the amount of leakage into the respirator. Testing is accomplished by modifying theinto the respirator. Testing is accomplished by modifying the face piece to allow sampling inside the face piece in theface piece to allow sampling inside the face piece in the breathing zone of the user, midway between the nose andbreathing zone of the user, midway between the nose and mouth. This requirement is accomplished by using a samplingmouth. This requirement is accomplished by using a sampling adapter designed to temporarily provide a means of samplingadapter designed to temporarily provide a means of sampling air from inside the face piece.air from inside the face piece.
  57. 57. Fit-Test ProceduresFit-Test Procedures A quantitative fit-test determines a fit-factor for the employee based on the type ofA quantitative fit-test determines a fit-factor for the employee based on the type of the respirator used. A fit-factor is a quantitative estimate of the fit of a particularthe respirator used. A fit-factor is a quantitative estimate of the fit of a particular respirator to a specific individual, and estimates the ratio:respirator to a specific individual, and estimates the ratio: Fit FactorFit Factor == Concentration of particles in the ambient airConcentration of particles in the ambient air Concentration of particles inside the respirator when wornConcentration of particles inside the respirator when worn • Fit Factor Range: 1 to greater that 10,000Fit Factor Range: 1 to greater that 10,000 • Particle Size Range: 0.02 to greater than 1.0 micrometerParticle Size Range: 0.02 to greater than 1.0 micrometer Required Fit-FactorRequired Fit-Factor Type of RespiratorType of Respirator 100100 Half-face APR & N95 respiratorHalf-face APR & N95 respirator 500500 Full Face APRFull Face APR 10001000 North 76008A Series Full FaceNorth 76008A Series Full Face APRAPR
  58. 58. Maintenance & Storage RequirementsMaintenance & Storage Requirements All respirators are to be stored to protect them from damage,All respirators are to be stored to protect them from damage, contamination, dust, sunlight, extreme temperatures, excessivecontamination, dust, sunlight, extreme temperatures, excessive moisture, and damaging chemicals. They are to be packed ormoisture, and damaging chemicals. They are to be packed or stored to prevent deformation of the face piece and exhalationstored to prevent deformation of the face piece and exhalation valve.valve. Store respirators in a sealed plastic bag in a clean and preferablyStore respirators in a sealed plastic bag in a clean and preferably cool area such as a storage cabinet or locker.cool area such as a storage cabinet or locker. Emergency use respirators are to be kept accessible to the workEmergency use respirators are to be kept accessible to the work area; and stored in compartments or in covers that are clearlyarea; and stored in compartments or in covers that are clearly marked as containing emergency respirators; and stored inmarked as containing emergency respirators; and stored in accordance with any applicable manufacturer instructions.accordance with any applicable manufacturer instructions.
  59. 59. Maintenance and Storage RequirementsMaintenance and Storage Requirements Maintenance and Care of RespiratorsMaintenance and Care of Respirators: Employees are to be: Employees are to be provided with respirators that are clean, sanitary, and in goodprovided with respirators that are clean, sanitary, and in good working order. Respirators are to be cleaned and disinfected usingworking order. Respirators are to be cleaned and disinfected using procedures recommended by the respirator manufacturer. Review theprocedures recommended by the respirator manufacturer. Review the respirator instruction manual for specific procedures for cleaning andrespirator instruction manual for specific procedures for cleaning and disinfecting the respirator.disinfecting the respirator. Respirators are to be cleaned and disinfected at the followingRespirators are to be cleaned and disinfected at the following intervals:intervals: -As often as necessary to be maintained in a sanitary condition;-As often as necessary to be maintained in a sanitary condition; -Generally after each use-Generally after each use -If the respirator is shared among employees it must be disinfected-If the respirator is shared among employees it must be disinfected and cleaned after each use.and cleaned after each use.
  60. 60. ReviewReview
  61. 61. Respiratory Protection- ReviewRespiratory Protection- Review  UNC-CH has established rules about hazardous atmospheres toUNC-CH has established rules about hazardous atmospheres to protect you at work?protect you at work?  True or FalseTrue or False  You are required to perform and positive and negative pressureYou are required to perform and positive and negative pressure check every time you don an air purifying respirator?check every time you don an air purifying respirator?  True or FalseTrue or False  The type of hazards you are exposed to determines theThe type of hazards you are exposed to determines the respirator selection process?respirator selection process?  True or False.True or False.  Which of the following is NOT a method of engineering controlWhich of the following is NOT a method of engineering control for airborne contaminants?for airborne contaminants?  Respirators.Respirators.  Substitution.Substitution.  Local Exhaust VentilationLocal Exhaust Ventilation
  62. 62. Respiratory Protection- ReviewRespiratory Protection- Review  The two primary classifications of respirators are called?The two primary classifications of respirators are called?  Air-PurifyingAir-Purifying  Atmosphere SupplyingAtmosphere Supplying  A P100 filter is what kind of filter and what color code is it?A P100 filter is what kind of filter and what color code is it?  High efficiency particulate air/purple-magentaHigh efficiency particulate air/purple-magenta  An organic vapor chemical cartridge (color coded black) can beAn organic vapor chemical cartridge (color coded black) can be used for what work operations?used for what work operations?  Paint and solvent vapors when there is a potential vapor exposurePaint and solvent vapors when there is a potential vapor exposure hazardhazard  What type of maintenance should you perform on PPE?What type of maintenance should you perform on PPE?  Inspect it.Inspect it.  Proper storage.Proper storage.  Clean it.Clean it.
  63. 63. Any questions regarding UNC-CH Respiratory Protection Program, please call: Workplace SafetyWorkplace Safety Phone:Phone: 919.962.5507919.962.5507 Web:Web: www.ehs.unc.eduwww.ehs.unc.edu 1120 Estes Drive Ext.1120 Estes Drive Ext. Campus BoxCampus Box 16501650 Chapel Hill, NC,Chapel Hill, NC, 2759927599

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