Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Laboratory Environment Orientation


Published on

Laboratory Environment Orientation - UNC EHS

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Laboratory Environment Orientation

  1. 1. ONLINE ORIENTATION Laboratory Environment
  2. 2. About EHS We support the University's core mission of teaching, research, and service by providing comprehensive environmental, health and safety services to the University community including: education through training and consultation; maintaining a safe environment; ensuring regulatory compliance; and controlling recognized health and safety hazards. To achieve this mission we must rely on all University employees to understand and recognize safety policy and procedures.
  3. 3. About EHS The responsibility of the department of Environment, Health and Safety is to develop a comprehensive program to comply with the provisions of each of the following regulations: Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)  NC DENR NC Department of Environment and Natural Resources  Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization (JCAHO)  NC Radiation Protection Section (NCRPS)  Office of State Personnel (OSP)  NC Fire Prevention Codes  NFPA 101 Life Safety Codes
  4. 4. About EHS EHS provides comprehensive support for the University community in the areas of environmental compliance, occupational health and safety. To learn more about each section, please visit EHS’s website at
  5. 5. Workplace Safety Program In accordance to University policy and North Carolina General Statute Article 63, each state agency must have a written Health and Safety program with clearly stated goals or objectives that promote safe and healthful working conditions. The Environment, Health and Safety manual along with other specific manuals, such as Radiation Safety Manual, Laboratory Safety Manual, and Biological Safety manual serves as the University's written Health and Safety program. These manuals provide University employees with the necessary guidance in maintaining a safe work environment. Each of these manuals can be viewed in more detail by selecting "Manuals" from the EHS web site.  Other elements of the Workplace Safety program include:  Conduct new employee training to help with the identification of and correction of hazards,  Review workplace incidents and develop ways to eliminate or minimize hazards, and  Employee input through safety committees
  6. 6. Workplace Safety Program UNC's health and safety committees perform workplace inspections, review injury and illness records, make advisory recommendations to the administration, and perform other functions determined by the State Personnel Commission. The Workplace Safety Committees report through the following structure: UNC employees should contact EHS or any committee member regarding safety concerns.
  7. 7. Workplace Safety Program If you are interested in serving on one of the committees please feel free to contact the EHS office at (919) 962-5507.
  8. 8. Fire Safety Program UNC's Fire Safety program is based on NFPA 101 Life Safety Code, N.C. Fire Prevention Code, and OSHA 1910 Subpart E. Your understanding and contribution to Fire Safety is the key to an effective fire protection program for the University. Regularly inspecting your area for  electrical hazards  storage in hallways  blocked exit ways  adequate lighting of exits  general housekeeping can prevent a fire from occurring and provide employees with a safe passage in the event of a fire.
  9. 9. Fire Safety Program If a fire or other emergency occurs in your building, employees must know two Means of Egress (exit). OSHA defines Means of Egress as "A continuous and unobstructed way of exit travel from any point in a building or structure to a public way." The three main components of Means of Egress are:  The way of Exit Access  The exit  The way of Exit Discharge
  10. 10. Fire Safety Program Exit Discharge is the exit from a building to a public way. Exit Access is the area in which an employee uses as their means of exiting to an exit. Exit is the protected way of travel to the exit discharge.
  11. 11. Fire Safety Program The Department of EHS has prepared a general Emergency Action Plan for the University to follow. An Emergency Action Plan is "a plan for the workplace describing what procedures the employers and employees must take to ensure employee's safety from fire and other emergencies" (1910.35j). The plan includes:  posting of planned evacuation routes  procedures to follow in the event of a fire or emergency  procedures to account for employees after evacuation  procedures for employees who remain to operate critical equipment in an emergency
  12. 12. Fire Safety Program Posting of Planned Evacuation Routes - Building evacuation procedure for your department should be posted on the office bulletin board and at all elevators. Employees should know at least two evacuation routes for their designated work area and any area that they frequent often. Employees are encouraged to evaluate the building evacuation areas daily to ensure that there are no obstructions. If obstructions are found, please report it to the EHS immediately at (919) 962-5507.
  13. 13. Fire Safety Program Procedures to Follow - If a fire emergency was to occur in your workplace, it is vital that you be prepared to react. The acronym RACE provides the basic steps of the Emergency Action Plan to follow:  Remove or rescue individuals in immediate danger  Activate the alarm by pulling the fire pull station located in the corridors and calling 911.  Confine the fire by closing windows, vents and doors  Evacuate to safe area (know the evacuation routes for your areas).
  14. 14. Fire Safety Program Procedures to Account for Employees – The University has designated an Emergency Coordinator(s) for all occupied buildings. Each Emergency Coordinator (EC) is responsible for assisting in the safe and orderly emergency evacuation of employees. In preparation for an emergency, the EC completes an information card that includes:  evacuation monitors' names  employee names and phone numbers occupying building  location of employees needing assistance  rooms containing hazardous material,  and equipment needing special attention.
  15. 15. Fire Safety Program In an emergency, each Emergency Coordinator is responsible for the following in accordance with the University Emergency Plan:  Sweep through assigned area to alert occupants that an evacuation is in process.  Assist building occupants needing special assistance  Report to the University Emergency Command Sector with emergency information card  Advise emergency personnel regarding building contents  Account for all employees by meeting building occupants at the assembly area  Advise building occupants regarding situation and when re-entry is permitted  Advise Facilities Services personnel in cleanup operations.
  16. 16. Fire Safety Program To extinguish a fire requires proper identification of the type of fire extinguisher to use. There are four classes of extinguishers to choose from. Currently University buildings are equipped with Type ABC fire extinguishers, except in computer labs or mechanical rooms with have CO2 extinguishers. Class Fire Type Extinguisher Contains Class A Ordinary combustible products such as paper, cloth or wood Water Class B Flammable Liquids such as petroleum base oil, solvents, greases, and gasses Dry chemicals such as carbon dioxide or halogenated agents Class C Electrical Dry chemicals such as carbon dioxide or halogenated agents Class D Combustible Metals (ex: magnesium sodium) Special liquid or dry powder agent
  17. 17. Fire Safety Program Only University employees working in healthcare, emergency response, and/or whose job requires them to use a fire extinguisher are required to receive annual hands on fire extinguisher training. EHS Fire Safety section conducts annual classes in different locations on campus. For other employees it is beneficial to know how a fire extinguisher is used. Remembering the acronym PASS will assist in the proper use of a fire extinguisher.  Pull the pin between the handles.  Aim the nozzle at the base of the fire.  Squeeze the handles together.  Sweep the extinguisher from side to side at the base of the fire.
