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Respiratory Protection


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Respiratory Protection - UNC EHS

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Respiratory Protection

  1. 1. UNC Respiratory Protection Program Presented by UNC-CH Environment, Health & Safety
  2. 2. Class Objectives  Introduction to the Respiratory Protection Program  Fundamentals of Hazardous Atmospheres  Types of Respirators  Respirator Filters and Chemical Cartridges  Medical Evaluations  Inspection Procedures  Fit-Testing Procedures  Maintenance & Storage Requirements  Review
  3. 3. Introduction The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) Respiratory Protection Program describes written policy and procedures for the use of respirators to protect the health of employees in accordance with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) Respiratory Protection Standard, 29 CFR 1910.134 (General Industry Respirator Standard). Additional information regarding the UNC-CH Respiratory Protection Program can be found at:
  4. 4. Introduction The primary means to control occupational exposures caused by breathing contaminated air is through the use of feasible engineering controls, such as enclosures, confinement of operations, ventilation, or substitution of less toxic materials. When effective engineering controls and other types of workplace controls (administrative, product substitution, etc.) are not feasible, or while they are being instituted, appropriate respirators shall be used. The use of respirators is the last line of defense. Respirators may also be worn when not required, as long as it is determined that such use in itself will not create a hazard and all other elements of the respirator program are implemented.
  5. 5. Introduction Each department, shop, or work unit requiring the use of respirators is to have Work-Site Specific Procedures outlining the nature of the work, the hazard to which employees are exposed, and safety procedures to be followed. The specific duties requiring the use of respirators are to be described along with identifying the type of respirators to be worn. The best way to create this procedure is by developing a “Job Safety Analysis (JSA)”. It describes a task in a step-by-step fashion, identifies associated hazards, and outlines proper controls that minimize the risk of injury or illness to the individual performing that task. Procedures for respirator use, care, cleaning, chemical cartridge change out schedules, maintenance, and inspection are to be included in the JSA.
  6. 6. Fundamentals of Hazardous Atmospheres There are various considerations when assessing a work environment and when selecting a respirator for use. Some important considerations when assessing potential workplace inhalation hazards include:  What are the type of airborne/respiratory hazards present? Respiratory hazards may result from either an oxygen deficient atmosphere or breathing air contaminated with toxic particles, vapors, gases, fumes or mists. The proper selection and use of a respirator depends upon an initial determination of the concentration of the hazard or hazards present in the workplace, or the presence of an oxygen deficient atmosphere.  The following two pages illustrates examples of the specific types of respiratory hazards and provides examples of each type.
  7. 7. Fundamentals of Hazardous Atmospheres Airborne hazards generally fall into the following basic categories:  Gases. Gases are formless fluids that occupy the space or enclosure and which can be changed to the liquid or solid state only by the combined effect of increased pressure and decreased temperature. Examples are welding gases such as acetylene, nitrogen, helium and argon; and carbon monoxide generated from the operation of internal combustion engines. Another example is hydrogen sulfide, which is formed wherever there is decomposition of materials containing sulfur under reducing conditions. Other examples of gasses consist of formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, chlorine, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides.  Vapors. Vapors are the gaseous form of substances that are normally in the solid or liquid state at room temperature and pressure. They are formed by evaporation from a liquid or solid, and can be found where parts cleaning and painting takes place and where solvents are used. Solvents are used by paint shops and other areas. Some examples of vapors include compounds of benzene, toluene, styrene, and pesticide chemicals.  Oxygen deficiency. An oxygen deficient atmosphere has an oxygen content below 19.5% by volume. Oxygen deficiency may occur in confined spaces, which include, but are not limited to, storage tanks, process vessels, towers, drums, tank cars, bins, sewers, septic tanks, underground utility tunnels, manholes, and pits.
  8. 8. Fundamentals of Hazardous Atmospheres Airborne hazards generally fall into the following basic categories:  Dusts. Particles that are formed or generated from solid organic or inorganic materials by reducing their size through mechanical processes such as crushing, grinding, drilling, abrading, or blasting.  Fumes. Particles formed when a volatilized solid, such as a metal, condenses in cool air. This physical change is often accompanied by a chemical reaction, such as oxidation. Examples are lead oxide fumes from smelting, and iron oxide fumes from arc-welding. A fume can also be formed when a material such as magnesium metal is burned or when welding or gas cutting is done on galvanized metal.  Mists. A mist is formed when a finely divided liquid is suspended in the air. These suspended liquid droplets can be generated by condensation from the gaseous to the liquid state or by breaking up a liquid into a dispersed state, such as by splashing, foaming, or atomizing. Examples are the oil mist produced during cutting and grinding operations, acid mists from electroplating, acid or alkali mists from pickling operations, paint spray mist from spraying operations, and the condensation of water vapor to form a fog or rain.  Smoke. Smoke consists of carbon or soot particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of carbonaceous materials such as coal or oil. Smoke generally contains droplets as well as dry particles.
