Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Integrating business skills into ktsp mierza miranti


Published on

Published in: Education, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Integrating business skills into ktsp mierza miranti

  1. 1. Integrating Business Skills into KTSP-Based ELT of Secondary 12 Mierza Miranti, Educator and Professional Development Manager of Sugar Group Schools Abstract – Entrepreneurship education has been widely discussed in terms of its chances of being integrated into a curriculum, even as the basis of it. As for KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan) or literally translated to Learning-Unit Based Curriculum, the currently applied curriculum in Indonesia, it seems that the issue does not take a considerable portion. However, the possibility of integrating the values, topic, business skills, and even projects is opened in the field of English Language Teaching or ELT that has flexible nature in the curriculum. Thus, in this paper, the integration of business skills is further discussed from the planning to possible practices applied in secondary 12 ELT process. It is ended with evaluation and further example of integration that can be done in ELT for the other levels. Keyword: business skills, integration, ELT, KTSP 1. Introduction It is considered a challenge to integrate business skills into language subject within the KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan), which can be literally translated to Learning-Unit Based Curriculum. The demand of creating meaningful learning seems to be a daunting task when it comes to teaching a national examination preparation class, namely secondarytwelve. The urge of having to merely drills the students to pass the examination might give an ease for teachers who prefer to teach only to face the exam. Then, meaningful classroom activities would be something to be left alone in the dark. However, taking a deeper look on the given one-size-fit-all curriculum set by the Department of Education and Culture of Indonesia, teachers can make a difference to educational processes undergone by the students. The KTSP actually only sets the minimum requirements – or in language classroom, it is called skills – to be delivered to the students. This would mean that teachers have the flexibility to modify the contents and make it more individualized, meaningful, and purposeful. Not to mention the ones who teach, as the writer’s condition at the moment, secondary-twelve students. This paper would like to put forward an idea of integrating business skills into English Language Teaching (ELT). It would not take the idea nor having the word entrepreneurship in the title since the application took place in a company-owned school. The school’s main objective is to provide the need of the company to prepare candidates who will run the business in the future. Nevertheless, not all students will be considered eligible to work for the company since some of them might not be able to meet the expected standard of achievement. In some circumstances, some of them might also choose to be self-employed instead of working in a company. Therefore, the integration of business skills into ELT was done: to prepare professionals of the future in the field of business, both as employees well as entrepreneurs
  2. 2. 2. Business Skills Business skills, as the name suggests, are sets of competences, attitudes, and knowledge that qualify an individual to be successful in any of commercial activities and the ones related to it (Grundy & Brown, 2004; Waterhouse & Crook, 1995; Curriculum Planning and Development Division of MInistry of Education of Singapore, 2008). It covers such a broad aspects from theory to practice in order to help the entity involved in the field excelled in achiving the goals set in the beginning. A more theoritical approach of the skills is the ones pointed out by the Curriculum Planning and Development Division of MInistry of Education of Singapore (2008). It views the elements of business skills that rely more on the knowledge. Students are then lead to the familiarity with the purposes and types of business, career opportunities in business industries, business resources, the unlimited needs and wants versus limited resources, financial resources management, as well as the nature of business management along with the nature of competition. These skills or knowledge are considered important in building successul entrepreneurs of the future. Therefore, making the students getting to know more about them is important to be done at the school level. In addition, Pearson & Thomas (2004) divide business skills into three main parts, i.e. personal development, management, and business development. These essential elements, if carefully done in meaningful and holistic manners, will establish a strong foundation of entrepreneurs and business persons who are able to reach successes in their personal, managerial, and business aspects. Furthermore, Grundy & Brown (2004) argues that the business skills are not to be viewed in segregated approach. The skills of business – such as strategy, marketing, commercial management, operating, finance, leadership, organizational, problem-solving, and selfmanagement – are actually multifaceted and interrelated. From the theory to practice, it becomes a mutual agreement on a view saying that the knowledge of business will not really works if there are no skills invoved. Equaly, having the capacity to lead and innovate would become ineffective if ones would like to be involeved in business, without having the necessary skills to get into it. Learning and developing the skills should be profound and real-world related, as well as unified, if success is the goal that wants to be achieved.