  18. 18. Fire Safety Program A few fire safety reminders:  Everyone is responsible for keeping the work area safe from fires.  Review your evacuation routes to ensure that exits and passageways are unobstructed.  Practice good general housekeeping.  Store flammable liquids and combustible material properly.  Report any fire hazards or other safety concerns immediately to the department of Environment, Health and Safety at (919) 962-5507.
  19. 19. Workers’ Compensation Program Workers' Compensation benefits are available to any University employee (whether full-time, part-time, temporary) who suffers disability through accident or illness arising out of, and in the scope of, his or her employment, according to the North Carolina Workers' Compensation Act.
  20. 20. Workers’ Compensation Program The benefits provided to University Employees include medical and leave. Medical benefits include all authorized medical services such as physician visit, prescriptions, physical therapy, rehabilitation, etc. Leave benefits are provided to employees when an authorized medical provider places an employee out work.
  21. 21. Workers’ Compensation Program If you receive an injury or occupational illness, go directly to the University Employee Occupational Health Clinic (UEOHC) located at 145 N. Medical Drive. The UEOHC is open from 8:30 am to 4:30 pm Monday thru Friday, except holidays. For after hours needlestick/human blood or body fluid exposures, please call UEOHC at 966-9119. The UEOHC line will automatically forward your call to Healthlink in order to gather the appropriate information and put you in contact with the Family Practice physician covering the needlestick hotline. For all other after-hour work related injuries that require immediate medical care, go directly to the UNC Emergency Department. If immediate medical care is not needed, then please report to the UEOHC the following day. For a life-threatening injury or illness, go directly to the Emergency Department located in the Neurosciences Hospital on Manning Drive.
  22. 22. Workers’ Compensation Program If you experienced an on-the-job injury or illness, you are to report the incident immediately to your supervisor no matter how minor. Once the injury is reported, an incident investigation will occur to determine the cause of the incident and corrective action taken to prevent the incident from reoccurring. Please note: Failure to report an injury could result in the denial of your claim.
  23. 23. Workers’ Compensation Program For further information concerning University policies on workplace injuries and illnesses, refer to the "Workers' Compensation" pages on the EHS web site.
  24. 24. Hazard Communication Background What is OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard? OSHA’s Hazard Communication standard (29 CFR 1910.1200), promulgated 1994, requires that employees be informed of the hazards of chemical(s) that they work with or are present in their work area.
  25. 25. OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (continued) The four elements of the program include:  Ensuring chemicals are labeled  Maintaining departmental/work unit/laboratory chemical inventories  Maintaining Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)  Training of personnel by Supervisor on the chemicals that are used or in the workplace
  26. 26. OSHA collaborates with United Nation To view details of this report, double click picture. Understanding the need for consistent classifications of hazards chemicals, OSHA decided to better align with the United Nations’ Globally Harmonized System by adopting a common classification and labeling of chemicals.
  27. 27. Benefits of Adopting GHS There are several benefits for OSHA in adopting the Globally Harmonized system. In particular, it will provide a common and coherent approach to classifying chemicals and communicating hazard information on labels and safety data sheets. Thus resulting in: • Consistency of information provided • Increase comprehension of hazards • Help address literacy problems • Facilitation of international trade of chemicals
  28. 28. OSHA Publishes Revised Standard In March 2012, the revised Hazard Communication Standard became law and included an established timeframe for implementation. The table below outlines the effective dates, requirements and responsible parties. Effective Completion Date Requirement(s) Who December 1, 2013 Train employees on the new label elements and SDS format. Employers June 1, 2015* December 1, 2015 Comply with all modified provisions of this final rule, except: Distributors may ship products labeled by manufacturers under the old system until December 1, 2015. Chemical manufacturers, importers, distributors and employers June 1, 2016 Update alternative workplace labeling and hazard communication program as necessary, and provide additional employee training for newly identified physical or health hazards. Employers Transition Period Comply with either 29 CFR 1910.1200 (this final standard), or the current standard, or both All chemical manufacturers, importers, distributors and employers
  29. 29. Benefit of HazCom2012 With the University’s mission to “serve North Carolina, the United States, and the World through teaching, research, and public service,” the new requirements under HazCom 2012 will enhance clarity for University employees positioned on campus as well as abroad.
  30. 30. HazCom2012 Requirements By December 2013, all University employees are to have received general training regarding “definitions”, “label” and “Safety Data Sheet” for chemicals under new HazCom 2012 standard. Supervisors are still required to provide job specific training to employees on the chemicals used in their area at least once and every time a new chemical is added. The training must cover proper use, handling, and personal protective equipment required for the safe handling of the hazardous chemicals.
  31. 31. Definitions HazCom 2012 will use a “specification” approach rather than a “performance-oriented” approach. Hazards will be classified thus providing a specific criteria for classification of health and physical hazards, as well as classification of mixtures. Specifically:  Appendix A defines health and physical hazards  Appendix B includes additional parameters to evaluate health hazard data  Appendix F pertains to Carcinogens
  32. 32. Labels HazCom 2012 requires chemical manufacturers and importers to provide a label that includes a harmonized product identifier, pictogram, signal word, and hazard statement for each hazard class and category. Precautionary statements must also be provided.
  33. 33. Labels - Pictograms Pictograms are required on labels to alert users of the chemical hazards to which they may be exposed. Each pictogram consists of a symbol on a white background framed within a red border and represents a distinct hazard(s), such as health, physical, and environmental . The pictogram on the label is determined by the chemical hazard classification. There are nine pictograms with only the environmental pictogram being optional.