  9. 9. Fundamentals of Hazardous Atmospheres Other important considerations when assessing potential workplace hazards to determine if a respirator is necessary for use: Have all other types of controls ( engineering controls, product substitution, administrative controls) been instituted to eliminate or reduce the hazard? IF NOT, Consider the following: Contaminant’s physical state (gas, vapor, liquid, or solid??) Contaminant’s warning properties (e.g. Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon Monoxide have poor warning properties), Routes of exposure: Is the substance harmful to the skin, eyes, and harmful to breath? Are you exposed to a substance in excess of applicable Occupational Exposure Limit (e.g. TLV/PEL Exposure Limits?). Has an evaluation by the EHS IH section determined the exposure from air sampling data, or modeling exposures, or respirator required based on regulatory standard? Are there other precautions annotated on the chemical product MSDS? Health and physical hazard information can found in material safety data sheets (MSDS) and on product labels. Is an explosive or flammable atmosphere present? Is the work environment IDLH- Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health or contains an Oxygen Deficient Atmosphere < 19.5 %
  10. 10. Fundamentals of Hazardous Atmospheres Once all the various considerations are assessed, then a determination can be made on the type of hazardous atmosphere. There are two primary types of hazardous atmosphere classifications: 1) Immediate Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) atmospheres 2) Non-IDLH contaminated atmospheres
  11. 11. Fundamentals of Hazardous Atmospheres IDLH is an atmosphere that posses an immediate threat to life, would cause irreversible, adverse, debilitating health effects, or would impair an individuals ability to escape. For example, Oxygen-deficient atmospheres, less than 19.5 % oxygen by volume at sea level are considered (IDLH). Examples where IDLH situations may occur include entry into unventilated silos, boilers, tanks, sewers, etc. Symptoms of Oxygen deficiency include an increased rate and depth of breathing, dizziness, rapid heartbeat, headache, inability to move, unconsciousness, and even death is possible.
  12. 12. Fundamentals of Hazardous Atmospheres Non-IDLH contaminated atmospheres are contaminated atmospheres which can be caused by particles, gasses, vapors, fumes, mists, and other airborne hazards generated from specific work processes. Examples of work processes that produce non-IDLH contaminated atmospheres include chemical treatment and coating (e.g. use of solvents), spray painting, and pneumatic sanding and grinding on hazardous metals, paints, and primers. Various types of Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs) are used at UNC- CH for work operations that are classified as non-IDLH contaminated atmospheres. Some processes happen infrequently and for short task durations.
  13. 13. Fundamentals of Hazardous Atmospheres University research personnel use respirators for protection when there is potential exposure when working with Biological Hazardous agents (e.g. bacteria such as tuberculosis, viruses, and other infectious agents). Dependent on the type of work operation and type of hazard, either a N-95 disposable respirator or Powered Air Purifying Respirator (PAPR) is required. PAPRs are used when working in Biological Safety Labs. Consult your supervisor or EHS Biological Safety Officer for additional information and questions regarding biological exposed atmospheres.
  14. 14. Types of Respirators There are two primary types of respirators. They are called air- purifying and atmosphere supplying. 1) Air-Purifying Respirator (APR): Both Negative & Positive Pressure Types. Removes contaminants by mechanical removal of particulates using filters and chemical cartridges used for the removal of gasses & vapors by adsorption (surface binding). They can’t be worn in oxygen-deficient or IDLH atmospheres. The air concentration must be within the maximum use concentration of the respirator. 2) Atmosphere Supplying: Provides fresh breathing air (“Grade D” quality) from an external source. Examples of types of supplied air are Airline respirators, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA), and Escape only respirators.
  15. 15. Types of Respirators An Air-Purifying Respirator (APR) is a respirator with an air- purifying filter, cartridge, or canister that removes specific air contaminants by passing ambient air through the air-purifying element. An APR can be either a negative pressure or positive pressure type. Air
  16. 16. Types of Respirators A negative pressure respirator is an Air Purifying Respirator in which the air pressure inside the facepiece is negative during inhalation with respect to the ambient air pressure outside the respirator. Negative Pressure respirators can be manufactured in different sizes and styles as illustrated below.