  3. 3. 3. The ELT of Secondary 12 in KTSP Indonesian curriculum has undergone various kinds of changes in the attempts of achieving the best method and practices to develop best potential of its students. The first curriculum was launched in 1989, and then the next one is in 1994, and 1999. Furthermore, education professionals got more thrills when the new curriculum was set as Competency Based Curriculum (KBK – Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi) applied in 1994. Finally, the one discussed in this paper is the current one – KSTP – that has been being applied since 2006 based on the PP (Peraturan Pemerintah: Government Regulation – writer) No. 99/2005. At the time of this paper was written, the government was planning to apply the new set of curriculum, replacing KTSP. The latter mentioned curriculum, however, will not be further discussed here. KTSP is an alleged result of improvement of the previous national curriculum –KBK – which was claimed to fail in accommodating the variety of culture and conditions in Indonesia (Ambarsari, 1994). This curriculum is claimed to have some advantages comparing to the previous ones, especially on some aspects of application as it promotes the school autonomy. It also encourages the learning units to creatively develop the curriculum based on the needs of the students and even the demands of globalization (Hanafie, 2007). As for the business skills, the writer chose Pearson & Thomas’s (2004) to be integrated with the ELT process. The literature divides the skills into three major parts and distribute them into different sub-categories as follow:  Personal development, which covers the way to get into high achievement, time management, personal effectiveness, leadership, team building, solving problems and decision making, innovation, effective communication skill, mentoring/ coaching, personal marketing, and public relation.  Management skills, which includes the capacity to understand finance, human resources management, and competitive marketing strategy.  Business development, which comprises of strategies for growth and preparing a business plan, through the buying and selling of unquoted companies, and through the management buy-ins and buy-outs. Since this paper analyzes the application of the planning which took place in the first semester of secondary-twelve, followings are the standard of competency and the chosen basic requirements of English to be integrated with business skills:
  4. 4. “KTSP” CURRICULUM FOR SEMESTER 1 GRADE XII HIGH SCHOOL Standard of Competency Listening Comprehend meanings in short Basic Competencies To respond to meanings in monologs utilizing a variety functional texts and monologs in of accurate, fluent, and acceptable spoken language in forms of narrative and discussion in daily life contexts in narrative and discussion texts. daily life contexts. Speaking To express meanings in short To express meanings in monologs utilizing a variety of functional texts and monologs in spoken language on an accurate, fluent, and acceptable forms of narrative and discussion manner in daily life contexts in narrative and discussion texts in daily life contexts. texts. “KTSP” CURRICULUM FOR SEMESTER 1 GRADE XII HIGH SCHOOL Standard of Competency Reading Basic Competencies To comprehend meanings of short To respond to meanings and rhetorical stages in essays functional texts and essays in forms utilizing a variety of written language on an accurate, of narrativeand discussion in daily fluent, acceptable manner in daily life contexts and to life access access knowledge in texts of narrative and discussion. written Exposing meanings and rhetorical stages in written monologs in forms of narrative and monologs utilizing a variety of written language on an discussion on accurate, fluent, and accurate, fluent, acceptable manner in daily life contexts acceptable manners in daily life in texts of narrative and discussion. context and to knowledge as well. Writing Exposing meanings in contexts. 4. The Integration The writer works in a school applying KTSP. She also believes that teachers can design the best plan for their class using this curriculum because of the flexible characteristics. This idea is also supported by Hanafi (2008) that says the curriculum have some better advantages in compare to the previous ones. The focus is on some aspects of application as it promotes the school autonomy. It also encourages teachers to creatively develop the curriculum based on the needs of the students and even the demands of globalization. As for English, even though the curriculum suggests to have the four language skills: writing, reading, speaking, and listening, the writer believes that teachers are not supposed to separate the strands of language. Some activities, of course, are sometimes combined together to achieve communication goals – which are known as the three main strains of a
  5. 5. language, i.e. oral communication, written communication, and visual communication. Yet, in business, these strains are also important part of communication skill. Since the duration of the application is only less than a semester, the business skills to be integrated are only partially taken. The benchmark of selection is the suitability with the English skills required to be mastered. In semester one of secondary-twelve syllabus, there are actually three types of text to be learnt, i.e. narrative, explanation, and discussion. Yet, the English genres taken were only narrative and discussion texts. The major topic utilized was actually about Glocal Poverty. The other type of text, explanation, was not part of the integration because the function was to explain a social movement that can cause poverty. It serves as the basic knowledge for the next learnt type of text. Following is the abridged sequence of integration. The Integration of Secondary 12 ELT and Business Skills Performance The Play for Creating a short story Poverty in pairs that was time Narrative: Integrated Business Skills Personal development: made into a play for performance in the topic of management, leadership, team building, Classroom Activities Glocal. solving