  34. 34. Labels – Distinct Hazards As previously stated, “Distinct hazards” are chemicals in which there is scientific evidence that a health, physical, and/or environmental hazards may occur.  Health Hazard - acute or chronic health affects may occur if exposed.  Physical Hazard - a combustible liquid, a compressed gas, explosive, flammable, an organic peroxide, an oxidizer, pyrophoric, unstable (reactive) or water-reactive  Environmental Hazard – pose risk or danger to the environment
  35. 35. Labels – Pictograms (Health)  Acute Toxicity (fatal and toxic)  Fatal in contact with skin  Fatal if inhaled  Fatal if swallowed  Toxic if swallowed  Toxic in contact with skin Examples: Carbon Monoxide, Ammonia, Acrylonitrile, Arsenic Skull and Cross Bones will appear on the most severely toxic chemicals. Depending on the toxicity of the chemical, the skull and crossbones indicates that the chemical may be toxic or fatal. Specifically it can mean:
  36. 36. Labels – Pictograms (Health)  May be corrosive to metals  Causes severe skin burns  Causes serious eye damage Examples: Sodium Hydroxide (lye) and Sulfuric Acid Corrosive will appear on chemicals that have corrosive properties. Depending on the properties of the chemical(s) in the product, the corrosion pictogram can mean:
  37. 37. Labels – Pictograms (Health)  Harmful if swallowed  Acute Toxicity (harmful)  Harmful in contact with skin  Skin Sensitizer  Harmful if inhaled  Respiratory Tract Irritant  Causes skin irritation  Irritant (skin and eye)  Causes serious eye irritation  May cause allergic skin reaction  Hazardous to Ozone Layer Examples: Isopropyl Alcohol, Ethyl Alcohol, Acetone Exclamation Mark will appear on chemicals with less severe toxicity. This symbol will never be used with “skull and crossbones” symbol. Depending on the health hazard, it can mean:
  38. 38. Labels – Pictograms (Health)  Carcinogen  Mutagenicity  Reproductive Toxicity  Respiratory Sensitizer  Target Organ Toxicity  Aspiration Toxicity Examples: Carbon Monoxide, Hexanes Health Hazard will appear on chemicals with less severe toxicity. This symbol will never be used with “skull and crossbones” symbol. Depending on the health hazard, it can mean:
  39. 39. Labels – Pictograms (Health/Physical) Gas Cylinder can cause fires, explosions, oxygen deficient atmospheres, toxic gas exposures as well as the innate physical hazard associated with cylinders under high pressure  Gases under pressure  Compressed gases  Liquefied gases  Refrigerated liquefied gases  Dissolved gases Examples: Butane and Propane
  40. 40. Labels – Pictograms (Physical) Exploding Bomb symbol will appear on chemicals that have explosive properties.  Unstable Explosives  Self-reactive substances and mixtures  Organic peroxides Examples: Nitroglycerine and TNT, Gunpowder, Rocket propellants, and Pyrotechnic mixtures (fireworks).
  41. 41. Labels – Pictograms (Physical)  Extremely flammable gas  Extremely flammable aerosol  Self-Heating  Flammable aerosol  Extremely flammable liquid and vapor  Highly flammable liquid and vapor  Flammable liquid and vapor  Flammable solid Examples: Butane, Pyrophorics, Organic Peroxides Flame symbol will appear on chemicals that are flammable. Depending on the properties of the chemical(s) and the product, the flame can mean:
  42. 42. Labels – Pictograms (Physical) Flame over circle symbol will appear on chemicals that are:  Oxidizers  Oxidizing gases, liquids, and solids Examples: Hydrogen Peroxide and Nitrous Oxide
  43. 43. Labels – Pictograms (Environment) Environment symbol will appear on chemicals which are acutely hazardous to fish, crustacean, or aquatic plants. This is the only symbol that is not mandatory.  Aquatic Toxicity  Acute hazards to the aquatic environment  Chronic hazards to the aquatic environment
  44. 44. Label – Signal Word A Signal Word is used to indicate the relative level of severity of hazard and alert the reader to a potential hazard on the label. The signal words used are:  "Danger" - used for the more severe hazards  “Warning" - used for less severe hazards.
  45. 45. Labels- Hazard Statement A Hazard Statement describes the nature of the hazard(s) of a chemical, including where appropriate the degree of hazard. All of the applicable hazard statements must appear on the label.
  46. 46. Labels – Precautionary Statement A Precautionary Statement is a statement that describes recommended measures that should be taken to minimize or prevent adverse effects.
  47. 47. Label – What do UNC Employees need to do? Effective June 1 2015, all chemicals received at the University should have the required label. Any material transferred to another container must also have the same label versus just chemical/product name.
  48. 48. Safety Data Sheets HazCom 2012 requires Safety Data Sheets - SDS (formerly known as Material Safety Data Sheets – MSDS) to use a specified 16-section standardized format. Under the new format, employees wanting information regarding Exposure Controls/Personal Protection will always refer to Section 8 of the Safety Data Sheets.
  49. 49. Safety Data Sheets To improve employee understanding, information listed on the label, like Precautionary Statement, will be same information the employee will find on the Safety Data Sheet. The standardize 16 sections is broken down as follows:
  50. 50. Safety Data Sheet – 16 Sections 1. Identification of the substance or mixture and of the supplier 2. Hazards identification 3. Composition/information on ingredients Substance/Mixture 4. First aid measures 5. Firefighting measures 6. Accidental release measures 7. Handling and storage 8. Exposure controls/personal protection 9. Physical and chemical properties 10. Stability and reactivity 11. Toxicological 12. Ecological information (non mandatory) 13. Disposal considerations (non mandatory) 14. Transport information (non mandatory) 15. Regulatory information (non mandatory) 16. Other information including information on preparation and revision of the SDS
  51. 51. Safety Data Sheets – What do UNC Employees need to do? By December 2015, distributors must provide the new format of Safety Data Sheets. Supervisors need to update the Safety Data Sheet notebooks and/or computer links in their job specific area to the newly format sheets. Remember SDS(s) must be accessible to employees at all times.
  52. 52. NC OSHA– Enforcement By June 2016, NC OSHA will begin to enforce compliance with HazCom 2012 by conducting site evaluations. Environment, Health and Safety will continue to assist University departments with the implementation of the specific requirements covered in this training.