  17. 17. Types of Respirators The “tight-fitting respirator” is another term of a negative pressure air purifying respirator which is designed to form a seal with the face of the wearer. It is available in three types: quarter mask, half mask, and full facepiece. The quarter mask covers the nose and mouth, where the lower sealing surface rests between the chin and the mouth. The half mask covers the nose and mouth and fits under the chin. The full facepiece covers the entire face from below the chin to the hairline.
  18. 18. Types of Respirators A Filtering Facepiece (Dust Mask) is a negative pressure particulate respirator with a filter as an integral part of the facepiece or with the entire facepiece composed of the filtering medium. An example of this type of respirator used at UNC-CH consists of 3M 1860, 3M 8511, 3M 9211 and other manufacturers and model types.
  19. 19. Types of Respirators A Positive Pressure Respirator is a respirator in which the pressure inside the respirator inlet covering exceeds the ambient air pressure outside the respirator. A Powered-Air Purifying Respirator (PAPR) is an example of a positive pressure respirator. It uses a blower to force the Ambient air through air-purifying elements to the inlet covering (example on the next page).
  20. 20. Types of Respirators
  21. 21. Types of Respirators Some examples of types of negative pressure air purifying respirators used at UNC-CH include: -Clinical areas use N-95 disposable respirators (e.g. 3M 9210 &9211, 1860) for protection against tuberculosis and other infectious diseases. Powered-Air Purifying Respirators (PAPR) are used when working with Biological & Infectious agents in biological safety labs. -UNC-CH Public Safety use MSA Phalanx full face APRs for protection against riot control agents and chemical terrorist threats & N95 use. -UNC-CH Facility Services use half-face North APR for painting operations, gym floor refurbishing, pool maintenance, HVAC repair, chemical cleaning operations, etc. - UNC-CH Energy Services: Co-Generation facility uses full-face North APRs for plant boiler maintenance actions. 3m 8511 filtering facepiece particulate respirators are also used during dusty operations. -UNC-CH Environment Health and Safety: Full-face APR for Chemical Spill Assessment & Clean Up Operations
  22. 22. Types of Respirators Atmosphere-Supplying Respirator is a respirator that supplies the user with breathing air from a source independent of the ambient atmosphere. Types include supplied-air respirators (SARs) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units.
  23. 23. Types of Respirators Supplied Air Respirators (SARs) is an atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the source of breathing air is not designed to be carried by the user. SARs can be used for numerous industrial processes such as compressed air spray painting, abrasive blasting and grinding and other operations. The maximum hose length is 300 ft with 125 psig maximum pressure.
  24. 24. Types of Respirators Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) is an atmosphere supplying respirator for which the breathing air source is designed to be carried by the user. This type of respirator is considered to provide the highest level of respiratory protection. Pressure-demand types of SCBAs are used for fire fighting, rescue, emergency response, and other situations. They are acceptable for oxygen-deficient conditions, and against a wide variety of contaminants, and for entry into IDLH atmospheres. Disadvantage is that the work time is limited to amount of air in the external tank and the extra weight of the tank.
  25. 25. Types of Respirators Escape only respirator is a respirator intended to be used only for emergency exit purposes only. The air source is limited for short periods of time.
  26. 26. Types of Respirators Review of the Characteristics of Specific Types of Respirators Category and Type of Respirator NIOSH Protection Factor Use for Unknown Exposures and Concentrations? Specific Cartridge(s) Needed? Required Maintenance Level Interferes with Eyeglasses? Can be worn by persons with Facial hair? Air-Supplying: Positive Pressure, Self Contained Breathing Apparatus 10,000 Yes No High Yes No Air-Supplying: Supplied air (air line) 10-2000 No No High Yes No Air-Purifying: Powered, Tight-fitting hood Powered, Loose-fitting hood 1,000 25 No No Yes Yes High High Yes No No Yes Air-Purifying: Full-face piece 50 No Yes Moderate Yes No Air-Purifying: Half-face piece 10 No Yes Moderate Maybe No Air-Purifying: Filtering facepiece, Disposable (e.g. N95) 10 No No Low Maybe No
  27. 27. Filters and Cartridges Filters are an integral component used with negative and positive pressure air purifying respirators to remove solid or liquid aerosols (e.g. dusts, fumes, smokes, mists) from the inspired air. Also called an air purifying element. The time requirement to replace a filter is not the same as chemical cartridges. Filters should be replaced when breathing becomes labored or as needed for sanitary reasons.