Preparing the performance including financing the problems and decision event, preparing the performance and every detail making, it needed, as well as promoting it. Conducting and innovation, personal Working in groups of three or four students to marketing, and public The Best Program to Combat Poverty evaluating the performance skill, Discussion Text: effective communication discuss the best program to offer to the relation. community to help the poor getting out of the Management skills: cycle of poverty in a form of mind map. understanding finance, Presenting the program individually in a form of human speech resources management, competitive and marketing Writing a discussion text to find out the pros and cons of their own program. strategy. Conducting a public hearing to present their Business development: program and persuade the other students who strategies stand as the opposed group to join, donate, or and for growth preparing a participate in the program. business plan. a. Activity One: Narrative – The Play for Performance As required in the curriculum that the types of text to be learnt is narrative, then the first thing that the students did was to create narratives. Since it had been introduced in the
  6. 6. previous level, secondary eleven, the focus was on how to make the work more theatrical since it would be used as the synopsis of the play. After the synopsis was finished, the students made a group of 10-12 to arrange a theatrical performance. The first business skill the students acquired during this first step was the human resources management. It even surfaced at the time they had to deal with analyzing which roles to be given to their peers. The leadership skill was also gained here as they had to clearly communicate the goals based on their roles to Snapshot of the performance Snapshot of the performance their peers. For example, a stage manager had to make sure that all of his/ her instructions were clear and done. Even for the designers, for example make-up artists, they also had to make sure that the actors who would be treated would be there on time as requested and along with the makeup asked to be brought– since they could not afford to provide professional make-up. Along the way of preparation, the students learnt some other personal development business skills such as team building, solving problems and decision making, innovation, and effective communication skill within the group. To ensure that the students really understand that these soft skills were also measured, an objective rubric assessing the affective aspects of the learning was introduced and utilized. Besides working with the group, the students also explored the other skills of personal marketing and public relation, as well as competitive marketing strategy, when they had to persuade the school community to attend and watch their performance. Along with that, they also learnt how to understand finance management since a budget was set in the beginning so that every group would not make any purchase or expenses that went beyond the number. For sure that time management was strongly learnt here since the very beginning as the timeline was also closely monitored. b. Activity Two: Discussion Text – The Best Program to Combat Poverty The second series of program started with an elicitation stage where the students sit in a group of four to brainstorm their ideas. They sit together to find four best programs if they were trusted to run a non-profit organization as they are requested to work hand in hand with the government. The The Mind map challenge given was that they were given a certain number as their budget had to face the citizen who went against their ideas.
  7. 7. On this phase, the students were actually practicing their business development skills namely strategies for growth and preparing a business plan. At the same time, they were also developing their personal business competence i.e. team building, solving problems and decision making, as well as innovation and the competence of Brainstorming understanding finance. After the mind map had been done, students then started drafting their discussion text to find the pros and cons of their programs. By having the list of the pros and cons, students continued their learning process with browsing for information and searching for Data search! valid data in the Learning Resource Center of the school. It must be done before started the writing process to support the arguments in the discussion text essay they were going to make. It was quite an ease for a secondarytwelve English teacher to teach this type of text since in they had got the skills of building arguments and browsing for valid data when they were secondary eleven in a lesson called invention. Then, after all the data and references had been browsed to support their argument, they started to compose their writing. At that instance, the students were learning the business skill of solving problems and decision making. Using writing and data they had browsed, students then got ready for the next phase: giving speech. It would be based on their writing and situated in a café competed with the microphone and banners of the school. The set was actually to support the mood of their program (and their own) importance. Before getting on the stage, a model speech session was held. In that session, one group sent one of their representatives whom they think was able to be their role model of a good public speaker. Those public speakers were then evaluated Screenshot of the public speakers to give the students some ideas on how to speak in public. The ones who commented and gave input to the speakers were their own classmates, using a rubric that had been distributed a day before. For sure, the purpose was to build the business skill of effective communication and public relation. The series of activities was then ended by a debate. But, of course before the debate, there was a session taking a 40-minutes period to equip the students with the skills and expressions needed. The way of facilitating the session was not merely The Debate! presenting it but started with an elicitation stage.