  53. 53. Resources - OSHA’s HazCom2012 Web Page OSHA has developed an extensive web page to provide additional resources for employees at
  54. 54. Resources - Guidance & Outreach Supervisors can find printable guidance material that can be utilized when training employees. • Guidance » OSHA Briefs » Fact Sheet » Quick Cards
  55. 55. Asbestos on Campus  As an employee of UNC, EHS is informing you of the presence of asbestos- containing materials in residence halls and campus buildings. Provided the materials are in good condition, they pose no health risk to the building occupants.  UNC has an Asbestos Control Policy and Program to manage asbestos on UNC's campus.  Materials containing asbestos may include flooring, ceilings, walls, thermal system insulation on tanks, pipes and other miscellaneous materials.  UNC maintains asbestos-containing materials so they do not release asbestos fibers into the air. When asbestos containing materials become damaged, isolation, repair and/or removal are implemented immediately.  The University has a staff of accredited professionals that conduct building inspections, coordinate and supervise asbestos related construction activities, perform air monitoring and provide employee training.  If you have any questions concerning asbestos in a specific building on campus, please feel free to contact EHS at 919-962-5507 to make an appointment to review the building inspection reports.
  56. 56. Who is Responsible? Safety in a laboratory environment is dependent upon the Principal Investigator (PI), lab employees, and Department of Environment, Health and Safety taking on specific safety roles. Each role is crucial in protecting employees from potential chemical and health hazards found in the laboratory. In addition, adhering to safe laboratory practices contributes greatly to the research project.
  57. 57. The Principal Investigator (PI) The University considers the PI as the manager of the laboratory group and is responsible for ensuring a safe work environment for the employees registered as working in their lab. The PI prepares a Laboratory Safety Plan (LSP) outlining specific safety procedures to follow along with appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be used for their particular research project. The LSP must be updated annually and when any new procedure is added. After completing the LSP, the PI trains all of the workers registered in his/her lab on the LSP and documents this annual training in his/her Laboratory Safety Notebook (Appendix 1-D of LSM).
  58. 58. The Employee As a UNC employee working in a laboratory, you are responsible for:  Completing a worker registration form for each lab you work in (even if you do not use radiation).  Electronic version: please use this version if possible  Microsoft Word document version  Completing this and other required training, i.e. Radiation, Bloodborne Pathogens, etc.  Follow safe working practices, outlined in the training received from your PI on the LSP and Lab Safety Manual.  Maintain documentation in Lab Safety Notebook such as a copy of your worker registration form and PI training. If you do not know what the safe working practices are for your lab, ask someone before you act. The PI should be able to answer those questions. EHS personnel are available to assist you as well in determining safe working practices.
  59. 59. Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) EHS is responsible for providing safety training, conducting safety inspections, and responding to emergencies. In accordance with the OSHA Laboratory Standard, EHS provides the basis for general safety through this Laboratory Safety Course. Another responsibility of EHS is to respond to chemical spills or other hazardous incidents on campus. EHS also interprets regulations promulgated by state and federal agencies to see how they affect the campus community. EHS inspects laboratories through its Collaborative Laboratory Inspection Program (CLIP). CLIP looks at life safety, chemical safety, biological safety, radiation safety, PPE, safety training and documentation on an annual basis. Note: Laboratories that use radioactive materials are inspected on a quarterly or semi-annual basis. This inspection program is one of many mechanisms used to ensure a safe and healthy work environment.
  60. 60. Laboratory Standard In 1990 the Occupational Safety and Health Administration implemented the Laboratory Standard. Previously, laboratories had to follow rules that were written for manufacturers. This standard tried to take into account the unique environment of a research laboratory. If you would like to view the standard in more detail, please visit the OSHA web site and select "Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in the Workplace, 29 CFR 1910.1450".
  61. 61. Chemical Hygiene Plan One of the requirements of the OSHA Lab Standard is the completion of a Chemical Hygiene Plan for each laboratory. At UNC - CH, the Chemical Hygiene Plan consists of the UNC Laboratory Safety Manual and the PI's Laboratory Safety Plan (LSP). The Chemical Hygiene Plan covers:  Personnel responsible for the Plan  Medical surveillance for exposure monitoring  Determination and control of hazards  Proper working procedures for chemical laboratory hood and other protective equipment  Standard and specific operating procedures  Any additional protective measures needed  Employee information and training
  62. 62. Occupational Exposure and Medical Surveillance The OSHA Lab standard requires that medical surveillance be provided if one of the following occurs:  Signs and Symptoms of Exposure  Personnel Monitoring to determine over exposure  In the event of a spill or release
  63. 63. EHS Laboratory Safety Manual EHS Laboratory Safety Manual provides information on University policies and procedures for establishing a safe and healthy laboratory research environment. By following these procedures, physical and health hazards can be minimized and controlled. This manual has been provided to your PI. It is also available on the EHS website. As an employee working in the laboratory environment, you must have access to EHS's Laboratory Safety Manual while you are working in the laboratory.
  64. 64. PI’s Laboratory Safety Plan EHS's Laboratory Safety Manual provides the PI with guidelines on how to complete a Laboratory Safety Plan. The LSP is a mechanism to identify specific hazards associated with the research and how to control those hazards. The LSP outlines specific information on the PI's research project such as the use of  Chemicals  Radioactive material  Recombinant DNA  Types of PPE required The PI updates this plan annually or when there is a change in the specific laboratory procedure. Documentation of this review is to be retained in the laboratory safety notebook. EHS reviews this information during the lab's inspection. (Appendix 1-D)
  65. 65. Chemical Security The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is charged with keeping US citizens safe and secure from chemical terrorism. The Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) are a comprehensive risk-based security regulation enforced by DHS. These regulations provide guidance for securing certain Chemicals of Interest (COI) that could be used directly or indirectly for terroristic purposes. DHS requires Colleges and Universities in the possession of COI to:  Monitor  Report possessions above regulated threshold amounts  Implement appropriate Security measures DHS has the authority to inspect facilities for compliance with CFATS, impose civil penalties up to $25,000 per day, and shut down facilities that fail to comply with these regulations. As a leading research institution, UNC Chapel Hill conducts research where COI may be regularly used, stored, or even produced.