  28. 28. Filters and Cartridges Particulate filters (High Efficiency Particulate Air filters- HEPA filters) have different classifications of filter efficiency based on the testing procedures for protection against oil mist. P100 filter designation is the primary type of HEPA used for protection against dusts, mists, fumes, smokes (any particulates). It has been tested for a 99.97% filter efficiency when tested against 0.3 um docytl phthalate (DOP- “oil mist”) particles. P100 filters are color coded purple/magenta.
  29. 29. Filters and Cartridges There are 9 classes of respirator HEPA filters: 3 Series Types N = Not oil resistant R = Resistant to oil P = oil Proof 3 Efficiency Percentages 95 % efficient 99 % efficient 100 % efficient Filter Classifications can be any combination of the listed Series and Efficiency (e.g.. N-95, N-pp, N-100, R-95, R-99, R-100, P-95, P-99, P100)
  30. 30. Filters and Cartridges Canister or Cartridge is a container with a filter, sorbent, or catalyst, or combination of these items, which removes specific contaminants from the air passed through the container. They differ from aerosol filters in that they use sorbents, generally carbon to remove harmful gasses and vapors.
  31. 31. Filters and Cartridges To make it easier for the user to identify respirator cartridges and filters, they have designated colors. The color is based on the type of air contaminant (s) which the user will be wearing the respirator for protection against. Examples of filter and cartridge colors and associated contaminant type include:  Acid gasses – White  Organic vapors- Black  Ammonia gas- Green  Acid gasses and organic vapors- Yellow  P100 & HEPA filters- Purple/magenta
  32. 32. Filters and Cartridges What type of filter or cartridge is the below?
  33. 33. Filters and Cartridges It is important to implement a chemical cartridge change out schedule. The change schedule described in the plan for canister and cartridges must be based on objective information or data (e.g. industrial hygiene air monitoring data) that will ensure that canisters or cartridges are changed before their end of service life. This will help prevent “break-through” of the chemical cartridge and will prevent the wearer from being exposed to air contaminants as a result of overuse of a saturated chemical cartridge. When using a respirator for protection for gasses and vapors, if you detect a chemical taste, smell, or irritation, you should exit to a clean area and replace the cartridges and inspect the respirator immediately. Additional assistance in determining chemical cartridge change schedules can be found under the Workplace Safety/Respiratory Protection Section of our website at:
  34. 34. Medical Evaluation Using a respirator may place a physiological burden, which varies with type of respirator worn, the job and workplace conditions in which the respirator is used, and the medical status of the employee. Potential negative physical demands of wearing a respirator include:  Extra strain on the heart  Increased body temperature  Heat Stress  Dehydration  Other ill health effects Each employee assigned to wear a respirator in carrying out his/her job responsibilities is to receive a medical evaluation to determine his/her ability to wear a respirator. The medical evaluation must be performed to determine the employee’s ability to use a respirator, before fit testing and use.
  35. 35. Medical Evaluation There are some medical conditions that may prevent respirator use, such as:  Emphysema  Lung diseases  High blood pressure  Epilepsy  Bronchial asthma  Heart Disease  Coronary Artery Disease  Claustrophobia,  Inability to smell or detect odors  Previous physician restrictions
  36. 36. Medical Evaluation OSHA requires employees to complete a medical questionnaire. At UNC- CH this is done at the University Employee Occupational Health Clinic (UEOHC), 145 N. Medical Drive. The medical staff will review the medical evaluation and determine the ability of the employee to wear a respirator. The UEOHC will provide the employee and their supervisor a written recommendation if any limitations are needed. Employees are encouraged to discuss the questionnaire and examination results with a member of the UEOHC medical staff.
  37. 37. Inspection Procedures All respirators used in routine situations are to be inspected before and after each use and during cleaning. Before donning and using the respirator check for any malfunctions such as:  Broken/loose connectors  Receptacles  Cracked distorted facepieces  Deformed valves  Unclean respirators  Check that you have the correct filter/cartridge and that the service life has not been exceeded.  If something is damaged or worn, get a replacement part before using it.
  38. 38. Inspection Procedures Respirators used for emergency purposes (e.g. SCBA’s) must be inspected before each use and monthly. Documentation of inspections for respirators maintained for emergency use is to be provided on a tag or label that is attached with the storage of the respirator.