  8. 8. Since the school applied English-speaking environment outside the classroom, it was quite easy to elicit the expressions they would use for the debate. What the teacher did was only to ensure that they said it correctly since it was still in an English classroom. On the d-day, the groups put forward their idea of the programs and try to convince the audience who acted as the society. By having this activity, the students were expected to acquire the skills of solving problems and decision making, innovation, effective communication skill, personal marketing, and public relation. Finally, after the series of activities were accomplished, a reflection was conducted with the members of the class. It was a splendid moment to bring out a discussion on the skills they acquired during the series of activities. This was also an important time for teachers to find out whether they already achieved the expected competencies. After the short discussion, short and simple checklist papers of business skills assessment were distributed to be filled in. Then, teacher might take her turn to open another discussion on what additional business skills were integrated and share more with the students on the benefits. 5. The Reflection Integrating business skills into English language teaching can be a way to give more to the students having the national curriculum that seems to focus on the cognitive aspects. The skills that are expected to help students to be successful individuals in the future, however, will be effective to be delivered by having to consider the following aspects: 1. Planning the integration carefully, especially in selecting the activities to achieve the skills. 2. Keeping a good time-management to ensure that all objectives can be achieved punctually. 3. Giving continuous individualized assessment to ensure that the students have the equal right to grasp the knowledge and skill. 4. Try to always elicit questions to discover whether the learners have achieved the learning objectives and acquire the expected skills. Paying attention to – at least – the aforementioned points, might lead to a successful integration in a lesson at that moment. However, it would be to naïve to say that by having this integration in one lesson in one semester, the students would automatically develop business skills that support their path to be successful individual in the future. It looks promising but extremely challenging. Thus, to achieve the objective of successful and – hopefully – sustainable development of business skills in the future, a unit-based integration is needed. It does not have to be systemic, especially if the schools apply the standardized national curriculum. Conducting the
  9. 9. integration in the same subject for the whole three consecutive years of secondary schools or other learning unit might produce better result. In English Language Teaching, for example, there are so many example of integration that can be taken into practice. In secondary 10, students can learn read, discuss, and perform a biography of successful entrepreneurs to be integrated in the lesson of recount text. Another example might take place in an English classroom of secondary 11 that learns about exposition text in which at the same time the language learning objective is achieved, the students also learn how to persuade audience to buy their words as part of direct marketing system. As a final point, being in a system that applies the one-size-fit-all curriculum that said to produce employees-mindset is not a dead-end. Future entrepreneurs and successful business individuals can still be expected to be born in this kind of educational system. What can be done by the ones involved in it is to do more than what is just written in the curriculum. Setting and planning meaningful activities that sharpen the business skills are strongly needed, with close mentoring and supervision, to produce the expected outcome. References Curriculum Planning and Development Division of MInistry of Education of Singapore. (2008). Elements of Business Skills for Upper Secondary. Singapore: Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. Depdiknas, 2002. Manajemen Peningkatan Mutu Berbasis Sekolah. Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah Grundy, T., & Brown, L. (2004). The Ultimate Book of Business Skills: The 100 Most Important Things for Being Successful in Business. Cornwal: Capstone Publishing Limited (A Wiley Company). Pearson, B., & Thomas, N. (2004). The Sorter MBA: A Practical Approach to Key Business Skills. Scotland: Harper Collins Publishers. Sutriono & Hanafie, Rita. 2007. Filsafat Ilmu dan Metodologi Penelitian. Yogyakarta: Andi Waterhouse, M., & Crook, G. (1995). Management and Business Skills in a Built Environment. London: Chapman and Hall. Mierza Miranti is currently an English teacher and Professional Development Manager of Sugar Group Schools & Polytechnic. She has published some works related to her interest in ELT, writing, and other educational issues.