  66. 66. Chemicals of Interest (COI) COI are organized by specific security and vulnerability concerns. They are categorized in Appendix A by the following types:  Theft/Diversion: steal, divert, or otherwise acquired to use as a weapon at another time and place  Sabotage: sabotage or contaminate to explode or release in transit  Release: release as an explosive or to form a flammable or toxic cloud The potential type of security and vulnerability issue at UNC Chapel Hill would be related to Theft/Diversion. The following chart lists specific Theft/Diversion COI taken from DHS CFATS Appendix A.
  67. 67. Inventory Management of COI The EHS chemical inventory system is an essential component of compliance with the CFATS regulations. All inventories should be updated with EHS at least annually. Users of COI must check their inventories frequently to ensure no theft or diversion has occurred.
  68. 68. Purchasing of COI Cooperation by the University community to purchase COI through the University's purchasing protocol is necessary to maintain compliance. COI can only be purchased through the University's ePro system. Do not use Procurement Cards (P-Cards). To help facilitate compliance, EHS strongly encourages that COI purchases are limited to the amount of material needed for the experiment/operation.
  69. 69. Security of COI Multiple layers of security are required for COI stored in University facilities/property. Examples of security layers include:  locked cabinet within a locked room  access controlled room with locked cabinet  access controlled area with a gated storage shed Immediately report any suspect activity or loss of COI to the Department of Public Safety at 911.
  70. 70. What is Hazard Recognition? Hazard Recognition is the process used to determine physical and health hazards that may be associated with your laboratory work. There are three main areas:  Identification of Hazards  Physical Hazards  Health Hazards Let's look at each one in more detail.
  71. 71. Identification of Hazards When you receive a chemical in the lab, it will have a label. The labels assist identification of hazards such as flammability, toxicity, corrosivity, etc. You are required to maintain that information on the original container and transfer that information to a new storage container so others will have access to the same identification in formation.
  72. 72. Identification of Hazards, con’t. Another source of information about chemical safety is the Safety Data Sheet. OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard (as previously covered) requires that you have access to these before you begin working with a chemical. The SDS will provide information about the chemical's synonyms and health hazards (toxicity, target organs, etc.) The SDS explains how to handle the chemical, what type of PPE to wear, and what to do in case of an emergency exposure or spill. You may obtain SDS's several ways. Often they come directly from the manufacturer. You may contact EHS to receive a copy, or you may access an internet site that has SDS's.
  73. 73. Physical Hazards Physical Hazards are materials which include properties that can be:  flammable/combustible  explosive  reactive  compressed gas cylinder if not handled properly. In the laboratory, it is imperative to identify and know the hazardous properties of the materials around you. For instance an explosive hazard could be either a chemical or a system under pressure such as a reaction in a closed system under an inert gas. When working with chemicals always be cautious and understand their reactivity to air, water, or other chemicals. Remember, physical hazards can be prevented by handling, storing, and using chemicals properly.
  74. 74. Physical Hazards, con’t. Compressed gas cylinders are, perhaps, an underappreciated form of a physical hazard. The risk of a steel cylinder containing a pressurized gas cannot be emphasized enough. Gas cylinders have been known to go through concrete block walls when the top stem has broken off. This leads us to some very basic rules when discussing cylinder safety.
  75. 75. Physical Hazards, con’t. To ensure that cylinders are properly used and maintained, you must do the following:  Cylinders must be supported (chained or belted to a wall or bench) at all times  Cylinders must be kept upright (this does not apply to lecture bottles)  Cylinders must be capped or connected to a piece of equipment More details concerning compressed gases can be found in the Laboratory Safety Manual under General Safety Principles and Practices - Compressed Gases.
  76. 76. Health Hazards Health hazards are chemicals which can affect the human body through different routes of exposure. The health effect can be acute (short term) or chronic (long term). The exposure can be acute (single event) or chronic (repeated exposures over time). Chronic health effects can arise from an acute exposure. Controlling the exposure can prevent incidents from occurring.
  77. 77. Health Hazards, con’t. Some of the types of health effects may fall into one or more categories. They are:  toxic: act as poisons  carcinogenic: cause cancer  corrosive: destroys or changes tissue  irritant: inflame skin  sensitizer: cause allergic reactions There are chemicals which contain substances that directly attack a specific organ or bodily system. Always assume chemicals are hazardous and follow safe handling procedures.
  78. 78. Typical Routes of Exposure Adverse health effects can occur to the human body when material enters it. The typical routes of exposure are inhalation, ingestion, injection, and skin absorption. Some chemicals have properties which allow it to enter via more than one route. Again, it is important to recognize and understand the hazards when working with chemicals. Let's review each one of these routes in more detail.
  79. 79. Inhalation Breathing is the most common way for contaminants to enter the human body. When working in the lab, you should be aware of aerosol-producing procedures such as:  Accidental spills  Centrifugation  Pipetting  Weighing  Injections using syringes and needles  Removing caps and stoppers  Clean-up procedures, dry sweeping which introduce contaminants to the air and make them easier to inhale. Mechanisms to control exposures can be achieved through safe work practices, administrative controls (i.e. substitution of a less hazardous chemical), and personal protective equipment.
  80. 80. Ingestion Ingestion exposure of chemicals is something that can be avoided. When working in the lab, store food for consumption in designated "Food Only" refrigerators and use microwaves which are noted the same way. A designation of "Lab Use Only" should go on refrigerators and microwave ovens used for laboratory reagents. Under no circumstances can cold rooms be used for the storage of food. Practicing proper handwashing techniques is the best mechanism to avoid accidental ingestion exposure.
  81. 81. Food Items Areas Due to limited space, University policy allows the PI to designate "Food Items Areas" in labs. A distance of three feet must be maintained between a "Food Items Area" and lab space where radioactive, toxic, or carcinogenic materials are used or handled. Examine the two photos of lab refrigerators below. What's wrong with these pictures? In the refrigerator in photo number one, the lab has placed a package of meat in their lab refrigerator. Is this ok? Yes. This lab is using the food in their soft tissue surgery research and it is not for consumption. Food items such as this must be labeled, "Lab Use Only" or "Research Purposes Only". In the refrigerator in photo number two, the lab is not doing research on soft drinks. Do not allow this practice in your labs.
  82. 82. Food Items Areas, con’t. The work space shown in this photo is a designated "Food Items Area", but it is less than three feet from the water bath. Unless the water bath is moved, this area cannot be utilized as "Food Items Area".