  39. 39. Respirator Inspection Donning the respirator: There are general steps you take with any respirator-try different respirator sizes until you are sure of fit and comfort. For example, if a half-mask respirator does not fit, you may have to wear a full face respirator. Steps: Place chin in the respirator, pull it over your head, tighten straps, check for tight seal. Always perform a positive and negative pressure user seal check to ensure a good seal (explained in more detail in the following slides). Respirators that fail an inspection or are found to be defective are to be removed from service, and either discarded, repaired, or adjusted. Repairs or adjustments are to be made by persons appropriately trained.
  40. 40. Respirator Inspection Each individual who uses a tight-fitting respirator is to perform a user seal check to ensure that an adequate seal is achieved each time the respirator is put on. This can be achieved by performing a positive and negative pressure check. Positive Pressure Check Negative Pressure Check
  41. 41. Respirator Inspection Negative Pressure Check: Close off the inlet opening of the canister or cartridges by covering with the palm of the hand or by replacing the filter seal, inhale gently so that the face piece collapses slightly, and hold the breath for ten seconds. This test can be performed by covering the inlet opening of the cartridge with a thin latex or nitrile glove. If the face piece remains in its slightly collapsed condition and no inward leakage of air is detected, the tightness of the respirator is considered satisfactory.
  42. 42. Respirator Inspection Positive Pressure Check: Close off the exhalation valve (place palm of your hand over exhalation valve) and exhale gently into the face piece. The face fit is considered satisfactory if a slight positive pressure can be built up inside the face piece without any evidence of outward leakage of air at the seal.
  43. 43. Fit-Test Procedures Employees at UNC-CH are required to receive a quantitative fit test with the respirator that they will be using. The fit-testing will occur prior to initial use of the respirator, or whenever a different respirator facepiece (size, style, model, or make) is used, and at least annually thereafter. An additional fit-test is conducted annually thereafter and whenever the employee, supervisor, the Environment, Health, and Safety Office, or the UEOHC makes visual observations of changes in the employee’s physical condition that could affect respirator fit. Such conditions include, but are not limited to, facial scarring, dental changes, cosmetic surgery, or any obvious change in body weight. The employee may select a different respirator if he/she does not think the respirator fit is acceptable, even after passing the test.
  44. 44. Fit-Test Procedures Quantitative fit testing is an assessment of the adequacy of respirator fit by numerically measuring the amount of leakage into the respirator. Testing is accomplished by modifying the face piece to allow sampling inside the face piece in the breathing zone of the user, midway between the nose and mouth. This requirement is accomplished by using a sampling adapter designed to temporarily provide a means of sampling air from inside the face piece.
  45. 45. Fit-Test Procedures A quantitative fit-test determines a fit-factor for the employee based on the type of the respirator used. A fit-factor is a quantitative estimate of the fit of a particular respirator to a specific individual, and estimates the ratio: Fit Factor = Concentration of particles in the ambient air Concentration of particles inside the respirator when worn Required Fit-Factor Type of Respirator 100 Half-face APR & N95 respirator 500 Full Face APR 1000 MSA Phalanx Full Face APR & North 7600 Series Full Face APR
  46. 46. Maintenance & Storage Requirements All respirators are to be stored to protect them from damage, contamination, dust, sunlight, extreme temperatures, excessive moisture, and damaging chemicals. They are to be packed or stored to prevent deformation of the face piece and exhalation valve. Store respirators in a sealed plastic bag in a clean and preferably cool area such as a storage cabinet or locker. Emergency use respirators are to be kept accessible to the work area; and stored in compartments or in covers that are clearly marked as containing emergency respirators; and stored in accordance with any applicable manufacturer instructions.
  47. 47. Maintenance and Storage Requirements Maintenance and Care of Respirators: Employees are to be provided with respirators that are clean, sanitary, and in good working order. Respirators are to be cleaned and disinfected using procedures recommended by the respirator manufacturer. Review the respirator instruction manual for specific procedures for cleaning and disinfecting the respirator. Respirators are to be cleaned and disinfected at the following intervals: -As often as necessary to be maintained in a sanitary condition; -Generally after each use
  48. 48. Conclusion
  49. 49. Any questions regarding UNC-CH Respiratory Protection Program, please call: Workplace Safety Phone: 919.962.5507 Web: www.ehs.unc.edu1120 Estes Drive Ext. Campus Box 1650 Chapel Hill, NC, 27599