  83. 83. Injection Injections are another way chemicals can be introduced into the body. The proper handling of needles, razor blades, etc. can greatly reduce these potential hazards.
  84. 84. Injection, con’t. Follow these procedures when working with needles to minimize the chances of an accidental needlestick.  Limit use, do not recap needles  Do not remove needles from syringes  Do not bend, break, or manipulate syringes  Dispose of in puncture proof containers Refer to the Laboratory Safety Data Sheet on sharps.
  85. 85. Razor Blades When using razor blades, do not leave the razor blades laying around. One suggestion is to place the razor into a Styrofoam block so the blade is not exposed.
  86. 86. Sharps Containers  EHS recommends using plastic sharps containers available from Fisher Scientific. The red container should be marked with a biohazard sticker/symbol in front as it is used collecting sharps that have been contaminated with biohazardous material. Containers must be labeled "Sharps Non- Hazardous Material" or "Sharps Biohazardous Material".
  87. 87. Skin Absorption Chemicals can enter the body via skin absorption through either intact or abraded skin. If your skin comes in contact with a chemical be sure to follow the exposure procedures outlined on the SDS for that material. Most of the SDS's will direct you to immediately flush the affected area via a safety shower or an eyewash station.
  88. 88. Safety Showers and Eyewash Safety showers and eyewash stations need to be within 75 feet or 10 seconds of your lab. If exposed to a chemical, go to the safety shower first and remove any contaminated clothing there. Be sure to use the safety shower or an eyewash station for a minimum of 15 minutes of continuous flow. Do you know where the safety shower and eyewash station nearest to your work area is? Find them when you are done with this training session. Make sure this equipment is not blocked and is accessible for use.
  89. 89. Types of Reproductive Toxins OSHA defines reproductive toxins as those toxins that have mutagenic effects to DNA in the egg or sperm, or teratogenic or lethal effect to the fetus. Mutagenic means all effects on genetic materials such as chromosomes. Teratogenic means all effects that will harm the fetus. A developing fetus may be adversely affected by lower doses than those considered safe for adults. Some examples of reproductive toxins are: lead, arsenic, benzene, and mercury containing compounds.
  90. 90. Conceptus Protection Program When an employee wishes the University to be involved in providing extra protection for the fetus, the employee must declare her actual, suspected, or planned pregnancy to her supervisor and the Department of Environment, Health and Safety. EHS will then assist the employee and institute a Conceptus Protection Program. Which may include:  Confidential Conference with the employee and the UEOHC  Review of Lab Safety be EHS  Exposure monitoring by EHS
  91. 91. Main Controls Used We've discussed some of the hazards associated with working in a laboratory and how you may be exposed to them. Let's discuss the mechanisms used to eliminate or minimize these exposure hazards. The main controls used are  administrative  engineering  personal protective equipment
  92. 92. Administrative Controls Administrative Controls are policies and procedures that are implemented in a laboratory. Some examples are:  Storing acids away from bases and storing flammables away from oxidizers  Using a less hazardous chemical in a procedure or protocol (a simple way to lessen exposure)  Storing flammable solvents in a flammable storage cabinet  Don't store chemicals (other than cleaning supplies) under sinks.
  93. 93. Administrative Controls, con’t. Here are reasons why you would want to substitute for a hazardous chemical such as mercury. Problems with use of mercury include:  Difficult and expensive to clean up  Properties include odorless vapor that is highly toxic  Short term exposure to high concentrations  Health effects include severe nervous disturbance, kidney damage  Thermometers  Alternatives available at Fisher Scientific For more details concerning mercury consult the Laboratory Safety Data Sheet "Reducing Mercury Use in Laboratories".
  94. 94. Engineering Controls Engineering controls are mechanical devices added to a laboratory to reduce exposure. The two types of engineering controls used at UNC are chemical laboratory hoods and biological safety cabinets. Both of these pieces of equipment provide different types of protection when used properly.
  95. 95. Chemical Laboratory Hoods Chemical Laboratory hoods, if used properly, can eliminate chemical exposures. Follow these basic rules when working in a hood.  Always check to see if hood is working properly before use  Do not use hood for storage  Work well inside the hood (at least six inches from the hood opening)  Keep sash as low as possible  Plan all experiments in advance
  96. 96. Chemical Laboratory Hoods, con’t. The diagram on the left in the image below names parts of the chemical laboratory hood. The diagram on the right indicates airflow when the hood is functioning properly. Notice how air flows across the work surface. Therefore it is important to keep equipment off the work surface so that heavier than air gases and particles may be removed by the air stream.
  97. 97. Chemical Laboratory Hoods, con’t. The recommended face velocity is between 100 and 125 feet per minute averaged across the hood opening when the sash is raised 18 inches above the work surface. As you can tell from the calculation above, that's not very fast. It would be very difficult to move your hands and arm any slower than this, so your movements at the hood could bring contaminants into your breathing zone. This is why it's important to plan your work at the hood. Remember, chemical laboratory hoods are designed to contain hazardous materials that are used or may be generated within the hood. They are not designed to capture materials outside of the hood. Make sure you work at a safe distance within the hood.
  98. 98. Biological Safety Cabinets Biological Safety Cabinets are designed to prevent the escape of infectious aerosols. The cabinets are equipped with high- efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and provide you with a safe mechanism in handling microorganisms. The diagram above illustrates how the biological safety cabinet recirculates and filters room air. Click on the image for a larger version.
  99. 99. Personal Protective Equipment Both administrative and engineering controls should be implemented before PPE. Personal Protective Equipment is appropriate equipment (gloves, lab coats, etc.) designed to protect the wearer from exposure during its intended use. PPE can and is often used in conjunction with other control mechanisms. As part of the Lab Safety Plan, both you and the PI will complete an assessment of personal protective equipment needs. All PPE needs identified are provided to you free of charge by your employer at UNC.
  100. 100. PPE for Eyes Eyes are protected from chemical splash when safety glasses, goggles, and/or face shields are used.  Safety Glasses: worn during all experimental procedures  Goggles: provides additional protection from chemical splash  Face Shields: protects skin of face from chemical splash, always worn with other eye protection (safety glasses) University policy requires that faculty, staff, students, and visitors wear eye protection where experiments are being conducted. If you need prescription safety glasses, call EHS at (919) 962-5507 for further information.
  101. 101. PPE for Hands There are many types of gloves available to protect your hand from potential contact with toxic, corrosive, sharps and hot/cold material. The Laboratory Safety Manual (LSM) has a chart (Appendix 5-A) that gives information on the chemical permeability of different gloves used in the lab. This will assist you in the selection of the proper glove for the job you are doing. When selecting gloves always consider the thickness and chemical permeability. Remember to inspect your gloves for punctures and tears; change periodically; and always practice proper handwashing techniques after removing hand protection.
  102. 102. Latex Allergy In recent years there has been an increased incidence of allergic reactions in people that wear latex gloves. If you do not have to wear latex gloves don't. Again, choose a glove that will still give you the proper protection. If you wear latex gloves, use the powder free kind and wash your hands frequently. If you have or suspect you have a latex allergy, call the UEOHC (919) 966-9119 for evaluation and discontinue the use of latex gloves.
  103. 103. PPE Clothing The laboratory environment may require other types of protective clothing such as chemical resistant gowns, aprons, lab coats, and shoes. This need will be identified after completing "Section V - Personal Protective Equipment" assessment of your PI's Lab Safety Plan. UNC has established a contract with a vendor to launder lab coats. Under no circumstances can lab coats be taken home for laundry. Additionally, open toed sandals/shoes do not provide foot protection, thus they are not allowed in UNC laboratories. To review more details concerning personal protective equipment, please review the Laboratory Safety Manual, Protective Clothing and Equipment (Chapter 5).
  104. 104. Respiratory PPE Respirators provide protection from chemicals and airborne infectious particulates when properly fitted and worn. At UNC the main control used when dealing with an inhalation hazard is the chemical laboratory hood or biological safety cabinet. If you think you need to use a respirator while conducting your research, contact EHS for evaluation and consultation. During the evaluation, the elements of UNC's Respiratory Protection Program will be reviewed.
  105. 105. Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Lab Laboratory researchers may be at risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders during routine laboratory procedures such as pipetting, working at microscopes, operating microtomes, using cell counters and video display terminals. Musculoskeletal disorders, also called cumulative trauma disorders or repetitive strain injuries, are gradual-onset injuries that usually occur after repeated micro- trauma to a specific body part. They may take weeks, months or years to develop and are often ignored at first due to the slow onset of symptoms. Musculoskeletal disorders are disorders of the muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints, cartilage and spinal discs. Musculoskeletal disorders which commonly affect laboratory personnel include: Carpal tunnel syndrome, Rotator cuff syndrome, De Quervain's Tenosynovitis, Trigger finger, and Tendonitis.
  106. 106. Musculoskeletal Disorders Warning Signs The parts of the body susceptible to musculoskeletal disorders do not always have nerve endings designed to tell us that a musculoskeletal disorder is developing. Instead, we must rely on warning signs given to us from nearby parts of the body. For example, in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, the hands often feel sore and tingly, like they have fallen asleep. The problem is not in the hands, however; it is in the median nerve where it passes through the wrists. The wrists may only feel mildly sore or may feel no pain at all. The following warning signs serve as a signal that ergonomic stressors are present and need to be corrected. Lingering...  Discomfort - pain. If it wakes you up at night, follows you home, or appears as soon as you get to work, take notice!  Tingling - numbness  Burning  Swelling  Change in color  Tightness, loss of flexibility
  107. 107. Ergonomic Stressors Related to Musculoskeletal Disorders Ergonomics is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of the interactions among humans and other elements of a system. The goal of ergonomics is to find ways to arrange the workstation, work tools and work practices to minimize potential for musculoskeletal disorders. Ergonomics is concerned with eliminating or minimizing the following Ergonomic Stressors found in routine tasks:  Repetition – performing the same movements over and over with little change in motions or muscle use  Force – High force tasks involve heavy exertion for the muscles involved. Even hard to eject pipette tips can qualify  Extreme/Awkward/Static Postures – Prolonged or repeated time spent holding joints in an awkward or fixed position.
  108. 108. Using Ergonomics to Prevent Musculoskeletal Disorders Proper workstation ergonomics can help prevent musculoskeletal disorders. Attempt to identify the ergonomic stressor(s) present in your work tasks and find strategies to reduce or eliminate them. Awkward shoulder postures from pipetting with the sash down on a hood may be addressed using a pistol- grip pipetter. Frequently repeated thumb motions during pipetting can be addressed using a pipette that uses pointer finger and thumb during pipetting. The effects on the body of many ergonomic stressors can also be regulated by breaking up long tasks with short breaks or tasks that do not involve the same ergo stressors.
  109. 109. How to Let the Right People Know If you are experiencing any of these warning signs, you should immediately  Report the symptoms to your supervisor  Complete the Workers' Compensation Forms  Be evaluated at the UEOHC (919-966-9119) The UEOHC will contact the EHS Ergonomist, explain the symptoms and request an ergonomic evaluation of your workstation. The Ergonomist will make recommendations that include specific work strategy controls.
  110. 110. What is a Biohazard Biohazards are infectious microorganisms, biological allergens, and toxins that can affect the health of humans. Laboratories that work with biological materials must consult the Biological Safety Manual to determine their responsibilities with regard to biological safety in the workplace.
  111. 111. Disposal Procedures Biohazard bags are left in the laboratory until they are to be placed in the autoclave. Do not leave them sitting next to the autoclave whether or not it is occupied by another labs materials. Also, biohazard bags are not to be left on the floor. Containers must be durable, closable, and leak-proof, such as the one on the left, and must be labeled with a biohazard sticker. As of June 1, 2008 these containers must also be red and ≤ 15-gal. These new requirements will not be cited during laboratory inspections until June 1, 2009. Refer to Biohazard Waste Management for further information.
  112. 112. Disposal Procedures, con’t. Autoclave indicator tape (SP54490) is placed in an "X" pattern over the biohazard symbol and where the bag is tied up. Once the bag has been autoclaved this tape will have the word "Autoclaved" on it. The autoclaved bag is then placed in a white barrel lined with a plastic bag. The barrel will have a sign on it. University housekeeping will dispose of the contents of these barrels. Since these bags are disposed of to the landfill these procedures must be followed.
  113. 113. Disposal Procedures, con’t. When the sharps can with biohazardous materials is ready for disposal screw the cap on loosely, place autoclave indicator tape over the biohazard symbol in an "X" pattern, and autoclave the can.
  114. 114. Disposal Procedures, con’t. Remember, do not use plastic containers designed for doctor's office and clinics.
  115. 115. Broken Glass Sharps Cans may be disposed of in broken glass waste boxes. The box on the left is available from Fisher Scientific. You can make your own broken glass waste box as shown in the picture on the right. Make sure your boxes are labeled and have a plastic bag liner. When the box is full tape it up and University Housekeeping will take it to the dumpster.
  116. 116. Who Cleans Up? EHS will respond to reported chemical spills and mercury spills. Laboratories are also capable of cleaning up the majority of spills. Spill kits can be purchased through Fisher Scientific (SR64125). Refer to the Laboratory Safety Data Sheet on Chemical Spills.
  117. 117. Dealing With a Spill If a spill occurs in your lab, be sure to control the spill area. Assess whether you can clean up the spill. If yes, utilize your chemical spill kit. Then place the waste in disposal containers and submit a waste pick-up request on-line. If the spill involves radioactive materials, be sure to report the spill to EHS Radiation Safety: (919) 962-5507. Cases in which EHS should be called to clean-up spills:  >100 mL of highly toxic chemical  >one liter of volatile solvent  >one liter of corrosive solvent  If the laboratory feels assistance is needed Call 911 if the spill occurs after 5:00 pm or on weekends.
  118. 118. Safety Clearance Form When you have a piece of scientific equipment moved or repaired it is important that whoever is servicing the equipment has your assurances that it is safe. The Safety Clearance Form (Appendix 3-A of the Lab Safety Manual) serves as a check list to ensure equipment has been decontaminated. It is also used when renovations are done to a laboratory. EHS has instructed service personnel not to repair or move any equipment that has not been cleared. To avoid interruptions, please follow the laboratory safety clearance and clean-out procedures. Doing so will protect you and service personnel.
  119. 119. Regulators OSHA, EPA, and DOT have laws in place which regulate the use, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials. The Laboratory Standard, covered in the earlier modules, outlines the responsibilities under OSHA. DOT (Department of Transportation) covers proper naming, packaging and shipping of hazardous materials. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) controls identification, storage and disposal of hazardous waste. Though there are a variety of regulators, EPA is the one that usually visit UNC once or twice a year without any notice.
  120. 120. Regulators, con’t. EPA views UNC as a waste generator, waste accumulator, waste transporter, waste storager, and waste disposer. As Waste Generator we are responsible for the waste from "cradle (point of conception) to grave (point of disposal)". In order to minimize the waste generated at UNC, labs should do the following:  practice inventory control  practice good housekeeping and safe handling  explore the use of non-hazardous alternatives
  121. 121. Waste Accumulator Waste accumulator means the act of collecting waste at the point of generation. As an accumulator, all containers must remain under the control of the operator (i.e. the lab) at or near the point of generation. Under no circumstances can waste be stored down the hall. Each container is required to be labeled with the words "Hazardous Waste" or have other clear chemical identification such as "Acetone Waste".
  122. 122. Containers The waste accumulated should be placed in containers which are compatible with their contents and in good condition. The containers are to be closed at all times except when waste is being added or removed. If the waste accumulated is liquid, then it should be placed in secondary containment. This containment helps minimize the risk of leaks and isolates incompatible materials.
  123. 123. Hazardous Waste Hazardous materials become hazardous waste when the material is used and discarded. Abandoned or inherently waste-like materials are considered "discarded.“ Some hazardous waste may be considered listed or a characteristic hazardous waste. For a hazardous waste to be listed means the waste is off-spec or out-of-date commercial chemicals. Currently there are about 600 of these. For a hazardous waste to be characteristic it means the waste contains properties which make it hazardous.
  124. 124. Hazardous Waste Characteristics Some of the characteristics include:  Ignitability: a liquid that flashes <140° F or a compressed flammable gas.  Corrosivity: a liquid with pH <2 or >12.5  Reactivity: reacts violently with air or water (such as sulfides and cyanides).  Toxicity: (currently 40 chemicals considered toxic at concentrations as low as .0001%)
  125. 125. Tips Usually the original container is the best product to put Hazardous Waste in. Be sure the container has a secure fitting lid and the materials in the container are compatible. When pouring liquids be sure the material is cooled and leave 10% headspace for expansion. Remember liquid waste must be stored in secondary containment. If you are unable to store solid waste in its original container, be sure to double bag the material and place it in a sturdy box. This will provide the needed support for the hazardous waste. Please note that biohazard bags cannot be used to store solid waste.
  126. 126. Tips, con’t. When using gas cylinders, be sure the supplier will accept the cylinder when you are finished with it. If not, then locate a supplier who will. Also consider buying refillable returnable cylinders. Cylinders should be disposed of as hazardous material, therefore request a pick-up through EHS on-line system.
  127. 127. On-Line Chemical Waste Pick-Up EHS has established an on-line chemical waste pick-up for laboratory personnel to use. The chemical waste pick- up is located on the waste disposal web site. All personnel registered as working in a lab can request waste pick-up for his/her Principal Investigator. You log into the system using your Onyen and password. Then the system will verify for which PI you work. At this point you can proceed to complete the on-line request. Information needed for the request includes:  Location of waste  Chemical constituents (total 100%)  Container size, type
  128. 128. On-Line Chemical Waste Pick-Up, con’t. After completion of the on-line request, it is submitted to EHS for approval. EHS will notify you of the approval via e-mail. This approval is to be printed out and attached to the waste container. Now the waste has been scheduled for pick-up. To view more details of the waste procedures select "On-Line Chemical Waste Pick-Up."
  129. 129. Post-Test and Additional Training You have completed the New Employee Laboratory Orientation. If you have any questions regarding this training or any safety and health issue, please contact EHS at (919) 962-5507. Please note additional training may be required if you work with radioactive materials, bloodborne pathogens, etc. To get more information on these training programs see these EHS Training Sections:  radioactive materials  all others In order to receive credit for this training, you must complete the post-test.